Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology,  University of Minnesota
Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Segmented body. </li></ul><ul><li>Paired segmented appendages. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symme...
Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnids (spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans ...
Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Crayfish <ul><li>Two main body sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Five to seven pairs o...
Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Pillbugs
Class Chilopoda: Centipedes <ul><li>One pair of legs per body segment. </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened body. </li></ul><ul><li...
Class Chilopoda: Centipedes Georgia Forestry Commission Archives Georgia Forestry Commission www.forestryimages.org Fangs ...
Class Diplopoda: Millipedes <ul><li>Two pairs of legs per body segment. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical body. </li></ul><ul>...
Class Diplopoda: Millipedes Photos by William Leonard, Tree of Life Web Project,  http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
Class Arachnida: Spiders, ticks, mites, harvestman, scorpions, etc.   Yellow Garden Spider Tick Mite
Class Arachnida <ul><li>Mouthparts are called chelicerae. </li></ul><ul><li>Most contain venom. </li></ul><ul><li>Antennae...
Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders <ul><li>Two body regions (cephalothorax, abdomen).  </li></ul><ul><li>Fangs (cheli...
Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders David Keith, Department of Entomology University of Nebraska-Lincoln Crab Spider, ...
Class Arachnida: Order Opiliones: Harvestman (Daddy Longlegs) <ul><li>One apparent body region.  </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen...
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions <ul><li>Long tail with sting.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pedipalps are modified as pi...
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Northern Desert Hairy Scorpion,  Hadrurus spadix ,   native to US  E. Tenczar...
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Arizona Bark Scorpion,  Centruroides exilicauda , mating E. Tenczar
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Lined Devil Scorpion, Vaejovis spinigerus , female from Arizona with young  F...
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Slenderbrown Bark Scorpion, Centruroides gracilis , male from Central America...
Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions E. Tenczar E. Tenczar Black Thick-Tailed Scorpion,  Parabuthus transvaalicus ...
Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Ticks <ul><li>Ticks have two body regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Young have six legs, adults hav...
Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Chiggers <ul><li>Attach to skin using two claws. </li></ul><ul><li>Two blade-like beaks ente...
Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Mites <ul><li>Mites have only one noticeable body region. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are microsc...
Mites <ul><li>Egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Four pair legs; three pairs on larvae. </li></u...
Mites <ul><li>Female: round abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Male: pointed abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Larva 3 pairs of legs </li><...
Mite Life Cycles
Warm/Cool Season Mites <ul><li>Warm season </li></ul><ul><li>Twospotted spider mite </li></ul><ul><li>European red mite </...
Mites in the Greenhouse <ul><li>Family Tetranychidae: </li></ul><ul><li>Twospotted spider mite </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis mit...
Mites in the Landscape <ul><li>Family Eriophyidae: gall or vagrant mites </li></ul><ul><li>Family Tetranychidae: spider mi...
Family Phytoseiidae: Predatory mites Predatory mites:  Phytoseiulus persimilis
Family Tetranychidae: Spider mites <ul><li>Found in turf. </li></ul><ul><li>Long front legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Make webbin...
Epiclass Hexapoda: Insects, springtails, diplurans, proturans <ul><li>Three distinct body regions: head, thorax, abdomen. ...
Class Entognatha: Order Diplura: Diplurans <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Two caudal filamen...
Class Entognatha: Order Collembola: Springtails <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Furcula or fo...
Class Entognatha: Order Protura: Proturans <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>No eyes. </li></ul...
Class Insecta: Insects <ul><li>Protruding mouthparts, unlike non-insect hexapods. </li></ul><ul><li>Ametabolous, hemimetab...
Class Insecta: Order Thysanura: Silverfish <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Three tail-like ap...
Class Insecta: Pterygota: Winged Insects <ul><li>Most adult forms have wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemimetabolous, parametabo...
Class Insecta: Order Ephemeroptera: Mayflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Class Insecta: Order Odonata: Dragonflies and damselflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li><...
Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera <ul><li>These insects can fold their wings back over the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemime...
Class Insecta: Order Plecoptera: Stoneflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera: Paurometabolous/ gradual Metamorphosis <ul><li>Walkingsticks </li></ul><ul><li>Grassho...
Class Insecta: Order Phasmatodea: Walkingsticks <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged a...
Class Insecta: Order Orthoptera: Grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li...
Class Insecta: Order Mantodea: Mantids <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </...
Class Insecta: Order Blattaria: Cockroaches <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adult...
Class Insecta: Order Isoptera: Termites <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal wings. </l...
