Research methodology unit-1

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Research methodology unit-1

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  2. 2. Concept/Def. Research is an effort to discover answers to intellectual and practical problems through the application of systematic process/method. “Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge”. Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.
  3. 3. Objectives of Research The purpose of research is to discover answers through systematic procedure. The objectives are: To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it – Exploratory or Formulative Research. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group – Descriptive Research. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else – Diagnostic Research. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables – Hypothesis- Testing Research.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Research Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research demands accurate observation and description. Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose. Research activities are characterized by carefully designed procedures. Research is objective and logical – applying every possible test to validate the data collected and conclusions reached. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems. Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  5. 5.  Purpose clearly defined.  Research process detailed.  Research design thoroughly planned.  High ethical standards applied.  Limitations frankly revealed.  Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs.  Findings presented unambiguously.  Conclusions justified. CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH
  6. 6. QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHQUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCH • SystematicSystematic • LogicalLogical • EmpiricalEmpirical • ReplicableReplicable • CreativeCreative • Use of multiple methodsUse of multiple methods
  7. 7. ♪ EXPLORATIONEXPLORATION ♪ DESCRIBEDESCRIBE ♪ DIAGNOSEDIAGNOSE ♪ HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS ♪ INDUCTIONS AND DEDUCTIONSINDUCTIONS AND DEDUCTIONS NEED FOR RESEARCHNEED FOR RESEARCH
  8. 8. SCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCHSCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH  RESEARCH FOR DECISION MAKINGRESEARCH FOR DECISION MAKING  Throws light on risks and uncertaintyThrows light on risks and uncertainty  Identify alternative courses of actionIdentify alternative courses of action  Helps in economic use of resourcesHelps in economic use of resources  Helps in project identificationHelps in project identification
  9. 9.  Solves investment problemsSolves investment problems  Solves pricing problemsSolves pricing problems  Solves allocation problemsSolves allocation problems  Solves decision making issues in HRSolves decision making issues in HR  Solves various operational and planningSolves various operational and planning problems of business and industryproblems of business and industry
  10. 10.  Provides the basis for all government policies inProvides the basis for all government policies in our economic system.our economic system.  Helps social scientists in studying socialHelps social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to variousrelationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.social problems.  For students, research means a careerism or aFor students, research means a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the socialway to attain a high position in the social structure.structure.  For professionals in research, it may mean aFor professionals in research, it may mean a source of livelihood.source of livelihood.
  11. 11.  For philosophers and thinkers, research meansFor philosophers and thinkers, research means the outlet for new ideas and insights.the outlet for new ideas and insights.  For analysts and intellectuals, research meansFor analysts and intellectuals, research means generalizations of new theories.generalizations of new theories.
  12. 12. PROBLEMS IN RESEARCHPROBLEMS IN RESEARCH  Not similar to science  Uncontrollable variables  Human tendencies  Time and money  Lack of computerization  Lack of scientific training in the methodology of research
  13. 13.  Insufficient interaction between university research departments and business establishments  Lack of confidence on the part of business units to give information  Lack of code of conduct  Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarialDifficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistanceassistance
  14. 14.  Poor library management and functioningPoor library management and functioning  Difficulty of timely availability of published data.Difficulty of timely availability of published data.  IgnoranceIgnorance
  15. 15. ROLE OF RESEARCHROLE OF RESEARCH ININ DECISION-MAKINGDECISION-MAKING ♪ Decision-making is the process of selecting the bestDecision-making is the process of selecting the best alternative from the available set of alternatives.alternative from the available set of alternatives. ♪ Management is chiefly concerned with decision-Management is chiefly concerned with decision- making and its implementation.making and its implementation. ♪ These decisions should be based on appropriateThese decisions should be based on appropriate studies, evaluations and observations.studies, evaluations and observations. ♪ Research provides us with knowledge and skills neededResearch provides us with knowledge and skills needed to solve the problems and to meet the challenges of ato solve the problems and to meet the challenges of a fast paced decision-making environment.fast paced decision-making environment.
