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Green Mobile Communications

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Are mobile communications safe?

Are mobile communications safe?
Can we make it safe?
Can we reduce electromagnetic pollution form mobile communications to a millionth?

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  • 1. In partnership with Telecom Centers of Excellence Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research TCOE, JIPMER and Pondicherry Engineering College A joint project between Auroville & IIIT, Bangalore GMC G reen M obile C ommunications
  • 2. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Concerns about EMR
    • Motivation for GMC
    • GMC Zone at Auroville
    • Coverage and deployment
    • Specifications and goals
    • Stake holders
    • Concluding remarks
    26 July 2011
  • 3. Wireless miracle? 26 July 2011
  • 4. Electromagnetic Radiation
        • Cell Towers
      • Safe limit for radiation
      • Cell size
    • Cell phones
      • Radiated power ( proportional to R 2 )
      • Proximity
        • Electromagnetic pollution
      • Depends on the total energy from BTS and cell phones: function of safe limit/cell size, BTS, active cell phones, range and call duration
    26 July 2011
  • 5. 26 July 2011 Safe exposure limits of EMR μW/m 2 Source O U T D O O R 4,700,000 ICNIRP 1998 1,000 Austria 1,000 BioInitiative Working Group (2007) 170 Seletun Consensus Statement (2010) 10 Health Department , Salzburg (2002) I N 100 BioInitiative Working Group (2007) 1 Health Department , Salzburg (2002) < 0.1 Building Biology /’No concern’ Sleeping areas (2008)
  • 6. Increasing concerns about EMR
    • 1998, ICNIRP - No long term effects
    • 2010, Inter Ministerial Committee - Current limits not sufficiently protective of public health
    • May 2011, Council of Europe - Reconsider the scientific basis and apply precautionary principle, Protect children, Potentially harmful to environment
    • May 2011, WHO- Possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B)
    26 July 2011
  • 7. Carbon foot print
    • As per TRAI Consultation paper 3 Feb 2011, the carbon foot print due to the electrical power and diesel generators used for cell towers used is estimated to be 13 million tons.
    • The cost is ~ Rs15,000 crores
    • Mobile towers are expected to double in the coming 5-7 years
    26 July 2011
  • 8. Why GMC?
    • Beyond carbon footprint
    • Apply ‘Precautionary Principle’ to EMR in experimenting with ‘safe limits’
    • Minimize electromagnetic pollution
    • Practical research in electromagnetic pollution
    26 July 2011
  • 9. Goals of GMC
    • Provide basic mobile communication services while addressing all factors contributing to electromagnetic pollution.
      • Reduce cell size down to 0.5 – 1 Km (20 to 30dB)
      • Reduce over-the-public-air radiated energy
      • Public /private air spaces (10 to30 dB)
      • Strategies to reduce call density and energy
    26 July 2011
  • 10. Approach
    • Lower limits of EMR, in a phased manner, and eventually operate at levels considered to be ‘completely safe’ for humans, flora and fauna.
    • Use Solar/Fuel Cell Power to minimize carbon foot print
    • Practical research
      • Modeling, reducing and minimizing EM pollution
      • Quantify health of the population, flora and fauna in GMC zone as a control group
      • Transparently record, monitor, analyze and publish results objectively and credibly.
    26 July 2011
  • 11. GMC Target Specifications 26 July 2011 * Review specs for phase 2 and 3 after phase 1 Phase Radiation limits in micro Watts/ m 2 Outdoor Indoor 1 100 10 2* 10 1 3* 1 0.1
  • 12. Link Budget 26 July 2011
    • Free space model
    • P t =50mW
    • 1 Km Max Range
    • -102dBm Rx sensitivity
    • 20 dB losses
    • 10 dB link margin
    • Received signal is 13dB above the receiver sensitivity at 1Km
    µW/m 2 µW/m 2 µW/m 2 µW/m 2 Meters
  • 13. GMC Architecture 26 July 2011
  • 14. Auroville
    • Founded by The Mother in 1968
    • International city of human unity
    • Goals
      • Human Unity
      • Education, Spiritual & Material
      • Research
      • Integral Development
    • UNESCO endorsed the goals and
    • directions on many occasions
    • Current population 2,250 from 46
    • countries; projected to grow to
    • 50,000 by 2025
    26 July 2011
  • 15. 1968
  • 16. 2010
  • 17. Eco friendly transportation
  • 18. Renewable Energy Solar cooker
  • 19. Initiatives to reduce EMR
    • Highly EMR conscious society as part of the commitment to sustainable development
    • Green Waves (Radiation Awareness Group)
    • Prevented installation of antennas in the township area till November 2010
    • ICITI (Integrated Communications and IT Infrastructure) – convergence, eco-friendliness, ICT4D to reverse urban migration
    • Annular shape caters to ‘buffer zone’
    26 July 2011
  • 20. ICITI Architecture DSLAM BSNL Exchange Core 10G Access 100M Distribution 1G Servers Router Mobile Switch PSTN PLMN Bioregion SIP Server 26 July 2011 INTERNET
  • 21. Required Coverage
  • 22. Deployment 26 July 2011
  • 23. Partnerships
    • International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore
    • Pondicherry Engineering College
    • Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry
    • Pondicherry University
    • Low Power GSM Equipment vendor (VNL)
    • Centre for Scientific Research
    • Telecom Centers of Excellence
    26 July 2011
  • 24. Challenges in wider deployment
    • Increase in number of BTS
      • Equipment cost, Cell sites, Aesthetics
    • Wired backhaul
    • Mini cell handover and QoS
    • New sites may be easier
    • Timeline issues (?) as public health issues are involved
    26 July 2011
  • 25. Grey areas
    • Shared infrastructure to reduce capital cost as well as EM pollution
    • Roaming
    • Workable and cost effective convergence solution
    26 July 2011
  • 26. What GMC Needs
    • Recognize and endorse the goals & objectives
    • A cooperative model with all stake holders leading to formulation of Auroville as a pilot GMC Zone with phase 1 specs
    • Partnership with a service provider
    • ICITI as a platform for convergence
    • Funding
    26 July 2011
  • 27. Conclusion
    • A unique, timely, ‘True Green’ Mobile Communications Zone to address health and environmental concerns & demonstrate that mobile communications can be provided with low electromagnetic & carbon footprints
    • Experimental research in the field of EM pollution and share the knowledge/wisdom
    • First phase cost ~ Rs 1.25 crores
    26 July 2011
  • 28. 26 July 2011 THANK YOU