Dr. vora ppt chapter 1 emission sources


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This is a part of Lecture Series on Automotive Fuels & Emissions for M. Tech Students at ARAI ACADEMY.

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  • The purpose of this presentation is to promote common electronic presentation format within R&A for all R&A presentations. It is also in response to the directive issued by Nick Scheele on August 27, 2003.
  • growing evidence that small particles are a health hazard one example: interaction of particles with red blood cells case 1: "large" particles, 1 um; no interaction with cell / particle cannot penetrate cell membrane case 2: particle in diesel soot size range; cell cannot protect itself against particles penetrating it. in general: tailpipe emitted (soot) particle are too small to be identified as hostile invader by the immune system; no identification -> no protection, no removal -> accumulation in the body
  • growing evidence that small particles are a health hazard one example: interaction of particles with red blood cells case 1: "large" particles, 1 um; no interaction with cell / particle cannot penetrate cell membrane case 2: particle in diesel soot size range; cell cannot protect itself against particles penetrating it. in general: tailpipe emitted (soot) particle are too small to be identified as hostile invader by the immune system; no identification -> no protection, no removal -> accumulation in the body
  • growing evidence that small particles are a health hazard one example: interaction of particles with red blood cells case 1: "large" particles, 1 um; no interaction with cell / particle cannot penetrate cell membrane case 2: particle in diesel soot size range; cell cannot protect itself against particles penetrating it. in general: tailpipe emitted (soot) particle are too small to be identified as hostile invader by the immune system; no identification -> no protection, no removal -> accumulation in the body
  • Dr. vora ppt chapter 1 emission sources

    2. 2. Guess, What is this?
    3. 3. Red Blood Cells Exposed to Particles 1 µm particles 0.078 µm particles Smaller Particles are More Dangerous
    4. 4. Air Quality in Asian Cities is an Issue (Riverside, in California)
    5. 5. MobilityMobility – Movement of people & Material for their LivingMobility – Essential part of Society- One cannot leave itMobility – In the present form leads following issues • Congestion • Inadequate Infrastructure • Noise & Pollution • Dependence on Non- Renewable Resources
    6. 6. Why Sustainable Mobility ? Maintaining the capability to provide non-declining accessibility in timeSustainable Mobility to Add• Economic Growth - Profit• Environment Improvement - Planet• Social Progress - People 3P > Bottom of Pyramid to Sustainability
    7. 7. Global Challenges Requirements for Vehicle FACTS CONSEQUENCES LEGISLATION CUSTOMER Increasing world Development of new Consumption Manufacturing cost population technologies Driving Safety pleasure Increasing Efficient use ofenergy demand energy Operating Emissions cost Limited energy Use of all supplies energy carriers Noise Sound Environmental Use of environment Recycling Resources effects of energy use protecting technologies ENVIRONMENT Main Focus Reduction in Resource Consumption Reduction of CO 2 Emission
    8. 8. World World CO2 Mobility Emission World Population Crude Availability1950 2000 2050 Source: ASPO 2004, Solcomhpouse.com
    9. 9. Factors contributing to Sustainable Mobility
    10. 10. 9,000,0008,000,000Motor vehicle production in India CVs Cars+MUV7,000,000 3W6,000,000 2W5,000,0004,000,0003,000,0002,000,0001,000,000 0 1 7 0 3 6 2 5 1 4 4 9 8 -0 -7 -7 -7 -8 -8 -8 -8 -9 -9 -9 -0 03 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 00 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 19 19 19 19 * Source SIAM
    11. 11. 2 Wheeler Production Scenario in India 12,000,000 10,000,000Total Number 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2000-10 Tw o Wheelers 5,076,221 5,622,741 6,529,829 7,608,697 8,466,666 8,026,681 8,418,626 10,512,889 Year Total 2 wheeler population in India ≈ 91,415,534 Sources: MoRTH & SIAM website