  16. 16. TYPES OF RESEARCHTYPES OF RESEARCH  Descriptive vs Analytical ResearchDescriptive vs Analytical Research Descriptive ResearchDescriptive Research is a fact findingis a fact finding investigation which is aimed at describing theinvestigation which is aimed at describing the characteristics of individual, situation or a group (or)characteristics of individual, situation or a group (or) describing the state of affairs as it exists at present.describing the state of affairs as it exists at present. Analytical ResearchAnalytical Research is primarily concernedis primarily concerned with specifying and interpreting relationships, bywith specifying and interpreting relationships, by analyzing the facts or information already available.analyzing the facts or information already available.
  17. 17.  Applied vs Fundamental ResearchApplied vs Fundamental Research Applied ResearchApplied Research or Action Research is carriedor Action Research is carried out to find solution to a real life problem requiring anout to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision.action or policy decision. Fundamental ResearchFundamental Research which is also known aswhich is also known as basic or pure research is undertaken for the sake ofbasic or pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice.knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity andIt is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity and is not necessarily problem-oriented.is not necessarily problem-oriented.
  18. 18.  Quantitative vs Qualitative ResearchQuantitative vs Qualitative Research Quantitative ResearchQuantitative Research is employed foris employed for measuring the quantity or amount of a particularmeasuring the quantity or amount of a particular phenomena by the use of statistical analysis.phenomena by the use of statistical analysis. Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research is a non-quantitative typeis a non-quantitative type of analysis which is aimed at finding out the quality ofof analysis which is aimed at finding out the quality of a particular phenomenon.a particular phenomenon.
  19. 19.  Conceptual vs Empirical ResearchConceptual vs Empirical Research Conceptual ResearchConceptual Research is generally used byis generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts orphilosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.to reinterpret existing ones. Empirical ResearchEmpirical Research is a data based researchis a data based research which depends on experience or observation alone. It iswhich depends on experience or observation alone. It is aimed at coming up with conclusions without dueaimed at coming up with conclusions without due regard for system and theory.regard for system and theory.
  20. 20. Some other types of research..Some other types of research..  One-time ResearchOne-time Research – Research confined to a single– Research confined to a single time period.time period.  Longitudinal ResearchLongitudinal Research – Research carried on over– Research carried on over several time periods.several time periods.  Diagnostic ResearchDiagnostic Research – It is also called clinical research– It is also called clinical research which aims at identifying the causes of a problem,which aims at identifying the causes of a problem, frequency with which it occurs and the possiblefrequency with which it occurs and the possible solutions for it.solutions for it.  Exploratory ResearchExploratory Research – It is the preliminary study of– It is the preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem, about which the researcher hasan unfamiliar problem, about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is aimedlittle or no knowledge. It is aimed to gain familiarityto gain familiarity with the problem, to generate new ideas or to make awith the problem, to generate new ideas or to make a precise formulation of the problem.precise formulation of the problem. Hence it is alsoHence it is also known as formulative research.known as formulative research.
  21. 21.  Experimental ResearchExperimental Research – It is designed to assess the– It is designed to assess the effect of one particular variable on a phenomenon byeffect of one particular variable on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled.keeping the other variables constant or controlled.  Historical ResearchHistorical Research – It is the study of past records– It is the study of past records and other information sources, with a view to find theand other information sources, with a view to find the origin and development of a phenomenon and toorigin and development of a phenomenon and to discover the trends in the past, inorder to understanddiscover the trends in the past, inorder to understand the present and to anticipate the future.the present and to anticipate the future.
  22. 22. RESEARCH PROCESSRESEARCH PROCESS Define Research Problem Review Concepts And theories Review Previous Research findings Formulate hypothesis Design Research (Including Sample Design) Collect Data (Execution) Analyse Data (Test Hypothesis if any) Interpret and report FF F F F FF I II III IV V VI VII F FF Feed Back Feed Forward Review the literature
  23. 23. DEFINITIONDEFINITION OF THEOF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMRESEARCH PROBLEM STEP-1
  24. 24. RESEARCH PROBLEMRESEARCH PROBLEM What is a research problem?What is a research problem?  The term ‘problem’ means a question or issue to beThe term ‘problem’ means a question or issue to be examined.examined.  Research Problem refers to some difficulty /needResearch Problem refers to some difficulty /need which a researcher experiences in the context of eitherwhich a researcher experiences in the context of either theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain atheoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.solution for the same.
