A Guide to Landscaping with Native Plants in the Barnegat Bay Watershed

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A Guide to Landscaping with Native Plants in the Barnegat Bay Watershed

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A Guide to Landscaping with Native Plants in the Barnegat Bay Watershed

  1. 1. A Guide to Landscaping with Native Plants in the Barnegat Bay WatershedWhat are native plants? Why should INative plants have evolved over thousands grow them?of years to be adapted to conditions in a To enjoy beautiful, hardy plants!particular region and to the other plants and Natives thrive in our local climate and soil andanimals around them. have natural defenses to plant diseases, harmful insects, and other pests.How can I choose the To save time and money! Well-adapted tobest plants for my yard? local conditions, natives require less water andUse the chart inside to guide you in selecting fertilizer than non-natives, and are less likely tothe native plants best suited to the growing need pesticides.conditions in your yard. You will also want to To bring in the birds and butterflies! Nativesconsider plant height, flower color, bloom time, provide essential food, shelter, and nesting sitesand wildlife value when making your selections. for native wildlife. To improve water quality! Native plant roots hold soil in place, increase infiltration of rainwater into the ground, and filter pollutants from our water. Since natives need less fertilizer, they help reduce the quantity of fertilizer that stormwater can carry into our waterways and the Barnegat Bay.
  2. 2. SAMPLE DESIGNS FOR A NATIVE PLANT GARDEN Native Plant Garden for Sunny Locations 8 feet 12 feet Native Plant Garden for Shady Locations 12 feet
  3. 3. SHRUBS & TREESPHOTO NAME HEIGHT FLOWERS LIGHT SOIL WILDLIFE NOTES Common & Scientific Bloom Time & Color Moisture & Type American Holly MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT evergreen; pyramid shape; 15’ - 40’ Ilex opaca small, white C L red berries in Oct. Arrowwood MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – blue-black berries in Sept.; 5’- 10’ Viburnum dentatum flat white clusters L SO red fall foliage Beach Plum MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT edible purplish-black fruit in 4’ - 15’ Prunus maritima white clusters L S Aug.; good for jelly; tolerates salt Buttonbush MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – ball-shaped clusters of fragrant 6’ - 10’ Cephalanthus occidentalis creamy white C L SO flowers; tolerates wet areas Eastern Red Cedar MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT evergreen; blue fruit loved by 25’ - 50’ Juniperus virginiana green or yellow C L S birds; drought-tolerant Eastern Redbud MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT one of the earliest bloomers; 20’ - 35’ Cercis canadensis magenta L S drought-resistant Highbush Blueberry MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – blueberries July- Aug.; red fall 4’ - 10’ Vaccinium corymbosum white- pinkish L SO color; add organic matter to soil Inkberry Holly MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT evergreen; black berries in Sept. 4’ - 10’ Ilex glabra small, greenish- white C L SO on female plants Mountain Laurel MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – evergreen; nice addition to 8’-12’ Kalmia latifolia white to pink C L SO woodland garden Ninebark MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – domed flower clusters; 4’ - 8’ Physocarpus opulifolius white to pink C L likes sandy soil waxy bluish-white berries in Northern Bayberry MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – 2’ - 8’ Sept.; plants will sucker and form Morella pensylvanica small, yellow-green C L S colonies Red Chokeberry MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – red fruit in Sept. persists through 6’ - 10’ Photinia pyrifolia clusters of white C L S winter; great red fall color Red Twig Dogwood MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – bright red stems for winter 8’ - 12’ Cornus sericea white L interest River Birch MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – attractive exfoliating bark; 40’ - 60’ Betula nigra brown C L can grow on flood-prone land Shadbush or MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – one of the earliest bloomers; Serviceberry 35’ - 50’ small, white C L S red to purple fruit in July Amelanchier canadensis Sweet Pepperbush MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – brown seed heads Sept.-Feb.; 5’ - 8’ Clethra alnifolia white C L S deer-resistant Sweetbay Magnolia MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – fragrant flowers; tolerates 12’ - 30’ Magnolia virginiana creamy white C L S flooding and salt Sweetspire MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – 4’ - 8’ fragrant flowers; good fall color Itea virginica white C L S Winged Sumac MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT dark red fruit persists over 8’ - 15’ Rhus copallinum yellowish green C L S winter; great fall color Winterberry Holly MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – red berries Oct.-Dec. on female 4’ - 10’ Ilex verticillata small, white C L SO plants
