Green Mobile Communications


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Are mobile communications safe?
Can we make it safe?
Can we reduce electromagnetic pollution form mobile communications to a millionth?

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Green Mobile Communications

  1. 1. In partnership with Telecom Centers of Excellence Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research TCOE, JIPMER and Pondicherry Engineering College A joint project between Auroville & IIIT, Bangalore GMC G reen M obile C ommunications
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about EMR </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for GMC </li></ul><ul><li>GMC Zone at Auroville </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage and deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Stake holders </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding remarks </li></ul>26 July 2011
  3. 3. Wireless miracle? 26 July 2011
  4. 4. Electromagnetic Radiation <ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Towers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe limit for radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiated power ( proportional to R 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the total energy from BTS and cell phones: function of safe limit/cell size, BTS, active cell phones, range and call duration </li></ul></ul>26 July 2011
  5. 5. 26 July 2011 Safe exposure limits of EMR μW/m 2 Source O U T D O O R 4,700,000 ICNIRP 1998 1,000 Austria 1,000 BioInitiative Working Group (2007) 170 Seletun Consensus Statement (2010) 10 Health Department , Salzburg (2002) I N 100 BioInitiative Working Group (2007) 1 Health Department , Salzburg (2002) < 0.1 Building Biology /’No concern’ Sleeping areas (2008)
  6. 6. Increasing concerns about EMR <ul><li>1998, ICNIRP - No long term effects </li></ul><ul><li>2010, Inter Ministerial Committee - Current limits not sufficiently protective of public health </li></ul><ul><li>May 2011, Council of Europe - Reconsider the scientific basis and apply precautionary principle, Protect children, Potentially harmful to environment </li></ul><ul><li>May 2011, WHO- Possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) </li></ul>26 July 2011
  7. 7. Carbon foot print <ul><li>As per TRAI Consultation paper 3 Feb 2011, the carbon foot print due to the electrical power and diesel generators used for cell towers used is estimated to be 13 million tons. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost is ~ Rs15,000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile towers are expected to double in the coming 5-7 years </li></ul>26 July 2011
  8. 8. Why GMC? <ul><li>Beyond carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Apply ‘Precautionary Principle’ to EMR in experimenting with ‘safe limits’ </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize electromagnetic pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Practical research in electromagnetic pollution </li></ul>26 July 2011
  9. 9. Goals of GMC <ul><li>Provide basic mobile communication services while addressing all factors contributing to electromagnetic pollution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cell size down to 0.5 – 1 Km (20 to 30dB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce over-the-public-air radiated energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public /private air spaces (10 to30 dB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies to reduce call density and energy </li></ul></ul>26 July 2011
  10. 10. Approach <ul><li>Lower limits of EMR, in a phased manner, and eventually operate at levels considered to be ‘completely safe’ for humans, flora and fauna. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Solar/Fuel Cell Power to minimize carbon foot print </li></ul><ul><li>Practical research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling, reducing and minimizing EM pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify health of the population, flora and fauna in GMC zone as a control group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparently record, monitor, analyze and publish results objectively and credibly. </li></ul></ul>26 July 2011
  11. 11. GMC Target Specifications 26 July 2011 * Review specs for phase 2 and 3 after phase 1 Phase Radiation limits in micro Watts/ m 2 Outdoor Indoor 1 100 10 2* 10 1 3* 1 0.1
  12. 12. Link Budget 26 July 2011 <ul><li>Free space model </li></ul><ul><li>P t =50mW </li></ul><ul><li>1 Km Max Range </li></ul><ul><li>-102dBm Rx sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>20 dB losses </li></ul><ul><li>10 dB link margin </li></ul><ul><li>Received signal is 13dB above the receiver sensitivity at 1Km </li></ul>µW/m 2 µW/m 2 µW/m 2 µW/m 2 Meters
  13. 13. GMC Architecture 26 July 2011
  14. 14. Auroville <ul><li>Founded by The Mother in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>International city of human unity </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education, Spiritual & Material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNESCO endorsed the goals and </li></ul><ul><li>directions on many occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Current population 2,250 from 46 </li></ul><ul><li>countries; projected to grow to </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 by 2025 </li></ul>26 July 2011
  15. 15. 1968
  16. 16. 2010
  17. 17. Eco friendly transportation
  18. 18. Renewable Energy Solar cooker
  19. 19. Initiatives to reduce EMR <ul><li>Highly EMR conscious society as part of the commitment to sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>Green Waves (Radiation Awareness Group) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevented installation of antennas in the township area till November 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>ICITI (Integrated Communications and IT Infrastructure) – convergence, eco-friendliness, ICT4D to reverse urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Annular shape caters to ‘buffer zone’ </li></ul>26 July 2011
  20. 20. ICITI Architecture DSLAM BSNL Exchange Core 10G Access 100M Distribution 1G Servers Router Mobile Switch PSTN PLMN Bioregion SIP Server 26 July 2011 INTERNET
  21. 21. Required Coverage
  22. 22. Deployment 26 July 2011
  23. 23. Partnerships <ul><li>International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Pondicherry Engineering College </li></ul><ul><li>Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry </li></ul><ul><li>Pondicherry University </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power GSM Equipment vendor (VNL) </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Scientific Research </li></ul><ul><li>Telecom Centers of Excellence </li></ul>26 July 2011
  24. 24. Challenges in wider deployment <ul><li>Increase in number of BTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment cost, Cell sites, Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wired backhaul </li></ul><ul><li>Mini cell handover and QoS </li></ul><ul><li>New sites may be easier </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline issues (?) as public health issues are involved </li></ul>26 July 2011
  25. 25. Grey areas <ul><li>Shared infrastructure to reduce capital cost as well as EM pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Workable and cost effective convergence solution </li></ul>26 July 2011
  26. 26. What GMC Needs <ul><li>Recognize and endorse the goals & objectives </li></ul><ul><li>A cooperative model with all stake holders leading to formulation of Auroville as a pilot GMC Zone with phase 1 specs </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with a service provider </li></ul><ul><li>ICITI as a platform for convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>26 July 2011
  27. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>A unique, timely, ‘True Green’ Mobile Communications Zone to address health and environmental concerns & demonstrate that mobile communications can be provided with low electromagnetic & carbon footprints </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research in the field of EM pollution and share the knowledge/wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>First phase cost ~ Rs 1.25 crores </li></ul>26 July 2011
  28. 28. 26 July 2011 THANK YOU