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Not enough water; Australia & Nigeria
NOT ENOUGH WATERNIGERIA AND AUSTRALIA By Kamilia Broderick 8N
WHAT IS A DROUGHT? A drought is a very long and abnormally duration of time where there is a place with extremely low rainfall and there is not enough water for users. But the definition of drought can be different for different parts of the world. For example, in the UK a drought is defined as 15 prolonged days where less than 0.25mm of rain falls in any 24 hours. But some parts of the world have naturally dry climates such as some parts in Africa. So over there a drought is defined asHow is a drought two years or more in which there has been less than average rainfall.caused?In different parts of the world there is a lack of rainfall. If it does not rain, of coursethe land would be dry. Another thing that causes a drought is lack of snowfall. Manyplaces at higher altitude rely on snowmelt from mountains for water. Also if ridgesof high pressure stay still for a long duration of time, then the normal process of airrising and water vapour condensing will stop. There might be rain occurring witheither side of the high pressure but not under it.
Australia Drought What caused the drought? Australia has one of the most inconstant rainfall Climates in the whole world. This may be the reason why Australia is affected by droughts. Bu Studies have showed that the strongest and Reason for the drought is the climate phenomenon That is called the ‘Southern Oscillation’ . This is the Huge air pressure shift between the Asian and East Pacific Ocean regions. Its best-known opposite i ‘El Nino.’The El NinoThe expression El Nino, refers to a widespread warming of the eastern andtropical Pacific Ocean that leads to a major shift in weather patternsacross the pacific. This causes ocean currents nearby Australia . El Ninotakes place every three to eight years.
How has the drought affected the people/environment of Australia? The drought has made an extreme impact on the people of Australia Who live in the Drought region. The drought impact is very serious on The economic business, especially for the agricultural farming residents. For the Agriculture to be successful, a specific amount of water is needed, but when a drought occurs, that specific amount of water cannot be met. Droughts don’t only kill crops and livestock, they can degrade the whole land. As top soil becomes dry, it is easily influenced with wind erosion.Without water, crops die. Which means there is a loss of earnings for the farmersbecause they cannot harvest their crops if they are destroyed. But if there were adrought produced shortage of wheat in Australia, to food prices in cities would rise.This could mean a good thing or a bad thing. The good thing is that people buy thefood for higher prices or people think the price is to high and just buy other foodsinstead so the farmers get very little money.Breeding stocks reduce and some farm animals die from lack of water. Also theenvironmental damage, particularly vegetation loss and soil erosion has longterm circumstances for the maintenance level for the agricultural industries.
How is Australia managingThe Drought?/ how can Australia manage theDrought?Using monthly rainfall analysis , areas that have a shortage ofrainfall appear in the Drought Statement as well as the publication‘Monthly Drought Review.’If the gathered rainfall over the three straight months was withinthe lowest 10 percent on record, a Drought Watch will begin andthe region is highlighted.This existing dry period stretches to six months for dried up regions.Though is also given to whether an area is usually dry at that timeof the year. There are 2 rainfall shortage categories;1.A severe lack of rainfall exists in a area when rainfall for threemonths or more is in the lowest 5 per cent of records. 2. A serious shortage of rainfall lies in the next lowest 5 per cent.That is lowest 5 per cent to 10 per cent of previous records for athree months or longer period.
The Sahel desert drought The Sahel desert drought was the worst drought in history for the Century. It began in the 1970sand lasted until the early years of the 1980s. This drought his parts of Northern Africa which effected the countries Nigeria, Niger and Mali. What caused the Sahel desert drought ? A new study showed that a combination of ocean temperature and loss of natural vegetation could’ve been the main and major reason for the drought. The waters around Africa were warmer than normal, which weakened the continental convergence associated with the monsoon, which left West Sahel desert Africa to dry. Numerous scientist thought the drought was caused by humans over-using natural resources in the region
How did this drought affect the people/environment of Nigeria?The Sahel drought has effect many people in Nigeria, Mali andNiger. The rain shortage has killed many of the crops in the Sahelregion and has left many people with very bad harvests and sothe food had to be shared. People had to travel up to 4km to findthe nearest watering hole.The lack of water lead to animals dying, so the people hadtrouble finding animals to hunt to get food and money by sellingthem. The shortage of vegetation meant the animals thatsurvived had to eat the leaves from trees. Eventually the treesslowly died off; these trees usually retain some moisture, sowithout the rain the ground died up even quicker.
How could’ve Nigeria managed thedrought and how can they prevent it formit happening again? One solution that could manage the drought is by building a dam. If dams were built in Nigeria this could collect any rain that came. By collecting rain the remaining water in the dam could be used to grow crops. Also with the help of other countries, money could be raised to help build crops. They could sell food and set up a business. Then use the money to find a solution to help manage the drought.
MEDC & LEDC.Australia NigeriaAustralia is a MEDC because the Nigeria may be the 6th largestgovernment is by far better than some distributor in the world, but thatcountries I know. .Also it is quite a doesn’t make it an MEDC country.wealthy country because it has a lot of It’s all about the education and howresources and the education system is much money each person receivesvery good. They have better health care each year. The education system inand medical supplies. Also people have Nigeria isn’t that great, and sinceaccess to jobs easily from the better Nigeria is prone to droughts, theireducation. Each person in Australia crops get destroyed from not gettingearns much more money than the enough rain/water so they don’t getpeople in Nigeria. Australia is also prone much money if their business into droughts, but since the government is selling food is falling. Also sincewealthier, Australia can actually manage there is only 3 doctors per 1000the drought by building dams or people, the medical supplies andunderground water pipes, where Niger health care isn’t that great.isn’t that wealthy, so they don’t have themoney to do so.
Comparing the countries.SimilaritiesThe two countries, Australia and Nigeria, have a similar situation, which aredroughts. Both countries are dry and the affects on the people are pretty muchthe same. Australia grows crops and so does Nigeria, so when a drought occursthey both have trouble in keeping their crops healthy; therefore their business inharvesting their crops and then selling them to earn money will fall significantly.Differences.Australia and Nigeria have a similar situation, but Australia is a MEDC country, thepeople of Australia earn much more money because there are job opportunitiesand the education system is better. Also the life expectancy in Australia is 81,whereas in Nigeria the life expectancy is 44. But Australia is a much wealthiercountry, so they probably have enough money to build dams and water pipes,unlike Nigeria.
FACTS..!! Australia: Nigeria : The land area is 7741 km2 The land area of Nigeria is 924 km2 The birth rate is 13 births per 1,000 people There are 42 births per 1000 people The death rate is 7 deaths per 1,000 people. There are 19 deaths per 1000 people There are 25 doctors per 10,000 people The life expectancy is 44 years There are 3 doctors per 10,000 peopleBibliography ~http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-57_u-479_t-1306_c-5026/qld/sose-geography/disasters/natural-hazards/drought-and-drought-in-australiahttp://www.bom.gov.au/climate/drought/livedrought.shtmlhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3191174.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/527040.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/527040.stmhttp://droughts.tripod.com/drought/id8.htmlGeography@work textbook 1; page 170CIAOxford school atlas