Knowledge management


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Knowledge management

  2. 2. Why KM? Change is Accelerating 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 Optical p Network Speed doubles every 8 months Storage capacity doubles every 12 months Computing power doubles every 18 months dot COM storage requirements double every 90 days
  3. 3. What is KM? An Enterprise Perspective The strategies, processes, and technologies employed to enable an enterprise to acquire, create, share, and make actionable the knowledge needed to achieve mission objectives Enabling Technologies and Processes Influences Leadership CoPs Best Practice DBs Strategy Reward & Recognition KM Process
  4. 4. Framework
  5. 5. KM Enablers
  6. 6. Knowledge-Enabled Outcome States State 0 Where We Were Ad Hoc Processes State 1 Fostering Knowledge Development Common KM Understanding Local Initiatives State 2 Harvesting the Benefits KM Targets Low Tool Standardization Collaboration Valued Ultimate Vision Embedded KM Enterprise Processes Center Pilots Disparate Vi Di t Views of f Resources State “V” Knowledge Di K l d Discovery Consolidated Resource View Greater Tool Standardization KnowledgeSharing Known Knowledge Value Tool/Process integration Pervasive Infrastructure Knowledge Creation and Re-use Impact Innovative Outcomes
  7. 7. Knowledge Management Capability Maturity Model (KM CMM) Level 5: Optimizing • Business process alignment • Process change management g g Level 4: Managed • Integrated knowledge processes • Quantitative process management p g Where we are going ‘01 Level 3: Defined • Organizational processes • Knowledge mapping • Intergroup coordination • Training program Level 2: Repeatable • Program planning • Requirements process Level 1: Initial • Adhoc processes • Partial technical infrastructure Level 0:Not Practiced • Failure to perform KM • Culture counter to learning, sharing • Content QA process • KFP identification Where we are ‘00 Where we want to be
  8. 8. Stages of KM Implementation Develop interest and enthusiasm No formal business case; belief in the value Define KM in terms people understand Capitalize on intranet Understand organizational readiness Pilot Path Select pilots or identify grass root efforts Business objectives are specific to pilots Form a crossfunctional KM u ct o a task force Support pilots Business case is potential gain from pilots Share pilot lessons learned Develop methodologies that can be replicated Strategic Pilots Opportunistic Pilots Scale up; build capability Business case and measures become more formal KM coordination team Identify roles and resources for the KM function Establish awards and recognition Improve Decision Expand g g Disengage KM embedded in business model Organizational alignment Project work with activity and knowledge base support Standards Way of doing business
  9. 9. Process Expertise & Knowledge Discovery Knowledge Requirement Customer(s) Knowledge Delivery KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE (KII) Knowledge Team Formation Knowledge Creation
  11. 11. BACKGROUND • For any company knowledge is core of all its activities. A knowledge management system is to identify, create, represent, di t ib t and enable adoption t t distribute d bl d ti ‘what it knows’ and ‘how it knows it’. • Proper system for knowledge management is essential to avoid re-inventing the wheel and to go forward to higher levels from the existing levels in a quick and efficient way way. • Presently, the knowledge management is in formative stages. It will be better if a proper system of g p p y knowledge management is thought about and implemented as early as possible in order to meet the immediate target of changing the pattern of work – to go to more of R&D from certification.
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES • To establish and implement a system of knowledge management in the shortest possible time – by the year 2010 a basic system and by year 2012 an advanced working system system. 12
  13. 13. SCOPE 1. To identify fields where the knowledge management system should be established and their priorities. 2. In each field, identify implicit (tacit) and explicit (codified) knowledge areas and generate appropriate methodology for capturing them. (Implicit or tacit knowledge is often subconscious, internalized, and the individual may or may not be aware of what he or she knows and y y how he or she accomplishes particular results. At the opposite end of the spectrum is explicit or codified knowledge which is often a k h h f knowledge that the individual h ld explicitly and l d h h d d l holds l l d consciously in mental focus and may communicate to others through email, proposals, PPT, PDF, technical papers, reports, softwares, etc. In the popular form of the distinction, implicit knowledge is what is in our heads, and explicit knowledge is what we have codified).
  14. 14. SCOPE (Contd..) 3. To train the personnel in knowledge sharing and knowledge management and generate an atmosphere of openness to take up the activity of knowledge management. 4. Generate suitable formats for documentation – this may be different for different areas and fields and finalize them fields, after periodic review and discussions. 5. 5 Establish a system for multi disciplinary activities multi-disciplinary activities. 6. Generate a suitable system of consolidation, storage and retrieval – using b h h d i l i both hardware/software expertise, / f i consultancy, etc. for different areas and fields. 7. Create an appropriate search engine for storage and retrieval.