    12. 12. India’s Vehicle Population is Accelerating.… 80 70 60Units (Millions) 50 HDV LCV 40 Pass Cars 30 Motorcycles/Others 20 10 0 2004E 2009P Estimates based on Global Insight (August 2004)
    14. 14. WhatCauses Stationary Sources Mobile SourcesAir • Combustion of • Highway vehicles: cars, fuels for power trucks, buses andPollution and heat motorcycles • Other burning • Off-highway vehiclesToday? such as incineration or such as aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm forest fires equipment, RVs, construction •Industrial/ machinery and lawn commercial mowers processes • Solvents and aerosols
    15. 15. Stationary Mobile Sources SourcesTheExtent COofAir VOCsPolluti NOxon SO2 PM10Today Lead Overall, 54 million metric tons from mobile sources in 1990 (43% of total)
    16. 16. TOTAL EMISSION IN PERCENT BYWEIGHT Vehicel Tr affic Pow er Gener at ion 15.5% 20.1% Ot her Sour ces I ndust r y Dom est ic Em issions 19.1% 37.0% 8.4% Source : Emissions protection report issued by government
    17. 17. Source Apportionment of PM10 Emissions in Mumbai City 7% 0% 19%11% Auto Exhaust Resuspended Dust9% Industries Marine Other Minor Sources Other Major Sources 54% Source: NEERI
    18. 18. Source: OICA
    19. 19. Todays Air Real FuelTheCombustionProcess Pollutants: Unburned Exhaust: Hydrocarbons • Nitrogen Carbon Monoxide(actual) • Water (steam) Oxides of Nitrogen • Carbon Dioxide • Pollutants Other elements or compounds
    20. 20. Refueling Evaporative Losses EmissionsTheMotorVehicle asa Sourceof AirPollution Exhaust Crankcase Emissions Losses, etc.
    22. 22. AN EARLY 1904 CARTON
    23. 23. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS Different Pollutants have Different Effects:  Carbon Monoxide - circulatory system, heart  VOCs - URTI, global warming.  NOx - lungs, global warming, acid rain.  Ozone - respiratory system, lungs  Lead - nervous system, brain  PM - lung, potential effects on heart  Diesel, Air Toxics - cancer, respiratory effects  There are potential effects of the Mixture  Carbon Dioxide & Carbon Particles - climate change
    24. 24. HEALTH EFFECTS Some Populations more sensitive than others • Children • Elderly • people with heart and lung disease Asthma is growing • 150 million asthmatics worldwide • Increasing in most countries (2% to 5% per year) • Asthmatics much more sensitive to air pollution Source: Health Effects Institute
    25. 25. Health effects of Air Premature mortality due to air pollution, Pollution : India by region of the world  India projected to (Projected Annual Averages for 2001-2020) suffer nearly one1000 million premature Premature Deaths thousands per year 900 deaths per year due to 800 950 air pollution (ambient 700 600 and indoor), with 500 children most affected. 400 300 200  India is major source 100 of global PM, NOx and 0 mercury emissions— Latin America & East Asia-Pacific SubSaharan Africa China South Asia Established Market Former Socialist Middle East India Crescent Economies Caribbean Economies contributor to• Source: World Bank, Health and Environment, Strategy Series Number “Atmospheric Brown 1, October 2001 Cloud” over Indian Ocean
    26. 26. CARBON MONOXIDE EFFECTS Odorless, colourless & poisonous gas. Caused by incomplete combustion of fuel and air Most of it comes from motor vehicles CO causes dizziness & vomiting sensation. CO reacts with Hb (haemoglobin) in blood to give carboxy- haemoglobin (CO Hb) which makes Hb unavailable for O2 transport, thus blocking transport of oxygen to heart and brain Affects mental functions & visibility more severely even at low levels Accelerates angina (chest pain) coronary artery disease Known to cause death at high levels of exposure
    28. 28. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS(VOCS) EFFECTS• General term for a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds• VOCs result from combustion processes and evaporation of gasoline vapors, solvents, etc.• They contribute to Global WarmingIt leads to cold, cough & upper respiratory track infection• Carcinogenic effects on lung tissues.
