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Dr. vora ppt chapter 3 emission control
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Dr. vora ppt chapter 3 emission control

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This is a part of Lecture Series on Automotive Fuels & Emissions for M. Tech Students at ARAI ACADEMY.

This is a part of Lecture Series on Automotive Fuels & Emissions for M. Tech Students at ARAI ACADEMY.

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  • The purpose of this presentation is to promote common electronic presentation format within R&A for all R&A presentations. It is also in response to the directive issued by Nick Scheele on August 27, 2003.

Dr. vora ppt chapter 3 emission control Presentation Transcript

  • 1. EMISSIONSCONTROL INS.I. ENGINES Dr. K. C . Vor a
  • 2. MEASURES TO CONTROL EMISSIONSNon technical control measures:• Good town planning (low sky scappers/satellite cities)• Congestion charges, area licensing scheme, parking charges, phasing out of vehicles, etc.• Proper traffic pattern & road networking (eg. Flyovers)• Public awareness (energy efficient purchase, driving habits, car pooling)• Efficient public transport/transit system (Bus Rapid Transit)• Promote cycling/walking/Bicycle Lanes/2 Wheeler Bridges• Proper maintenance (I&M program: Burari))• Prevent Adulteration of fuels• Living with plants.
  • 3. MEASURES TO CONTROL EMISSIONSTechnical control measures:Clean Fuels / Alternate FuelsOptimal design of enginesOptimization of drive line to improve fuel efficiency `Retrofitment of new technologiesAfter treatment.
  • 4. EMISSION CONTROL DEVELOPMENTON GASOLINE ENGINE FOR THE PAST DECADE
  • 5. EMISSION CONTROL DEVELOPMENTON GASOLINE ENGINE FOR THE NEXT DECADE
  • 6. 3 vs 4 CYL ENGINE CONFIGURATION Bore x Stroke = 77 mm x 84 mm Bore x Stroke = 84 mm x 90 mm 0.375 x 4 = 1.5 ltr 0.5 x 3 = 1.5 ltr 96 884 cyl φ 84 3 cyl φ 77 115 108 375 mm 310 mm Particulars 3 cyl engine characteristics over 4 cyl ( for equivalent total displacement ) Length Lower (better for packaging) No of components Lower Weight Lower Cost Lower (because of reduced no. of components) Friction Lower (because of reduced no. of components) Volumetric efficiency Better (because of larger bore) Combustion Better (because of larger bore) NVH & Stiffer crankcase but poor balancing. Balancing primary & secondary couples will be balanced 8 Based on above, a 3 cylinder configuration is suggested
  • 7. 9
  • 8. BENCH MARKING (Power & Torque) CAR MUV 55 19 0 17 0 CAR-MNC (DI/CRDI/UI) 15 0 13 0 CAR - INDIAN (DI) 110 CAR-INDIAN (IDI) 45 90 70 UTILITY-MNC 50 0. 3 0.35 0.4 UTILITY-INDIAN 0. 45 0. 5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 INITIAL ARAI PROPSpecific Power 35 Li t / Cyl (kW/Ltr) 25 Indian Cars Indian MUVs 15 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 Ltr / Cyl 170 CAR MUV 20 150 18 130 Indian MUVs 16 110 14 BMEP (bar) Specific Torque (Nm/Ltr) 90 12 10 70 8 Indian Cars 50 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 10 Ltr/ Cyl
  • 9. BENCH MARKING (BMEP) 25 World-wide trend of CAR LCV HCV BMEP LDVMaximum bmep 20 15 10 0 0.5 1 2 3 Displacement / Cylinder 170 20 170 150 150 130 16 130 BMEP (bar) 110 110 bmep (bar) 9090 12 7070 50 50 8 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 Vehicles sold in India 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 Ltr / Cyl l Ltr/ C y 11
  • 10. BENCH MARKING (BSFC) World-wide trend 240 CAR / LCV / LDV HCV 220bsfc (g/kWh) 0,5 200 180 0 1 2 3 Displacement / Cylinder 12
  • 11. THE EFFECT OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON EMISSIONS
  • 12. THE EFFECT OF ENGINEMODIFICATIONS ON EMISSIONS
  • 13. Exhaust Gas Recirculation
  • 14. EGR defined
  • 15. CLOSED LOOP ELECTRONIC FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
  • 16. STRATIFIED CHARGED 2-STROKE ENGINE
  • 17. DIRECT FUEL INJECTION
  • 18. AIR ASSISTED FUEL INJECTION
  • 19. OCP 2-STROKE ENGINE
  • 20. Gasoline Direct Injection
  • 21. CARBON CANISTER
  • 22. Catalytic Converter Diesel particulate Filter
  • 23. Technology Options for a Sustainable Environmentally Friendly Mobility
  • 24. Gasoline Engine Technologies•MPFI • precise control of fuel at all operating modes such as acceleration, idling, altitude, high and low temperature operation and enrichment based on load.•3-Way Catalytic Converter • Greatly reduces all three emissions of CO, HC and NOx • Close control of air fuel ratio is required through close loop with lambda sensor•Variable Valve Timing - VVT • Improvement in fuel consumption • optimizes intake and exhaust valve actuation • added torque • reduces internal pumping losses • reduces production of the pollutant Nox•EGR helps to reduce NOx.•OBD helps warning the user ofmalfunctioning of the system and its
  • 25. Gasoline Engine Technology Development •Fuel Cells •Electric/ Electric- •Direct Hybrid BS V ? in-cylinder injection •Multi-brick BSIV catalytic converter •Fuel injection + (CC+UF) catalytic converter (CC/UF) •Lean burn, OBD •Variable EGR BSIII •Variable valve timing •Fuel injection •Multi valve •3-W Catalytic converter (pt/rh) •CNG / LPG BSII •Fixed EGR •CNG / LPG •MPFI System Development BSI •PCV Systems Deve •O2 sensor •Knock Sensor •2-Way/ 3-Way Cat. Con.
  • 26. Thank You….