  15. 15. SCOPE (Contd..) 8. G Generate a suitable and appropriate control strategy f bl d l for access of this information to various levels of personnel. 9. Benchmarking of knowledge management in R&D Companies. 10. Establish a mechanism for operating the ‘Knowledge Knowledge Management System’ : defining stakeholders, roles, responsibilities. 11. Making of resource, financial and quality plans. 12. 12 Finalizing work break down structure and schedules break-down schedules. 13. Establish a system of periodic review against time targets and corrective measures and updating of th system. d ti d d ti f the t
  16. 16. CURRENTLY IDENTIFIED AREAS Library Knowledge Centre corporate p Memory Search engine Bench Marking Academy A d Education Quality Management IT Management ARAI KM HR & Performance Management Project P j t Management & Lessions Learnt Seminar & Conferences Asset Management R&D and Technology Legal & Intellectual Property Certification & Services
  18. 18. Knowledge Identifiction KNOW-HOW SKILLS Explicit knowledge Formalized and Specialized Tacit knowledge Acquired with practice Adaptable Explicitable or non-explicitable Data, procedures, models, algorithms, documents of analysis & synthesis, drawings.. People s People’s abilities, professional knack, private knowledge.. Heterogeneous, incomplete or redundant, Often marked by circumstances of it’s creation Does not express “unspoken words” D t “ k d ” Disseminated Often transmitted orally and tacitly according to a Master- to- Apprentice behaviour b h i Located All stored in archives, cabinets, software systems and individual’s mind. ll d h f d d d l d Characterizes a company capability to design, produce, sell & support its product and/or services. Representative of the company experience and culture.
  19. 19. Knowledge Conversion T …..To Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination …..From Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge
  20. 20. Conduct Competency Mapping (Example Engine Testing) Instrumentatio n Knowledge 10 Knowledge of Emission Parameters 4 Test Report /Calculation 6 8 4 Engine Knowledge 8 0 4 5 Engine Installation 5 Test Analysis Engine Testing Knowledge of Test Standards
  21. 21. Conduct Competency Mapping ( (Example Engine Design) p g g )
  22. 22. Prepare Technology Road Map (Example Eng n D (E amp Engine Development Lab) opm nt La ) • Engine upgradation by system design • Engine design from concept Port fl • P t flow simulation LPG/CNG E3 Fuel Cells CNG E4 • Manifold Injection • TBI HCNG • Lean burn • Sequential Injection Hydrogen E5 • Lean burn HCCI Co bust o CC Combustion E 4 - 50 kW / l • Rotary FIE 700 bar • TCIC E 2 Dev Performance Simulation 2000 • EDC 1100 bar E 3 Dev Hydraulic Simulation 2002 CFD E 4 Dev Vehicle cycle simulation 2004 2006 E 5 - 75 kW / l C S 600 bar • 4V CRS 1600 ba • VNT, Cooled EGR, DOC, DPF • BMEP 16 bar Combustion simulation 2008 • CRS 1800 /2000 bar • Cooled EGR, DPF • DeNOx • Variable swirl Chemical kinetics 2010 2012 2014
  23. 23. KM Architecture User Interface Knowledge Applications Knowledge  Application  Application Architecture Knowledge Map Search Engines Storage g Enterprise Infrastructure Platform/Network Services Pl tf /N t kS i
  24. 24. Decide Knowledge Discovery Tools Sources Disseminate/ Retrieve (TIDES, QANDA) Summarize (WebSumm) Extract (Alembic) Collect Finance Energy Trans. Telecomm Z-Ave Translate (CyberTrans) Monitor (SIAM) Collaborate (KEAN, Scout, ExpertFinde r, XperNET) Browse/Visualize (GeoNODE) Cluster/Mine (QueryFlocks)
  25. 25. Detect, Translate, Extract, Summarize Today is a significant day in the history of our national liberation struggle, it marks the end of a year during which we have resisted and fought against the biggest ever offensive operation launched by the Sri Lankan armed forces code named "Jayasikuru”... •Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) •Sri Lanka •Velupillai Pirapaharan •Rebellion Org Sinhala LTTE Tamil document Leader HQ Kumaratunga Pirapaharan Wanni Losses 3000 1300 The objective of the Sinhala chauvinists was to utilize maximum man power and fire power to destroy the military capability of the LTTE and to bring an end to the Tamil freedom movement. g Before the launching of the operation "Jayasikuru" the Sri Lankan political and military high command miscalculated the military strength and determination of the LTTE.