  25. 25. HOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE AHOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE A RESEARCH PROBLEM?RESEARCH PROBLEM?  Customer complaintsCustomer complaints  Conversation with company employeesConversation with company employees  Observation of inappropriate behaviour orObservation of inappropriate behaviour or conditionsconditions in the firmin the firm  Deviation from the business planDeviation from the business plan  Success of the firm’s competitor’sSuccess of the firm’s competitor’s  Relevant reading of published material (trends,Relevant reading of published material (trends, regulations)regulations)  Company records and reportsCompany records and reports..
  26. 26. The first step in the research process –The first step in the research process – definitiondefinition of the problemof the problem involves two activities:involves two activities: Identification / Selection of the ProblemIdentification / Selection of the Problem Formulation of the ProblemFormulation of the Problem
  27. 27. IDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THEIDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMRESEARCH PROBLEM  This step involves identification of a fewThis step involves identification of a few problems and selection of one out of them, afterproblems and selection of one out of them, after evaluating the alternatives against certain selectionevaluating the alternatives against certain selection criteria.criteria.
  28. 28. SOURCES OF PROBLEMSSOURCES OF PROBLEMS  ReadingReading  Academic ExperienceAcademic Experience  Daily ExperienceDaily Experience  Exposure to Field SituationsExposure to Field Situations  ConsultationsConsultations  BrainstormingBrainstorming  ResearchResearch  IntuitionIntuition
  29. 29. CRITERIA OF SELECTIONCRITERIA OF SELECTION The selection of one appropriate researchableThe selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requiresproblem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certainevaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. They are:criteria. They are:  Internal / Personal criteriaInternal / Personal criteria – Researcher’s Interest,– Researcher’s Interest, Researcher’s Competence, Researcher’s ownResearcher’s Competence, Researcher’s own Resource: finance and time.Resource: finance and time.  External Criteria or FactorsExternal Criteria or Factors – Researchability of the– Researchability of the problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty of theproblem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty of the Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, Usefulness and SocialProblem, Feasibility, Facilities, Usefulness and Social Relevance, Research Personnel.Relevance, Research Personnel.
  30. 30. DEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THEDEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMRESEARCH PROBLEM  Formulation is the process of refining the researchFormulation is the process of refining the research ideas into research questions and objectives.ideas into research questions and objectives.  Formulation means translating and transforming theFormulation means translating and transforming the selected research problem/topic/idea into aselected research problem/topic/idea into a scientifically researchable question. It is concernedscientifically researchable question. It is concerned with specifying exactly what the research problem is.with specifying exactly what the research problem is.
  31. 31.  Problem definition or Problem statement is a clear,Problem definition or Problem statement is a clear, precise and succinct statement of the question or issueprecise and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding anthat is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.answer or solution.  There are two ways of stating a problem:There are two ways of stating a problem: 1)1) Posting question / questionsPosting question / questions 2)2) Making declarative statement / statementsMaking declarative statement / statements
  32. 32. PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THEPROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE PROBLEMPROBLEM STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN ASTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A GENERAL WAY.GENERAL WAY.