Class Insecta: Order Dermaptera: Earwigs <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin-like front...
Class Insecta: Order Phthiraptera (Mallophaga and Anoplura): Lice <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></u...
Class Insecta: Order Hemiptera: Suborder Heteroptera: True bugs Suborder Sternorrhyncha: Aphids, whiteflies, scales Subord...
Class Insecta: Order Hemiptera: Suborder Heteroptera: True bugs <ul><li>Most bugs feed on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Some a...
Order Hemiptera:  Suborder Sternorrhyncha Soft Scale (formerly in Order Homoptera) Tuliptree Scale, Toumeyella liriodendri...
Order Hemiptera: Suborder Sternorrhyncha Armored Scale (formerly in Order Homoptera) Euonymus Scale,  Unaspis euonymi Clem...
Order Hemiptera: Suborder Auchenorhyncha Cicadas, hoppers (formerly Order Homoptera) Spittlebug Leafhopper
Class Insecta: Order Thysanoptera: Thrips <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe-winged....
Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera, Endopterygota: Holometabolous/ complete metamorphosis <ul><li>Lacewings </li></ul><ul>...
Class Insecta: Order Neuroptera: Lacewings, antlions, owlflies Green Lacewing,  Chrysoperla  sp., Adult (left) and Larva (...
Class Insecta: Order Neuroptera: Lacewings, antlions, owlflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><...
Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica , Adult (left) and Scarab Larva (below)
Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardened forewi...
Class Insecta: Order Mecoptera: Scorpionflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Long wings...
Class Insecta: Order Siphonoptera: Fleas <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless adults...
Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies Tachinid Fly Adult Michigan State University http://www.msue.msu.edu/vanburen/fappmag....
Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li>...
Class Insecta: Order Trichoptera: Caddisflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adu...
Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies Cankerworm Larvae (right) and Adult (below) CUES http://www.entomo...
Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants Introduced Pine Sawfly,  Diprion similis ,  Adults (left) an...
Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><u...
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Orders

  1. 1. Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota
  2. 2. Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Segmented body. </li></ul><ul><li>Paired segmented appendages. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Chitinous exoskeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular alimentary canal with mouth and anus. </li></ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system, a tubular dorsal blood vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavity or coelom. </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system of anterior ganglia and paired nerve cords. </li></ul><ul><li>Striated muscles in skeletal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration by gills, tracheae, or spiracle. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnids (spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Millipedes </li></ul><ul><li>Centipedes </li></ul>Sod Webworm Moth, Crambus sp. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle, Chrysomela scripta CUES, http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/IPM-turf/sodwebworms.htm
  4. 4. Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Crayfish <ul><li>Two main body sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Five to seven pairs of legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Two pairs of antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple eyes. </li></ul>O.F.A.H. http://www.invadingspecies.com/
  5. 5. Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Pillbugs
  6. 6. Class Chilopoda: Centipedes <ul><li>One pair of legs per body segment. </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened body. </li></ul><ul><li>First pair of legs modified as venomous fangs. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Few are dangerous to humans. </li></ul>Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Garden Centipede, Lithobius forficatus
  7. 7. Class Chilopoda: Centipedes Georgia Forestry Commission Archives Georgia Forestry Commission www.forestryimages.org Fangs of Scolopendrid Centipede (above) House Centipede, Scutigera coleoptrata (right) Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  8. 8. Class Diplopoda: Millipedes <ul><li>Two pairs of legs per body segment. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical body. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on decaying plant material. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmless. </li></ul>Emily G. Tenczar Pet African Giant Millipedes
  9. 9. Class Diplopoda: Millipedes Photos by William Leonard, Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  10. 10. Class Arachnida: Spiders, ticks, mites, harvestman, scorpions, etc. Yellow Garden Spider Tick Mite
  11. 11. Class Arachnida <ul><li>Mouthparts are called chelicerae. </li></ul><ul><li>Most contain venom. </li></ul><ul><li>Antennae are absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Four pairs of legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Book lungs for respiration. </li></ul>Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis Ronald F. Billings Texas Forest Service www.forestryimages.org Yellow Garden Spider, Argiope aurantia Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.insectimages.org