  26. 26. Vision: Ask Questions, Get Answers Question: What type of coating on the piston skirt should be used? Multilingual, Multimedia, M lti di Multiparty Resources Answer: KS uses LofriKS and NanofriKS coatings on the skirt. Both uses PAI (Polyamideimide) with graphite fillers. In NanofriKS, TiO2 & ZnS nanoparticles are used. Today Documents, Not answers Tomorrow Answers & Drill down
  27. 27. Search Engine Indexing/Keywords ( (Example) p ) Engine System / Part Name Cylinder Block Cylinder Head Gaskets G k t Piston Assembly Con Rod Assembly Crankshaft Flywheel Balancer Shaft & TV Damper Bearings & Bushes Valve Train Timing Gear Engine Mounts Cooling System Lubricating System g y m Fuel Injection System Turbocharger EGR Alternator Starter Exhaust System After Treatment Devices
  28. 28. Expert Discovery • Find global Experts – quick q – accurate p – comprehensive • Challenge: Overcome limitations of manually managed skills/expertise databases (e.g. Dataware - experts self nominate) – incomplete – expensive – out of date
  29. 29. Expertise Management Architecture Resources Services E-dB Finder Selection Service Broker MII Q Qualification Registration Q Q&A WWW Finder Agencies Consulting Groups
  30. 30. Expert Finder (Example) User Issues Simple Query Employees Ranked by Mentions Goal: Place a user within one phone ll f n xp t ph n call of an expert Integrated Employee E l Database Results of Expert Finder Query: HR Expert •N.V.Marathe, Dy Director •Dr. M.V. Uchgaonkar, Asst. Director •Y.K.Upadhyay, Manager Name: Uchgaonkar M.V. Dr. Phone: 30231210 Email: Dept: PAH ID.No.: ID N Uchgaonkar M.V. Dr. Mentions of Employee in Corporate Communications “Dealing with Performance” by Dr. Mohan V. Uchgaonkar, AD – PAH, The Indian Express (Pune Edition), 04 Dec 2008. Relevant Employee Publications Enterprise Employee Project Database
  31. 31. Evaluation • Compare performance of ExpertFinder with (20) expert human resource managers • Task: Find top 5 corporate experts in a given domain • Measures – Agreement among humans – Agreement of machine with human(s) • Precision •R Recall ll • Chance: # experts/450 employees = often less than 1% 1%.
  32. 32. The ExpertFinder Questionnaire I am performing an experiment. Your participation will remain anonymous if you so desire and should only take a few short minutes. Please answer the following questions (preferably without any assistance, but if you use assistance indicate what kind you used): 1. Who are the top 5 "data mining" experts at ARAI (List them in rank order, most expert first. List as many as you can but no more than 5)? 2. the top 5 “marketing" experts? 3. the top 5 “design" experts? 4. the top 5 “development" experts? 5. the top 5 “testing" experts? 6. the top 5 “Report/Paper writing" experts? p p p g p 7. the top 5 “review" experts? 8. What is your department’s top area of expertise (in a few words) and who do you consider to be the top 5 people in the company in your area of expertise?
  33. 33. Cooperative Searching Hypothesis Group (coordinated) searching can be more effective p( ) g than multiple (independent) searchers working autonomously
  34. 34. Collaborative Virtual Workplace
  35. 35. Lessons Learned • People, and the cultures that influence their behaviors, are the single most critical resource for successful knowledge creation, dissemination, and application. Understand and influence them. • Cognitive, social, and organizational learning processes are essential to the success of a knowledge management strategy strategy. Lets focus our strategy on enhancing these processes. • Measurement, benchmarking, and incentives are essential to accelerate the learning process and to drive cultural change. l h l i d d i l l h Lets create a tailored balanced scorecard to target what y want to improve. you p • Knowledge management programs can yield impressive benefits to individuals and organizations if they are purposeful, concrete and action-oriented. Lets make ours so.
  36. 36. Some Grand Challenges • User, Group and Organization Modeling, including knowledge, beliefs, goals and plans • Universal knowledge access independent of user physical, perceptual and cultural characteristics h t i ti • Organizational strategies for knowledge sharing sh in • Knowledge strategies in global, multicultural enterprises • Security & Access.
  37. 37. Words of “Wisdom” • In times of profound change change, learners inherit the Earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.
  38. 38. REFERENCES • Strategy Peter Senge “Learning Organizations” • Process Takeuchi and Nonaka “Organizational Knowledge Creation” • Benchmarking Norton and Kaplan “Balanced Scorecard” THANK YOU.