  33. 33. UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OfUNDERSTANDING THE NATURE Of PROBLEMPROBLEM SURVEYING THE AVAILABLESURVEYING THE AVAILABLE LITERATURELITERATURE
  34. 34. DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGHDEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH DISCUSSIONSDISCUSSIONS REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEMREPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
  35. 35. CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEMCRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM  Clear and UnambiguousClear and Unambiguous  EmpiricalEmpirical  VerifiableVerifiable  InterestingInteresting  Novel and OriginalNovel and Original  Availability of GuidanceAvailability of Guidance
  36. 36. Statement of Research Objectives Defining Problem, Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives.. Analysis of the Situation Symptom Detection Problem Definition
  37. 37. ESTABLISHMENT OF RESEARCHESTABLISHMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Research Objectives are the specific components ofResearch Objectives are the specific components of the research problem, that you’ll be working tothe research problem, that you’ll be working to answer or complete, in order to answer the overallanswer or complete, in order to answer the overall research problem. - Churchill, 2001research problem. - Churchill, 2001  The objectives refers to the questions to beThe objectives refers to the questions to be answered through the study. They indicate what weanswered through the study. They indicate what we are trying to get from the study or the expectedare trying to get from the study or the expected results / outcome of the study.results / outcome of the study.
  38. 38. ESTABLISHMENT OF RESEARCHESTABLISHMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Research Objectives should be clear and achievable,Research Objectives should be clear and achievable, as they directly assist in answering the researchas they directly assist in answering the research problem.problem.  The objectives may be specified in the form ofThe objectives may be specified in the form of either statements or questions.either statements or questions.  Generally, they are written as statements, using theGenerally, they are written as statements, using the word “to”. (For example, ‘to discover …’, ‘toword “to”. (For example, ‘to discover …’, ‘to determine …’, ‘to establish …’, etc. )determine …’, ‘to establish …’, etc. )
  39. 39. REVIEWREVIEW OFOF LITERATURELITERATURE STEP-2
  40. 40. REVIEW OF LITERATUREREVIEW OF LITERATURE  Literature Review is the documentation of aLiterature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published andcomprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data inunpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher.the areas of specific interest to the researcher.  The main aim is to find out problems that are alreadyThe main aim is to find out problems that are already investigated and those that need further investigation.investigated and those that need further investigation.
  41. 41. REVIEW OF LITERATUREREVIEW OF LITERATURE  It is an extensive survey of all available past studiesIt is an extensive survey of all available past studies relevant to the field of investigation.relevant to the field of investigation.  It gives us knowledge about what others have foundIt gives us knowledge about what others have found out in the related field of study and how they haveout in the related field of study and how they have done so.done so.
  42. 42. PURPOSE OF REVIEWPURPOSE OF REVIEW  To gain a background knowledge of the researchTo gain a background knowledge of the research topic.topic.  To identify the concepts relating to it, potentialTo identify the concepts relating to it, potential relationships between them and to formulaterelationships between them and to formulate researchable hypothesis.researchable hypothesis.  To identify appropriate methodology, research design,To identify appropriate methodology, research design, methods of measuring concepts and techniques ofmethods of measuring concepts and techniques of analysis.analysis.  To identify data sources used by other researchers.To identify data sources used by other researchers.  To learn how others structured their reports.To learn how others structured their reports.
  43. 43. How to conduct the LiteratureHow to conduct the Literature Survey?Survey? Identify the relevant sources.Identify the relevant sources. Extract and Record relevant information.Extract and Record relevant information. Write-up the Literature Review.Write-up the Literature Review.
  44. 44. SOURCES OF LITERATURESOURCES OF LITERATURE  Books and JournalsBooks and Journals  Electronic DatabasesElectronic Databases Bibliographic DatabasesBibliographic Databases Abstract DatabasesAbstract Databases Full-Text DatabasesFull-Text Databases  Govt. and Industry ReportsGovt. and Industry Reports  InternetInternet  Research Dissertations / ThesisResearch Dissertations / Thesis
  45. 45. RECORDING THE LITERATURERECORDING THE LITERATURE The most suitable method of recordingThe most suitable method of recording notes is thenotes is the card system.card system. The recording system involves use of twoThe recording system involves use of two sets of cards:sets of cards: Source cardsSource cards (3”x 5”) – used for noting(3”x 5”) – used for noting bibliographic information.bibliographic information. Note cardsNote cards (5”x 8”) – used for actual note taking.(5”x 8”) – used for actual note taking.