  4. 4. HERBACEOUS PERENNIALSPHOTO NAME HEIGHT FLOWERS LIGHT SOIL WILDLIFE NOTES Common & Scientific Bloom Time & Color Moisture & Type Bee Balm 24” - 48” – MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Monarda didyma fragrant flowers and foliage pink to red L Black-Eyed Susan 12”- 36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Rudbeckia hirta long bloom time yellow C L Blazing Star 12”- 36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Liatris spicata drought-tolerant purple spikes C L S Butterfly Weed 12”- 36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT favorite food of Monarch Asclepias tuberosa orange L S butterflies; attractive seedpods Cardinal Flower 24”- 48” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – intense red color attracts Lobelia cardinalis red C L hummingbirds Columbine 6”- 36” unique, showy two-toned MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Aquilegia canadensis flowers; good in woodland red to yellow L gardens; spreads by seed Common Boneset 36”- 60” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – flat top flower clusters attract Eupatorium perfoliatum butterflies; popular herb; good white C L S for wet site False Sunflower 36”- 60” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT attractive daisy-like flower with Heliopsis helianthoides yellow L S a long bloom time Foamflower 12”- 24” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT interesting foliage; great choice Tiarella cordifolia spikes of white L for a shade garden Foxglove Beardtongue 24”- 60” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Penstemon digitalis tolerates poor drainage white to pink C L S Great Blue Lobelia 12”- 36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – interesting, long-blooming blue Lobelia siphilitica blue spike C L S flowers Joe-Pye Weed 12”- 96” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – large plant that needs space; Eupatoriadelphus fistulosum pink-purple C L tolerates wet areas Mistflower 12”- 42” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – flat clusters of fuzzy flowers are Conoclinium coelestinum an excellent nectar source; can blue to violet C L spread quickly New England Aster 18”- 72” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT Symphyotrichum pinch to keep plant compact novae-angliae blue to violet L Pink Tickseed 18”- 24” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT deer-resistant; can spread Coreopsis rosea pink L S quickly Purple Coneflower 24”- 36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT popular herb; goldfinches love Echinacea purpurea purple-pink C L S its seeds Rosemallow 36” - 72” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – large two-toned flowers; can Hibiscus moscheutos tolerate fresh or brackish tidal cream and pink C L marsh Seaside Goldenrod 12”-72” Solidago sempervirens MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT thrives in coastal areas; yellow L S tolerates salt, sand, and drought Sneezeweed 18”- 60” Helenium autumnale MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT interesting flower; can tolerate yellow C L S wet areas
  5. 5. HERBACEOUS PERENNIALSPHOTO NAME HEIGHT FLOWERS LIGHT SOIL WILDLIFE NOTES Common & Scientific Bloom Time & Color Moisture & Type Swamp Milkweed 36”- 60” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – attracts butterflies (especially Asclepias incarnata Monarchs); can tolerate wet pink C L areas, unlike butterfly weed White Turtlehead 18”-36” MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – flower looks like turtle’s head; Chelone glabra will spread; good in a shade white C L S garden Wild Bergamot 18”- 60” Monarda fistulosa MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT fragrant flowers and foliage; pink to purple C L can spread GRASSESPHOTO NAME HEIGHT FLOWERS LIGHT SOIL WILDLIFE NOTES Common & Scientific Bloom Time & Color Moisture & Type American Beachgrass 1’ - 3.5’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT can grow in sand; spreads Ammophila breviligulata L S rapidly by rhizomes Coastal Panicgrass 4’ - 6’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT blue-green leaves; tolerates salt Panicum amarum L S and sandy soil Little Bluestem 2’ - 4’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT exceptional drought tolerance; Schizachyrium scoparium very ornamental; turns bronze- green