  12. 12. Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders <ul><li>Two body regions (cephalothorax, abdomen). </li></ul><ul><li>Fangs (chelicerae), most are venomous. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are not dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Most make webs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most have poor eyesight; hairs compensate for it (jumping spiders are an exception). </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially dangerous spiders (bites are uncommon): Brown recluse spider, Black widow spider </li></ul>David Cappaert, www.insectimages.org Jumping Spider, Phidippus audax
  13. 13. Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders David Keith, Department of Entomology University of Nebraska-Lincoln Crab Spider, Misumenoides formosipes Wolf Spider, Lycosa carolinensis James O. Howell, The University of Georgia, www.forestryimages.org
  14. 14. Class Arachnida: Order Opiliones: Harvestman (Daddy Longlegs) <ul><li>One apparent body region. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen and cephalothorax short. </li></ul><ul><li>Common and harmless. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on detritus, fruit, or other animals. </li></ul>Leiobunum sp. Joseph Berger, www.insectimages.org
  15. 15. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions <ul><li>Long tail with sting. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedipalps are modified as pinchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most scorpion stings are no worse than bee stings; only a minority of species are potentially dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal. </li></ul><ul><li>Common in warm climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on other animals. </li></ul>Striped Bark Scorpion, Centruroides vittatus , gravid female from Texas E. Tenczar
  16. 16. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Northern Desert Hairy Scorpion, Hadrurus spadix , native to US E. Tenczar Emperor Scorpion, Pandinus imperator , female eating cockroach, native to West Africa E. Tenczar
  17. 17. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Arizona Bark Scorpion, Centruroides exilicauda , mating E. Tenczar
  18. 18. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Lined Devil Scorpion, Vaejovis spinigerus , female from Arizona with young Flat Rock Scorpion, Hadogenes troglodytes , female, native to South Africa E. Tenczar E. Tenczar
  19. 19. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Slenderbrown Bark Scorpion, Centruroides gracilis , male from Central America Pandinus imperator ; scorpions glow under UV/ black light E. Tenczar E. Tenczar
  20. 20. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions E. Tenczar E. Tenczar Black Thick-Tailed Scorpion, Parabuthus transvaalicus , a highly venomous species native to South Africa
  21. 21. Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Ticks <ul><li>Ticks have two body regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Young have six legs, adults have eight. </li></ul><ul><li>There are hard and soft-bodied ticks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks are much larger than mites, some females as large as a nickel. </li></ul>Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis Jim Occi, BugPics, www.insectimages.org
  22. 22. Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Chiggers <ul><li>Attach to skin using two claws. </li></ul><ul><li>Two blade-like beaks enter the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Injected fluid dissolves skin tissue around beaks, but hardens surrounding tissue so that a stylostome, or tube is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Chigger sucks up liquid through stylostome. </li></ul><ul><li>Tube remains after chigger leaves, causing itching. </li></ul>Chigger Bites on Human
  23. 23. Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Mites <ul><li>Mites have only one noticeable body region. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are microscopic or close to it. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mites <ul><li>Egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Four pair legs; three pairs on larvae. </li></ul><ul><li>Two body segments: head, thorax. </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerae: fangs like spiders. </li></ul><ul><li>Suck cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause chlorosis; yellowing of foliage. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics: chlorosis, webbing, rusetting, galls. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mites <ul><li>Female: round abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Male: pointed abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Larva 3 pairs of legs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mite Life Cycles
  27. 27. Warm/Cool Season Mites <ul><li>Warm season </li></ul><ul><li>Twospotted spider mite </li></ul><ul><li>European red mite </li></ul><ul><li>Bulb mite </li></ul><ul><li>Gall, rust mite </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclamen mite </li></ul><ul><li>Cool season </li></ul><ul><li>Spruce spider mite </li></ul><ul><li>Clover mite </li></ul>Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Jack Kelly Clark, University of California http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/T/I-AC-TSPP-AD.022.html
  28. 28. Mites in the Greenhouse <ul><li>Family Tetranychidae: </li></ul><ul><li>Twospotted spider mite </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis mite </li></ul><ul><li>Family Tarsonemidae: </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclamen mite </li></ul><ul><li>Broad mite </li></ul><ul><li>Family Acaridae: </li></ul><ul><li>Bulb mite </li></ul><ul><li>Family Eriophyidae: </li></ul><ul><li>Gall, rust mite </li></ul>Cyclamen Mite CUES http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/inter/inmine/Mitesc.html