  46. 46. SOURCE CARDSSOURCE CARDS Source Cards serve two purposes:Source Cards serve two purposes: a)a) Provide documentary information for footProvide documentary information for foot notes.notes. b)b) It is used for compiling bibliography to beIt is used for compiling bibliography to be given at the end of the report.given at the end of the report.
  47. 47. SOURCE CARDSSOURCE CARDS Source Cards can be coded by a simple systemSource Cards can be coded by a simple system inorder to relate them to the corresponding note cards.inorder to relate them to the corresponding note cards. 1)1) Marking a combination of letters and a number onMarking a combination of letters and a number on the right hand top corner that begins with ‘C’. Forthe right hand top corner that begins with ‘C’. For example; C1, C2 etc.example; C1, C2 etc. OROR 2)2) Marking the letter ‘B’ or ‘J’ or ‘R’ (B=Books,Marking the letter ‘B’ or ‘J’ or ‘R’ (B=Books, J=Journal, R=Report) on the left hand top corner.J=Journal, R=Report) on the left hand top corner.
  48. 48. SOURCE CARDSSOURCE CARDS The recording of bibliographic informationThe recording of bibliographic information should be made in proper bibliographic format.should be made in proper bibliographic format. The format for citing a book is:The format for citing a book is: Author’s name, (year), Title of the book, Place ofAuthor’s name, (year), Title of the book, Place of publication, Publisher’s name.publication, Publisher’s name. For Example; Koontz Harold (1980), Management,For Example; Koontz Harold (1980), Management, New Delhi, McGraw-Hill International.New Delhi, McGraw-Hill International. The format for citing a journal article is:The format for citing a journal article is: Author’s name, (year), Title of the article, JournalAuthor’s name, (year), Title of the article, Journal name, Volume (number), pages.name, Volume (number), pages. For Example; Sheth J.N (1973), A Model ofFor Example; Sheth J.N (1973), A Model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 37(4),Industrial Buying Behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.50-56.
  49. 49. NOTE CARDSNOTE CARDS Detailed Information extracted from aDetailed Information extracted from a printed source is recorded on the note cards.printed source is recorded on the note cards. It is desirable to note a single fact or idea onIt is desirable to note a single fact or idea on each card, on one side only.each card, on one side only.
  50. 50. How to write the review?How to write the review? There are several ways of presenting the ideas ofThere are several ways of presenting the ideas of others within the body of the paper.others within the body of the paper. For Example; If you are referring the majorFor Example; If you are referring the major influencing factors in the Sheth’s model of Industrialinfluencing factors in the Sheth’s model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, it can be written as,Buying Behaviour, it can be written as, 1)1)Sheth (1973, p-50) has suggested that, there are aSheth (1973, p-50) has suggested that, there are a number of influencing factors ……..number of influencing factors …….. 2)2)According to Sheth (1973) model of industrialAccording to Sheth (1973) model of industrial buying behaviour, there are a number of influencingbuying behaviour, there are a number of influencing factors……..factors……..
  51. 51. How to write the review?How to write the review? 3)3)In some models of industrial buying behaviour,In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a number of influencing factors (Sheth, 1973).there are a number of influencing factors (Sheth, 1973). 4)4)In some models of industrial buying behaviour,In some models of industrial buying behaviour, there are a number of influencing factorsthere are a number of influencing factors11 .. 1.1. Sheth J.N (1973), A Model of Industrial BuyingSheth J.N (1973), A Model of Industrial Buying Behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.Behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.
  52. 52. Points to be kept in mind whilePoints to be kept in mind while reviewing literature..reviewing literature.. Read relevant literature.Read relevant literature. Refer original works.Refer original works. Read with comprehension.Read with comprehension. Read in time.Read in time. Index the literature.Index the literature.
  53. 53. FORMULATIONFORMULATION OFOF HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS STEP-3
  54. 54. HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS  A hypothesis is an assumption aboutA hypothesis is an assumption about relationsrelations betweenbetween variables.variables.  Hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjecturedHypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationshiprelationship between two or morebetween two or more variablesvariables expressedexpressed in the form of a testable statement.in the form of a testable statement. Relationships are conjectured on the basis of theRelationships are conjectured on the basis of the network of associations established in thenetwork of associations established in the theoreticaltheoretical frameworkframework formulated for the research study.formulated for the research study.
