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DIFFUSION OF MOBILEDEVICES INEDUCATIONKanelia CannonEDUC 7101, Walden University
What is Diffusion?Diffusion is the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. -Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations
Persuasion PROS CONSAnytime, anywhere access to content. May make it easier to cheat.Can enhance interaction between and among Could give tech-savvy students an advantagestudents and instructors. over non-technical students.Great for just-in-time training or review of Can create a feeling of isolation or of being out-content. of-the-loop for non-techies.Can enhance student-centered learning. May require media to be reformatted or offeredCan appeal to tech-savvy students in multiple formats.Support differentiation of student learning needs Might render some content outdatedand personalized learning. Could require additional learning curve for non-Reduce cultural and communication barriers technical students and faculty.between faculty and students by using Phones can and will go off in lessons.communication channels that students like. There is an inclusion argumentFacilitate collaboration through synchronous and Bullyingasynchronous communication. InsuranceVersatility of smartphoneshttp://www.deanz.org.nz/home/conferenceDocs/MacCallum.pdfhttp://joanganzcooneycenter.org/Reports-23.html
Decision, Implementation, &ConfirmationM-learning: how much of what has been diffused? A systematic literature review
S-Curve “Education is expensive, and, while donors will give money for innovation, there comes a time when they would like to see the innovations turned into mainstream activities. The larger portion of the education and training population (the “early” and “late majority”) (Rogers, 2003), some vaguely interested, some downright skeptical, have no evidence that m-learning is effective beyond the pilot and experimental phase. Every paper that deals with a pilot, or is focused on the technology, and is not followed up with further and broader research reinforces this perception. From a discipline perspective, it appears that m-learning is not yet part of the mainstream educational multimedia, and is still struggling to establish itself.” -Masters, 2008, p. 5
Adopters and Perceived AttributesAdopters Innovators/Early Adopters Laggards •Pre-service teachers •Tenured teachers •1st year K-12 teachers •Financially unstable school districts •Financially affluent school districts •Rural school districts •Schools Demonstrating Excellence (AYP)Strategies for •Undergraduate courses/instruction •published research beyond pilots,Adoption •Pilot/Trial programs trials and projects •Technology and training is readily accessible •evidence that m-learning is effective •Appealing to them as active users of mobile devices and •Donors/partnerships applications personally and professionallyPerceived Relative AdvantageAttributes •most learners already have access to mobile devices which helps to lower costNeeded for •lower selling price of mobile devicesCritical Mass •donors will give money for innovation •award incentives •state/district mandates Compatibility •How can mobile devices enhance face-to-face learning? Is it effective? •How is this similar/different from using a personal computer? •Are mobile devices needed in the classroom? Complexity •How much time will this require to implement? Is this more work? •What strategies will have to utilize? •How will this be monitored? •Will there be training/professional development?
Centralized vs. DecentralizedI believe a decentralized approach to diffusion would be most effective for the K-12 educator and classroom.
How to Reach Critical Mass? For the K-12 environment, I recommend that highly respected individuals within the schools be targeted (i.e. key change agents) as well as offering incentives for early adoption.
Why is this Needed?The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a strong advocate for 21st century readiness for students. Their Twenty-First Century Student Outcomes express the skills, knowledge and expertise students need for work and life in order to be successful:1. Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes;2. Learning and Innovation Skills 1. Creativity and Innovation 2. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 3. Communication and Collaboration3. Information, Media and Technology Skills 1. Information Literacy 2. Media Literacy 3. ICT Literacy4. Life and Career SkillsThese outcomes require students to communicate, collaborate, be globally aware, and apply technology effectively.Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (n.d.) Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://p21.org/overview
Why is this Needed?Carly Shuler (2009), a researcher in the children’s media and toy industry, also recognizes the needed and added benefits of mobiles devices in education. Improve 21st-century social interactions Mobile technologies have the power to promote and foster collaboration and communication, which are deemed essential for 21st-century success. Fit with learning environments Mobile devices can help overcome many of the challenges associated with larger technologies, as they fit more naturally within various learning environments. Shuler, C. (2009). Pockets full of potential: Using mobile technologies to promote children’s learning. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
Meeting Our Needs The use of mobile devices helps to meet the 21st Century Student Outcomes. Learning is not confined to a time and place. Easier access to learning Increases motivation Content is adaptable to meet individual needs Improved communication and organization Increases independent learning
Great Resources Number 1: Kids with iTouches video Number 2: St Marys City Schools project Number 3: Learning 2 go project Number 4: 50 Top m-learning resources Number 5: Top 50 iPhone Apps for Educators Number 6: 7 Things you should know about… Mobile apps for learningE-Moderation Station from Nick Hockly
“It is no longer a question of whether we should use these devices to support learning, but how and when to use them.” -Michael H. Levine, the executive director of the New York City-based Joan Ganz Cooney CenterTrotter, A. (2009). Mobile devices seen as key to 21st-century learning. Digital directions, 2(4). Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2009/01/09/04mobile.h02.html.