  29. 29. Mites in the Landscape <ul><li>Family Eriophyidae: gall or vagrant mites </li></ul><ul><li>Family Tetranychidae: spider mites </li></ul><ul><li>Family Tarsonemidae: cyclamen/broad mites </li></ul><ul><li>Family Phytoseiidae: predatory mites </li></ul><ul><li>Family Acaridae: bulb mite </li></ul><ul><li>Family Oribatidae: soil mites </li></ul>Broad Mite CUES, http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/inter/inmine/Mitesc.html
  30. 30. Family Phytoseiidae: Predatory mites Predatory mites: Phytoseiulus persimilis
  31. 31. Family Tetranychidae: Spider mites <ul><li>Found in turf. </li></ul><ul><li>Long front legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Make webbing in fall. </li></ul>Clover Mite, Bryobia praetiosa
  32. 32. Epiclass Hexapoda: Insects, springtails, diplurans, proturans <ul><li>Three distinct body regions: head, thorax, abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>One pair antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>One pair of mandibles. </li></ul><ul><li>One pair of maxillae. </li></ul><ul><li>Three pairs of legs on thorax. </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheal respiratory system- composed of tubes with holes (spiracles) through the body that admit air. </li></ul>Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica
  33. 33. Class Entognatha: Order Diplura: Diplurans <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Two caudal filaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>W ingless adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between nymphs and adults is size. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on decomposing materials. </li></ul>David R. Maddison, Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  34. 34. Class Entognatha: Order Collembola: Springtails <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Furcula or fork-like springing structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between nymphs and adults is size. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on decomposing materials. </li></ul>David R. Maddison, Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  35. 35. Class Entognatha: Order Protura: Proturans <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>No eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>No antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>Very small. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between nymphs and adults is size. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on decomposing materials. </li></ul>David R. Maddison, Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  36. 36. Class Insecta: Insects <ul><li>Protruding mouthparts, unlike non-insect hexapods. </li></ul><ul><li>Ametabolous, hemimetabolous, parametabolus, or holometabolous. </li></ul><ul><li>Most have wings. </li></ul>Milkweed Leaf Beetle, Labidomera clivicollis David Cappaert, www.insectimages.org
  37. 37. Class Insecta: Order Thysanura: Silverfish <ul><li>Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Three tail-like appendages. </li></ul><ul><li>Body flattened and covered with scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless adults . </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between nymphs and adults is size. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in wet places. </li></ul>Lepisma saccharina Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series www.insectimages.org
  38. 38. Class Insecta: Pterygota: Winged Insects <ul><li>Most adult forms have wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemimetabolous, parametabolus, or holometabolous. </li></ul>Polyphemus Moth, Antheraea polyphemus Lacy L. Hyche Auburn University www.insectimages.org
  39. 39. Class Insecta: Order Ephemeroptera: Mayflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults live for a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Wings at rest held over body. </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 caudal filaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in different habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults different in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic nymphs with gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate good water quality. </li></ul>Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  40. 40. Class Insecta: Order Odonata: Dragonflies and damselflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Toothed mandibles (chewing mouthparts). </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults different in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic nymphs with gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate good water quality. </li></ul>Damselfly David Cappaert, www.insectimages.org
  41. 41. Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera <ul><li>These insects can fold their wings back over the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemimetabolous, parametabolus, or holometabolous. </li></ul>Green Stink Bug, Acrosternum hilare David Cappaert, www.insectimages.org
  42. 42. Class Insecta: Order Plecoptera: Stoneflies <ul><li>Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>Folded wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic, gilled nymphs . </li></ul>Triznaka signata adult (top), Perlesta decipiens nymph (bottom) C. Riley Nelson Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  43. 43. Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera: Paurometabolous/ gradual Metamorphosis <ul><li>Walkingsticks </li></ul><ul><li>Grasshoppers and crickets </li></ul><ul><li>Mantids </li></ul><ul><li>Cockroaches </li></ul><ul><li>Termites </li></ul><ul><li>Earwigs </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneflies </li></ul><ul><li>Lice </li></ul><ul><li>True Bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Cicadas, hoppers and aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Thrips </li></ul>
  44. 44. Class Insecta: Order Phasmatodea: Walkingsticks <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Herbert A. &quot;Joe&quot; Pase III, Texas Forest Service, www.insectimages.org Anisomorpha sp.
