Multimedia Communications Telemedia Technology towards Ubiquitous Seamless Multimedia Communications
Multimedia Communications: Staff <ul><li>KOM I Dr.-Ing. M.Hollick (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. A.König </li></u...
Topics <ul><li>Communication Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP based Telephony  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context Aware C...
KOM III: P2P Networking - Shaping the Future of P2P Quorum of trusted peers A B 2 3 1 issue tokens 4 service delivery toke...
KOM III: P2P Networking - Shaping the Future of P2P A B C D E G H I J K F search query Location-based Search Efficiency fo...
KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Accountability  <ul><li>Accounting for P2P: Controlled Exchange of Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Att...
Research Challenges: Quality Properties  (English) Costs Security Quality of P2P Systems Trust Adaptivity Efficiency Valid...
KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Quality Properties  (German) Aufwand Sicherheit Qualität von P2P-Systemen Lokalisierbarkeit Kohärenz...
KOM III: Location-based Search and P2P <ul><li>Location-aware services… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are highly attractive for  e...
KOM III: A P2P Overlay for Location-based Search <ul><li>GLOBASE  ( G eographical  LO cation- BA sed  SE arch): </li></ul>...
KOM III: Simulation of Large Scale P2P Networks <ul><li>Size of P2P Systems = more then 1 million peers </li></ul><ul><li>...
KOM III: Evaluation of P2P (Overlay) Networks Trade-offs Mechanisms CANdemila Metrics 0 1 2 3 4 5 100 0 200 300 500 400 ms...
<ul><li>How can efficiency be increased? Are current overlays perfect? </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to increase the efficiency:...
KOM III: Research Agenda for Improving Efficiency <ul><li>Improve resource (bandwidth) utilization in each individual node...
KOM III: Issues at P2P (Overlay) Networks Underlay Networks Overlay network 1. Efficient Mapping 2. Heterogeneity 5. Depen...
KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Overlays <ul><li>Design principles of  Overlay Networks  </li></ul><ul><li>Macro Level </li></ul><ul...
KOM III: Location Aware Services and P2P <ul><li>Location-aware services… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are highly attractive for ...
KOM III: Example CamNet Application <ul><li>P2P Network of webcams supporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata-based search:...
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TU Darmstadt - KOM - P2P Group Overview 2006

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  • Kalman is Dipl.-Math. Dipl.-Inf. K.Graffi
  • Instead of „Overlay Networks“ – design of overlay networks Add: simulation of a large scale peer-to-peer networks Remove: security in p2p networks Question: Economic&amp;accounting? Those separately? Impoved Scientific Methods? What does it mean? Applications and scenarios? I think we shoudl discuss about it because it should really very noticeable represent what we are working, not general and fuzzy.
  • This will stay?
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  • This + referenz szenarien should be one slide
  • Es stellt sich nun die Frage, mit welchen Mitteln ich die Effizienz von P2P Systemen verbessern möchte. Dazu möchte ich den aktuellen Stand in Peer-to-Peer Forschung beschreiben. Momentane Forschung betrachtet Peer-to-Peer Netze als einen Graphen. (Beispiel. Chord, Can, Gnutella, Kademlia) Dabei wird aber etwas entschiedenes wegabstrahiert: Die Heterogenität der Peers, der Links und der Nachrichten Mein Ansatz besteht darin die Heterogenität in das Modell zu integrieren und dann gezielt die Engpässe anzugehen. Z.B. ist die Uploadbandbreite in heutigen Netzen für gewöhnlich der entscheidende Engpass. Overlays wie Chord, Can und Kademlia berücksichtigen diese Attribute aber in ihrem System nicht. So dass es vorkommen kann, dass die Ressourcenallokation im Netzwerk ineffizient ist. Rechner mit wenig Bandbreite sind dann evtl. für stark nachgefragte Objekte verantwortlich. Nun kann man gezielt die identifizierten Engpässe angehen und Lösungen entwickeln, um diese aufzulösen.