References [Become office administrator online image]. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_2068962_become-office-administrator.html [Black header online image]. Retrieved from http://www.harcoboe.com/jes/Resources.cfm [Classroom laptops online image]. Retrieved from http://www.edugamer.org/app/blog/?p=195 [Cloud mobile devices online image]. Retrieved from http://wp.synesisintl.com/mobile-development [Diffusion of innovations adopter categories online Image]. Retrieved from http://www.jeffbullas.com/2011/07/19/7-reasons-why-google-drives-hyperactive-engagement/ [Diffusion of innovations book cover online image]. Retrieved from http://ebookstore.sony.com/ebook/everett-m-rogers/diffusion-of-innovations/_/R- 400000000000000032727 [Hero online image]. Retrieved from http://www.shaanhaider.com/2012/01/5-of-best-educational- apps.html [Kids ipad online image]. Retrieved from http://education.kqed.org/edspace/2012/01/18/mobile-devices/ [Mobile devices online image]. Retrieved from http://blegroup.com/mobile-devices-current-status-and- trends-2011-2012/ [Mobile graphic online image]. Retrieved from http://edtechweb.wordpress.com/2010/11/23/week-12- mobile-wireless-and-ubiquitous-learning/ [Mobile learning devices online image]. Retrieved from http://learninginhand.com/pbl [Pockets of potential online image]. Retrieved from http://www.calvin.edu/~dsc8/mobile-learning.htm [Principal online image]. Retrieved from http://www.wcsd.k12.ms.us/tes/index.htm [Student ipad online image]. Retrieved from http://empowerbpo.typepad.com/blog/2012/01/give- students-mobile-devices-to-maximize-their-learning-time.html [Students using mobile devices online image]. Retrieved from http://sigml.iste.wikispaces.net/HigherEducation
References [Teacher online image]. Retrieved from http://edudemic.com/2011/05/private-school-pay/ [Working group online image]. Retrieved from http://www.polismed.org/?page_id=1059 Hockly, N. (2010, June 9). Mobile learning # 6: Six key m-learning resources [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.emoderationskills.com/?p=188 International Telecommunications Union. (2008). [Graph illustration of cellular phone subscribers]. Five billion mobile subscribers by 2011. Retrieved from http://stats.areppim.com/archives/insight_mobile.htm MacCullum, K. (n.d.). Adoption theory and the integration of mobile technology in education. Retrieved from http://www.deanz.org.nz/home/conferenceDocs/MacCallum.pdf Masters, K. (2008). M-learning: How much of what has been diffused? A systematic literature review. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2008 (pp. 5790-5795). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/29185. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (n.d.) Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://p21.org/overview Potential of Mobile Learning Emerges. (2009). Electronic Education Report, 16(2), 4. Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York, New York: Free Press Shuler, C. (2009). Pockets full of potential: Using mobile technologies to promote children’s learning. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop The Economist (2011). [Graph illustration on the growth of the gadget]. Mobile devices (3G). Retrieved from http://conmoz.org/mobile-trends/mobile-devices-3g/?lang=en Trotter, A. (2009). Mobile devices seen as key to 21st-century learning. Digital directions, 2(4). Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2009/01/09/04mobile.h02.html.