  45. 45. Class Insecta: Order Orthoptera: Grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Straight wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Russ Ottens, The University of Georgia www.insectimages.org Redlegged Grasshopper, Melanoplus femurrubrum
  46. 46. Class Insecta: Order Mantodea: Mantids <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Clemson University http://entweb.clemson.edu/cuentres/cesheets/benefici/ce178.htm Praying Mantis
  47. 47. Class Insecta: Order Blattaria: Cockroaches <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series www.insectimages.org
  48. 48. Class Insecta: Order Isoptera: Termites <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Gerald J. Lenhard, www.insectimages.org Formosan Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes formosanus
  49. 49. Class Insecta: Order Dermaptera: Earwigs <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin-like front wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Striped Earwig, Labidura riparia Joseph Berger, www.insectimages.org
  50. 50. Class Insecta: Order Phthiraptera (Mallophaga and Anoplura): Lice <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing or sucking mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Sucking Louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Iowa State University''s Entomology Image Gallery
  51. 51. Class Insecta: Order Hemiptera: Suborder Heteroptera: True bugs Suborder Sternorrhyncha: Aphids, whiteflies, scales Suborder Auchenorrhyncha: C icadas, hoppers <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul><ul><li>Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha used to be classified in Order Homoptera. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Class Insecta: Order Hemiptera: Suborder Heteroptera: True bugs <ul><li>Most bugs feed on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are predaceous. </li></ul>Predaceous Stink Bug attacking caterpillar Fourlined Plant Bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus CUES http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/dx/vk/whitemark.htm CUES, http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/dx/vk/fourbug.htm
  53. 53. Order Hemiptera: Suborder Sternorrhyncha Soft Scale (formerly in Order Homoptera) Tuliptree Scale, Toumeyella liriodendri : Linden, walnut Summer Male Summer Female and Crawlers Gerald J. Lenhard, www.insectimages.org
  54. 54. Order Hemiptera: Suborder Sternorrhyncha Armored Scale (formerly in Order Homoptera) Euonymus Scale, Unaspis euonymi Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, www.insectimages.org
  55. 55. Order Hemiptera: Suborder Auchenorhyncha Cicadas, hoppers (formerly Order Homoptera) Spittlebug Leafhopper
  56. 56. Class Insecta: Order Thysanoptera: Thrips <ul><li>Paurametabolous metamorphosis: gradual. </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe-winged. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>N ymphs and adults similar in appearance . </li></ul>Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci Alton N. Sparks, Jr., The University of Georgia, www.insectimages.org
  57. 57. Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera, Endopterygota: Holometabolous/ complete metamorphosis <ul><li>Lacewings </li></ul><ul><li>Beetles </li></ul><ul><li>Scorpionflies </li></ul><ul><li>Fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Flies </li></ul><ul><li>Caddisflies </li></ul><ul><li>Moths and butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>Sawflies, wasps, and bees </li></ul>Forest Tent Caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria Herbert A. &quot;Joe&quot; Pase III, Texas Forest Service, www.insectimages.org
  58. 58. Class Insecta: Order Neuroptera: Lacewings, antlions, owlflies Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla sp., Adult (left) and Larva (right) Bradley Higbee, Paramount Farming, www.insectimages.org
  59. 59. Class Insecta: Order Neuroptera: Lacewings, antlions, owlflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve-winged. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults sometimes in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Some larvae are aquatic . </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica , Adult (left) and Scarab Larva (below)
  61. 61. Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardened forewings (elytra). </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Class Insecta: Order Mecoptera: Scorpionflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Long wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and pupae sometimes found in soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul>University of Minnesota http://www.entomology.umn.edu
  63. 63. Class Insecta: Order Siphonoptera: Fleas <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Wingless adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Often pests of mammals. </li></ul>Oriental Rat Flea, Xenopsylla cheopis David R. Maddison, Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html
  64. 64. Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies Tachinid Fly Adult Michigan State University http://www.msue.msu.edu/vanburen/fappmag.htm Fly Larva (maggot)
  65. 65. Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd pair of wings are halteres. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults often in same habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some spread diseases to humans and livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are parasitoids. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Class Insecta: Order Trichoptera: Caddisflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic larvae construct and live in tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of water quality. </li></ul>Tree of Life http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html Caddisfly Adult (top) and Larvae (bottom) David Funk James C. Hodges, Jr.
  67. 67. Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies Cankerworm Larvae (right) and Adult (below) CUES http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/dx/vk/canker.htm
  68. 68. Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Most larvae feed on plant tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Many moths are pests; most butterflies are not. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants Introduced Pine Sawfly, Diprion similis , Adults (left) and Larva (right) John H. Ghent USDA Forest Service www.forestryimages.org CUES, http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/dx/sk/pine11.htm
  70. 70. Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants <ul><li>Holometabolous metamorphosis: complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Membranous wings. </li></ul><ul><li>Winged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Sawflies are phytophagous. </li></ul><ul><li>Some wasps are parasitoids. </li></ul><ul><li>Many wasps, bees, and all ants are social. </li></ul>

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