    29. 29. NOx EFFECTS• NO reacts with atmospheric O2 and produce NO2, which is an insidious poisonous reddish brown gas.• NOx results from high temperature combustion processes, e.g. cars and utilities- Reacts with moisture in lungs to form Nitric acid.- Affects respiratory systems causing bronchitis, pneumonia and lung inflections.- Visibility reduction.- Contribute to acid rain.• They play a major role in atmospheric reactions• Overall levels unchanged but transportation sources are cleaner
    30. 30. Photochemical smog reactants emitted by automobiles:• hydrocarbons (HC) evaporative losses (from the fuel system) incomplete combustion• oxides of nitrogen (NOx) high-temperature (∼ 2000 K) combustion in air
    31. 31. HOW SMOG IS FORMED ?Note : This ozone should not be confused with the layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere, which helps shielding us from ultraviolet light. (Courtesy U.S.E.P.A.)
    32. 32. OZONE HEALTH EFFECTSVOCs react with NOX in presence of sunlight and form Ozone leading to photochemical smog leading to :- Visibility reduction. - Watering and irritation of eyes. - ENT irritation. - Respiratory problems. - Chemical damage to rubber, clothing, paint and exposed surfaces. - Damage to crops.The ozone problem is the one affecting the most people today: Known to cause inflammation in respiratory tract Reduces ability to breathe (lung function) for some people Increases hospitalization for asthma, other lung diseases Effects have been demonstrated for short term, long term effects are less certain , some people appear to develop “tolerance”
    33. 33. LEAD HEALTH EFFECTS Long known as one of the worst toxics in common use Emitted from gasoline additives, battery factories and non- ferrous smelters Affects various organs and can cause sterility and neurological impairment, e.g. retardation and behavioral disorders Infants and children especially susceptible Control of mobile sources has been exceptionally successful At low doses, lead is associated with • nerve damage in fetuses and infants • learning deficits • lowered Intelligence Quota (IQ) Excessive exposure can severely damage nervous system
    34. 34. • This term is used for a number of compounds containing sulfurSulfur • Primarily caused by burning of coal, oil and variousDioxid industrial processes • They can affect thee respiratory system(SO2) • They react in the atmosphere to form acids, sulfates and sulfites • Substantial reductions due to controls at the sources and through use of low sulfur fuels
    35. 35. • Carbon dioxide • ChlorofluorocarbonsOther • FormaldehydeAir • BenzenePollutant • Asbestoss • Manganese • Dioxins • Cadmium • Still others which are yet to be fully characterized
    36. 36. AIR TOXICS HEALTH EFFECTS Benzene • 1,3 Butadiene  levels of exposure a  a product of function of how much combustion benzene, aromatics in  vehicles the major the fuel environmental source  a “known human a  a “probable” or carcinogen” “known” human  studies in U.S. and carcinogen Chinese workers have  studies in laboratory shown link between animals and US and exposure and Czech workers have increased leukemia shown effects Source: Health Effects Institute
    37. 37. AIR TOXICS HEALTH EFFECTS II Aldehydes  PAHs • emitted from vehicles • polycyclic aromatic and other sources; also Hydrocarbons formed in the air • many different toxic • Many different compounds • known or probable aldehydes carcinogens (acetaldehyde, • Much higher levels formaldehyde, others) from “high emitters” • most are probable • maintained vehicles human carcinogens = lower emissions • also can be nose and respiratory irritants Source: Health Effects Institute
    38. 38. • PM10 is a general term for tiny airborne particles (under ten microns), e.g., dust, soot,Particulat smoke • Primary sources are fuel-burninge plants and other industrial/ commercial processesMatter • Some are formed in the air(PM10) • They irritate the respiratory system and may also carry metals, sulfates, nitrates, etc. • Some overall decreases seen but trends may be masked by meteorological changes