  55. 55. VARIABLESVARIABLES  Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable.Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable.  A variable is anything that can take on differing orA variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values.varying values. For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism,For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism, Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc.Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc. Note:Note: The values can differ at various times for theThe values can differ at various times for the same object or person (or) at the same time for differentsame object or person (or) at the same time for different objects or persons.objects or persons.
  56. 56. Variable / AttributeVariable / Attribute A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or moreA variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more values whereas, an attribute is a specific value on avalues whereas, an attribute is a specific value on a variable (qualitative).variable (qualitative). For example;For example;  The variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes - MaleThe variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes - Male and Female.and Female.  The variable AGREEMENT has 5 attributes –The variable AGREEMENT has 5 attributes – Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, StronglyStrongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree.Disagree.
  57. 57. Types of VariablesTypes of Variables  Explanatory vs Extraneous VariableExplanatory vs Extraneous Variable The variables selected for analysis are called explanatoryThe variables selected for analysis are called explanatory variables and all other variables that are not related to the purposevariables and all other variables that are not related to the purpose of the study but may affect the dependant variable are extraneous.of the study but may affect the dependant variable are extraneous.  Dependant vs Independent VariableDependant vs Independent Variable The variable that changes in relationship to changes inThe variable that changes in relationship to changes in another variable(s) is calledanother variable(s) is called dependant variabledependant variable.. The variable whose change results in the change in anotherThe variable whose change results in the change in another variable is called anvariable is called an independent variableindependent variable.. OROR An independent variable is the one that influences theAn independent variable is the one that influences the dependant variable in either a positive or negative way.dependant variable in either a positive or negative way.
  58. 58. HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS  Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement thatResearch Hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates anrelates an independent variableindependent variable to ato a dependantdependant variable.variable. Hypothesis must contain atleast one independentHypothesis must contain atleast one independent variable and one dependant variable.variable and one dependant variable.
  59. 59. HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS  Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to theHypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem.solution of the problem.  Hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. ItHypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete terms what you expect to happendescribes in concrete terms what you expect to happen in the study.in the study.  Hypothesis is an assumption about the population ofHypothesis is an assumption about the population of the study.the study.  It delimits the area of research and keeps theIt delimits the area of research and keeps the researcher on the right track.researcher on the right track.
  60. 60. PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESISPROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS  Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested andHypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and can be proved to be right or wrong.can be proved to be right or wrong.  A problem is a broad question which cannot beA problem is a broad question which cannot be directly tested. A problem can be scientificallydirectly tested. A problem can be scientifically investigated after converting it into a form ofinvestigated after converting it into a form of hypothesis.hypothesis.
  61. 61. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESISCHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS  Conceptual ClarityConceptual Clarity - It should be clear and precise.- It should be clear and precise.  SpecificitySpecificity - It should be specific and limited in scope.- It should be specific and limited in scope.  ConsistencyConsistency - It should be consistent with the- It should be consistent with the objectives of research.objectives of research.  TestabilityTestability - It should be capable of being tested.- It should be capable of being tested.  ExpectancyExpectancy - It should state the expected relationships- It should state the expected relationships between variables.between variables.
  62. 62. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESISCHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS  SimplicitySimplicity - It should be stated as far as possible in- It should be stated as far as possible in simple terms.simple terms.  ObjectivityObjectivity - It should not include value judgments,- It should not include value judgments, relative terms or any moral preaching.relative terms or any moral preaching.  Theoretical RelevanceTheoretical Relevance - It should be consistent with a- It should be consistent with a substantial body of established or known facts or existingsubstantial body of established or known facts or existing theory.theory.  Availability of TechniquesAvailability of Techniques – Statistical methods should– Statistical methods should be available for testing the proposed hypothesis.be available for testing the proposed hypothesis.