to reddish tan L S orange after frost Prairie Cordgrass 4’ - 6’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – can get quite tall; good for Spartina pectinata shore areas; tolerates fresh and L brackish tidal flooding Saltmeadow 1’ - 3’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – can spread rapidly; tolerates Cordgrass C L S wet areas Spartina patens Switchgrass 3’ - 6’ MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT – – bunch grass with great fall Panicum virgatum green to brown to rose C L S color; tolerates wet areas KEYLIGHT.............................................................................................................................................................................. WILDLIFE Butterflies Shade = less than 3 hours of direct sunlight a day, or filtered sunlight Hummingbirds Partial shade = approximately 3 to 6 hours of direct sunlight a day Songbirds Full sun = at least 6 hours of direct sunlight a day Beneficial InsectsSOIL CONDITIONS – Moisture .................................................................................................................................... The beneficial insect icon includes bees – – and other pollinators, as well as ladybugs and other insects that help to control pests. Dry = water does not remain after a rain HERBACEOUS PERENNIAL Moist = soil is damp, and occasionally saturated A non-woody plant that lives for more than Wet = soil is saturated, except during droughts two years. It dies back at the end of each growing season, then re-emerges eachSOIL CONDITIONS – Type ........................................................................................................................................... spring from the root stock.C L SO PHOTO CREDITS Organic soil (contains a high percentage of organic matter such as decayed leaves) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://plants.usda.gov Sandy or coarse-textured soil Loamy or medium-textured soil (contains a mix of mostly silt and sand) Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/ Clay or fine-textured soil your-garden/plant-finder.aspx
  6. 6. USEFUL RESOURCES American Littoral Society www.littoralsociety.org/Bayscape_for_Barnegat_Bay.aspx (Bayscape for Barnegat Bay Program) Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve www.bhwp.org/resources/Gardening-with-Natives.htm (Gardening with Natives) Native Plant Society of New Jersey http://npsnj.org (Lists of Native Plants and Nurseries) New Jersey Department of www.state.nj.us/dep/parksandforests/forest/njfs_frep.html Environmental Protection (NJ Forest Nursery) Forest Resource Education Center New Jersey Pinelands Commission www.nj.gov/pinelands/infor/yard (Landscaping/Backyard Habitat) Ocean County Soil Conservation www.soildistrict.org District (Soil Conservation and Soil Health; “Low Maintenance Landscaping for the Barnegat Bay Watershed: A Guide for Ocean County Homeowners”) Pinelands Preservation Alliance www.pinelandsalliance.org/ecology/plants/pinelandsnativeplants (Pinelands Native Plant Resources) Rutgers Cooperative Extension www.water.rutgers.edu (Water Resources Program – rain gardens) http://ocean.njaes.rutgers.edu/garden (RCE and Master Gardeners of Ocean County) United States Department of http://plants.usda.gov Agriculture Natural Resources (Plants Database) Conservation Service (USDA NRCS) United States Forest Service www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/nativegardening/index.shtml (Native Gardening) SEE A LIST OF NATIVE PLANT NURSERIES AND SUPPLIERS on the Barnegat Bay Partnership’s website, http://bbp.ocean.edu. © 2012 Barnegat Bay Partnership • bbp.ocean.edu • PO Box 2001 • Toms River, NJ 08754 For additional copies of this publication, email Barnegat Bay Partnership at bbp@ocean.edu. This publication is based on “Native Plant Demonstration Garden,” published in 2006 by the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary (http://delawareestuary.org) and the Delaware Sea Grant College Program (www.deseagrant.org/products/native-plant-demonstration-garden-plant-guide). COVER PHOTO: Garden photo by Don Knezik. INSET PHOTOS (l. to r.): Bird photo by Raymond Truelove (iStockphoto.com). Butterfly photo by Edward Teune (Wikipedia Commons). Hummingbird photo by Joe Schneid (Wikipedia Commons). Bee photo by Hannah Gaines, provided courtesy of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ABOVE PHOTO: Black-Eyed Susans photo by Joseph Pirozek.Printed on paper from FSC-Certified Mixed Sources, including well-managed This message has been funded by the USEPA under a Clean Water Act grantforests, recycled fiber, chlorine-free pulp, and other controlled sources. agreement to Ocean County College and has not undergone USEPA review.

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