    39. 39. PM HEALTH EFFECTS High levels of PM (e.g. 500 ug /m3) known to cause premature death  e.g. London 1952 Recent studies in US, Europe, Asia, South America have found association of PM with death at much lower levels  no evidence of a “threshold” (safe level) To date, a plausible biological mechanism for these effects has not been found Source: Health Effects Institute
    40. 40. PM HEALTH EFFECTS–INDIA & THAILANDSource: Chhabra 2001, Pande 2001, Vichit-Vadakan 2001 Source: Health Effects Institute
    41. 41. PM HEALTH EFFECTS Recent Re-analyses by HEI have generally confirmed the results of key studies WHO, EPA and others have estimated effects on mortality WHO analysis (Lancet, 2000) estimated 20,000 annual deaths due to traffic pollution in 3 countries ( (France, Austria & Switzerland)  New WHO global estimate underway Much work underway to understand effects of PM “components” (e.g. ultrafines, metals, chemicals on particles)
    42. 42. DIESEL HEALTH EFFECTS Diesel engines have substantial advantages • higher fuel efficiency • lower CO and CO2 emissions However, they also emit high levels of : • particulate matter, NOx, and chemicals attached particulate matter,(e.g. PAHs) Two major types of health effects : • acute effects (e.g. exacerbating asthma) • cancer effects Source: Health Effects Institute
    43. 43. DIESEL RISK ASSESSMENT TODAY Many Agencies have reviewed • Most (WHO, IARC, US) have concluded diesel a “probable human carcinogen” • California calculated unit risk per 1 ug /m3 of exposure: • 3 excess cancer deaths in 10,000 people (3x10 -4) • US EPA 2000 draft risk assessment : • A range of risk (10-3 to 10-5) Source: Health Effects Institute
    44. 44. SMALLER PARTICLES ARE MOREDANGEROUSRed Blood Cells Exposed to Particles 1 µm particles 0.078 µm particles
    45. 45. DEPTH OF LUNG PENETRATIONOF COARSE & FINE PARTICLE PRESEPARATOR ( 10 µm and above) Stage 0 (9.0 µm – 10.0 µm ) COARSE Stage 1 (5.8 µm – 9.0 µm ) Pharynx Stage 2 (4.7 µm – 5.8 µm ) Trachea & primary bronchi Stage 3 (3.3 µm – 4.7µm ) Secondary bronchi Stage 4 (2.1µm – 3.3 µm ) Terminal bronchi Stage 5 (1.1 µm – 2.1µm ) Alveoli Stage 6 (0.65 µm – 1.1µm) FINE Alveoli Stage 7 (0.43 µm – 0.65 µm ) Stage 8 (0.003 µm- 0.43 µm)
    46. 46. POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF PM FROM S.I. ENGINES• Nano particles below 50 nm Dia. penetrate deep into the interstitial tissue of the lung, causing respiratory inflammation and pulmonary toxicity. Particles which are not toxic in micron sizes may be toxic as nano particles.• S.I. Engines have lower particulate mass & number compared to C.I. Engines. However, since number of S.I. Engines exceed C.I. Engines, S.I. Engines have high potential to contribute particulate emission inventory, especially from the 2-wheelers.• PM from S.I. Engines are more due to oil and not due to fuel. Hence, called as O–PM, G-PM or EM (Emitted Matter)
    47. 47. HEALTH EFFECTS OFNANOPARTICLES• Origin of inflammatory processes• Functional impairment of the lung• Increased risk of heart attack• Systemic effects in the whole body via the blood• Carcinogenic effects• Increase in sudden deaths
    48. 48. Composition of Exhaust gas from Gasoline-engine duringoperation at lambda = 1 Misc (Noble Nitrous Oxide gases, oxygen, (NOx) hydorgen Water (H2O) 0.1% 0.7% 13.1% Hydro Carbon Dioxide carbons (HC) (CO2) 0.2% 13.7% Particulates 0.005% Pollutants Carbon Monoxide(CO) 0.7% Nitrogen (N2) 71.5%
    49. 49. What is greenhouse effect? The Greenhouse Effect is an extremely vital process where INFRARED (IR) rays from the sun come into the Earth atmosphere. The atmosphere then traps these rays after they have come in (like the glass in a greenhouse) keeping the Earth warm. CO2 (carbon dioxide), NO(nitrous oxide), and CH4(methane) are destroying the atmosphere,
    50. 50.  causing more INFRARED (IR) rays to reflect on Earth.