  63. 63.  Discussions with colleagues and experts about theDiscussions with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and objectives in seeking aproblem, its origin and objectives in seeking a solution.solution.  Examination of data and records for possible trends,Examination of data and records for possible trends, peculiarities.peculiarities.  Review of similar studies.Review of similar studies.  Exploratory personal investigation / Observation.Exploratory personal investigation / Observation.  Logical deduction from the existing theory.Logical deduction from the existing theory.  Continuity of research.Continuity of research.  Intuition and personal experience.Intuition and personal experience. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESISSOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS
  64. 64.  Descriptive Hypothesis These are assumptions that describe the characteristics (such as size, form or distribution) of a variable. The variable may be an object, person, organisation, situation or event. Examples:  “Public enterprises are more amenable for centralized planning”. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
  65. 65.  Relational Hypothesis [Explanatory Hypothesis] These are assumptions that describe the relationship between two variables. The relationship suggested may be positive, negative or causal relationship. Examples:  “Families with higher incomes spend more for recreation”. Causal Hypothesis state that the existence of or change in one variable causes or leads to an effect on another variable. The first variable is called the independent variable and the latter is the dependant variable.
  66. 66.  Null Hypothesis When a hypothesis is stated negatively, it is called null hypothesis. It is a ‘no difference’, ‘no relationship’ hypothesis. ie., It states that, no difference exists between the parameter and statistic being compared to or no relationship exists between the variables being compared. It is usually represented as HO or H0 . Example:  H0: There is no relationship between a family’s income and expenditure on recreation.
  67. 67.  Alternate Hypothesis It is the hypothesis that describes the researcher’s prediction that, there exist a relationship between two variables or it is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is represented as HA or H1. Example: HA: There is a definite relationship between family’s income and expenditure on recreation.
  68. 68. FORMS OFFORMS OF RELATIONSHIPSRELATIONSHIPS NON-DIRECTIONALNON-DIRECTIONAL • There IS a relationshipThere IS a relationship betweenbetween • X & YX & Y • X….linked….YX….linked….Y Vs DIRECTIONALVs DIRECTIONAL • If X goes up, Y ….If X goes up, Y …. • oror • As X increases, Y…As X increases, Y… • X = IndependentX = Independent • variablevariable • Y = Dependent variableY = Dependent variable
  69. 69. DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES- “X” causes “Y” to change“X” causes “Y” to change • If X changesIf X changes • (increases(increases • decreases)decreases) • thenthen • Y will ______Y will ______ • (increase or(increase or • decrease)decrease) • a causal linka causal link
  70. 70. DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIPDIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP • If X increases, Y increasesIf X increases, Y increases • AA POSITIVEPOSITIVE relationshiprelationship • If X increase, Y decreasesIf X increase, Y decreases • AA NEGATIVENEGATIVE oror INVERSEINVERSE relationshiprelationship • As X changes, Y does NOT change...>As X changes, Y does NOT change...> • No Change...>No Change...>NO RELATIONSHIPNO RELATIONSHIP
  71. 71. NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESESNON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES - the weakest form- the weakest form • There IsThere Is • a relationshipa relationship • between X & Ybetween X & Y – non-causalnon-causal – correlationalcorrelational statementstatement – X…..YX…..Y
  72. 72. Positive correlationPositive correlation • When the values ofWhen the values of • TWO variablesTWO variables • ““go together”go together” • oror • values on X & Yvalues on X & Y • change in SAMEchange in SAME • DIRECTIONDIRECTION 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Hr work Earnin gs CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIPCORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
  73. 73. Negative CorrelationNegative Correlation • When the values ofWhen the values of two variablestwo variables • CO-VARYCO-VARY • in Opposite directionin Opposite direction • (as one goes up,(as one goes up, • the other goes down)the other goes down) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Hrs work Earnin gs
  74. 74. FUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESISFUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESIS  It gives a definite point to the investigation and provides direction to the study.  It determines the data needs.  It specifies the sources of data.  It suggests which type of research is likely to be more appropriate.  It determines the most appropriate technique of analysis.  It contributes to the development of theory.

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