    51. 51. Problems with greenhouseeffect. Having more infrared rays reflected on Earth makes the Earth warmer. As temperatures on Earth rise, so does the ocean water level and the ice caps begin to melt. The worst possible problem would be mass flooding in low lying areas of the Earth including many islands in the ocean which would basically disappear.
    52. 52. Cause of greenhouse effect--population growth  These advances are causing the worlds population to double at a much faster rate than ever before.
    53. 53.  . Today, the worlds population is doubling in 35 to 40 year. As the human population grows, pollution from human activity also increases. Many activities--such as driving automobiles, farming, manufacturing are causing much pollutants.
    54. 54. EFFECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE Transport a significant contributor;  More than 30% of CO2 Growing evidence that carbon soot also a significant contributor  absorbs sun and heat  diesel a major source Transport contribution likely to grow with rapid motorization. Source: Health Effects Institute
    55. 55. Air Quality Concerns : India  India is the sixth largest and second fastest growing emitter of Green House Gases (GHGs)Annual Black Carbon Emissions in 106 kg/year/1ox1o grid Source: USEPA
    57. 57. CO 2 EMISSIONA look At Per Capita Consumption
    58. 58. TRENDS IN CO 2 EMISSIONSFrom Energy use in the LeadingAutomotive Markets (World), 2002
    59. 59. KEY TO EARLIER SLIDE • Size of the bubble is determined by the total CO2 emissions from energy use in different sectors of the respective nations. The bigger the size of the bubble, the greater the CO2 emisions from a country. • Includes the CO2 emissions from energy use in different sectors and the trasportation sector is one of the major constituents of this segment for the year 2002. • Motor vehicle penetration is per 1,000 people for the year 2002. • Percent share refers to the individual share of a country in the total global demand for motor vehicels in 2002.The transportation sector accounts for 30.0 % of CO2 emissions in theindustrialized economics of the OECD (Organization for EconomicCooperation and Development) and about 20.0 % worldwide. Source : OECD, IMF and Frost & Sullivan
    61. 61. Agreement with EU and ACEA on Fleet Average220210200 ACEA Fleet Average till 1995190180 185170 ACEA 165160 140 g/km in 2008150 25 % reduction from 1995140 Target in 2003 140 165-170 g/km- M1 Vehicles130120 Target in 2012 120 120 g/km110100 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
    62. 62. RECENT CARBON CONTENT INITIATIVES (WORLD), 2005-15 Country / Initiatives RegionEU • Voluntary commitment from the automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in passenger cars by 25.0 percent relative to 1995 levels by 2008. • Emission rates are expected to be brought down to a level of 140 g CO2 / km traveled (or 39 mpg) • Depending on early progress, ACEA (European Automobile Manufactures Association) may extend the target to 120 g CO 2 / km (or 46 mpg) by 2012Japan • Fuel economy improvements in passenger cars to the extent of 23.0 % relative to 1995 levels by 2010 • Specific targets vary with vehicle weight but extend to 125 g CO 2 / km (or 44 mpg)Canada • The government has proposed a target for improving vehicle fuel efficiency by 25.0 % by 2010Australia • Voluntary commitment to improve fuel economy by 18.0 % by 2010United • California Air Resources Board (CARB) intends to bring down theStates GHG emissions from the light-duty vehicle fleet by 17.0% in 2020(California) and by 25.0% in 2030
    63. 63. CO 2 Reduction Time Table & Target ACEA – Agreement signed with EC in 1998 for CO2 targets.  2003 Intermediate target range – 165 ~ 170 g/km  2008 target – 140 g/km  2012 target – 120 g/km  JAMA Agreement with EC  2003 Intermediate target range – 165 ~ 175 g/km  2009 target – 140 g/km  2015 target – 125 g/km KAMA Agreement with EC  2004 Intermediate target range – 165 ~ 175 g/km  2009 target – 140 g/km. New Target Proposed in 2007 in European Parliament  Year 2015 – 125g CO2/km  Year 2020 – 95 g CO2/km  Year 2025 – 70g CO2/km
    64. 64. Global Review Europe & Japan continue to lead the world with the most stringent passenger vehicle GHG & FE standards. Japan standards are expected to lead to the lowest fleet average GHG emissions in the world (125g CO2/km by 2015). California passenger vehicle regulations are expected to achieve the greatest overall reduction in GHG emission in the world. U.S. passenger vehicle standards continue to lag behind other nations but could move ahead of Canada, Australia, South Korea, & California by 2020 with passage of U.S. senate bill. South Korea is the only nation in the world with standard in place that is expected to have rising GHG emissions from passenger vehicles.
    65. 65. CO2 emissions VS engine type
    66. 66. POTENTIAL FOR REDUCINGGHGSFrom Vehicles Technology / Biofuels /Mobility
    67. 67. CO 2 EMISSIONSConventional & AlternativeTechnology
    68. 68. Well-to-Tank Tank-to-Wheels Generation Transmission 31% Plug-to-Wheels 23% 33% 94% 76% 31% 76% = 23% Refining Transmission Pump-to-Wheels 82% 98% 16% 13% 80%Source: http://www.nesea.org 80% 16% = 13%
    69. 69. WELL TO WHEEL CARBON EMISSIONS 3Fuel Cell (H2 from Renewable Resources) 48 Fuel Cell (H2 from Natural Resources) 55 Fuel Cell (Gasoline) 40 Diesel Hybrid Gasoline Hybrid 48 Advanced Diesel 55 Advanced Gasoline ICE 70 Conventional ICE 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
    71. 71. Today Tomorrow Hydrogen Technology Hybrid / EV Technology Alternative Fuels Improvement of Conventional Fuels Conventional Veh. Technology for higer Fuel Eff.
    72. 72. Automotive Industry Fuel Industry Improve Fuel Efficiency Environmentally Reduce Emissions friendly fuelsAlternative drive systems Customer Regulators Fuel-saving Relevant framework ways of driving Appropriate infrastructure
    73. 73. Need for an IntegratedApproachInvolving All Stakeholders
    75. 75. LOOKING AHEAD: TRENDS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR CONTROL In reducing the health effects from vehicle emissions, one fact is clear:  Even if the emissions from each vehicle and its fuel are reduced,,  the use of vehicles will increase,  vehicles will age and need maintenance..  This can offset, in whole or in part, the pollution reductions and health benefits if careful planning is not done
    76. 76. CONCLUSIONS Vehicle effects on health result from both engine emissions and fuel In general, as economies develop, vehicles will contribute 25% to 40 % of most pollutants more for some pollutants and in urban settings There are a variety of health effects caused by vehicle emissions, including cancer, premature death, and increased hospitalization Also a significant contributor to climate change With increasing travel, health effects will only be reduced with continual improvement in fuels, emissions controls, and better maintenance Introduction of Environment Friendly Technologies like Fuel Cells, Electric/Electric-Hybrid Use of renewable fuels for toxic and Green House Gas Emission Control
    77. 77. Thank You….