  • Effizienzverbesserungen untersuche ich dabei auf 3 Ebenen. Zum einen in dem Peer selbst. Dort wird überprüft, wie die vorhandenen Ressourcen bestmöglich genutzt werden können. Im nächsten Schritt betrachte ich dann die Ressourcenallokation im Overlay, dabei untersuche ich, welches Peer welche Ressourcen in welchem Umfang beisteuern muss, damit die Last fair aber auch effizient verteilt wird. Im letzten Schritt werde ich dann die Wechselwirkung mit dem darunteliegenden IP Netzwerk betrachten. P2P Traffic dominiert in der heutigen Zeit das Internet, 70-80% des gesamten Traffics ist auf P2P Applikationen zurückzuführen. Es ist somit auch wichtig zu untersuchen, wie dieser Traffic gesenkt werden kann und welche Strategien zum Behandeln von P2P Traffic Internet Service Provider verfolgen können. Meine Ergebnisse aus dem Forschungspunkten 1 und 2 werden ich in KOMs P2P Simulator umsetzen und evaluieren
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  • TU Darmstadt - KOM - P2P Group Overview 2006

    1. 1. Multimedia Communications Telemedia Technology towards Ubiquitous Seamless Multimedia Communications
    2. 2. Multimedia Communications: Staff <ul><li>KOM I Dr.-Ing. M.Hollick (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. A.König </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. J.Schmitt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F.Leipold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.N. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KOM II Dr.-Ing. M.Hollick (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. T.Krop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P.S. Mogre (M.Tech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M.Sc. Dipl.-Ing. M.Kropff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KOM III </li></ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. N.Liebau (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr.-Ing. O.Heckmann </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Math. Dipl.-Ing. K.Graffi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Ing. A.Kovacevic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. K.Pussep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KOM IV Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Inform. R.Berbner (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. J.Eckert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Inform. N.Repp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MInfTech, Dipl.-Oec. S.Schulte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Math. L.A.Turczyk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.N. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Governance & Innovation Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. W. Johannsen </li></ul><ul><li>KOM V Dr.-Ing. C.Rensing (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr.-Ing. A.Faatz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Ing. A.Aqqual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Ing. S.Bergsträsser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. T.Hildebrandt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also (head system+nw admin) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M.Sc. Doreen Mann </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. P.Scholl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. S.Tittel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipl.-Inf. B.Zimmermann </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KOM X (Feb.2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.-Ing. Markus Fidler (head) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.N. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L.Kolb (Secretary, Assistant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.N. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M.Ehlhardt (Admin. & Secr.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.Kräh (Finance & Admin.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M.Jayme (Network- & Sys-Adm.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.Jöst (Network- & Sys-Adm.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K.Schork-Jakobi (Design) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Director: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Dr.-Ing. R.Steinmetz </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Topics <ul><li>Communication Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP based Telephony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context Aware Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Telephony Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT Architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-oriented Architectures (SoA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Service Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service (QoS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Creation, Management & Usage in E-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring Support in E-Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurposing of E-Learning Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-layer Optimization in Wireless Mesh Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependable Routing in Ad hoc, Cellular, and Mesh Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid Architectures for Ad hoc and Cellular Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Concepts in Mobile Ad hoc Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-organization in Ad hoc and Mesh Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service in Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of IP based Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Calculus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Mechanisms for Internet Service Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications and Scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting in Peer-to-Peer Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics in Peer-to-Peer Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service for Peer-to-Peer Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security in Peer-to-Peer Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Scientific Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security in Ad Hoc Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security in Peer-to-Peer Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Telephony Integration </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. KOM III: P2P Networking - Shaping the Future of P2P Quorum of trusted peers A B 2 3 1 issue tokens 4 service delivery token transfer Account holder control/avoid double spending Selected via reputation system 1. 2. prevent forgery Service Delivery Overlay Connection Overlay X Scenario User Behaviour Token-based Accounting Evaluation of P2P Overlay Networks <ul><li>Chord </li></ul><ul><li>Kademlia </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>If you are interested in shaping the future of P2P, contact: [email_address] Enabling commercial P2P applications e.g. in Health Care Which is the best Overlay? KOM P2P Simulator
    5. 5. KOM III: P2P Networking - Shaping the Future of P2P A B C D E G H I J K F search query Location-based Search Efficiency for Rescue Operations Optimize resource usage in peers Balance resource allocation in overlay Investigate strategy to cope with P2P traffic P2P communication in rescue operations Modeling of a P2P Overlay Closest Italian restaurant? P2P = up-to-date information If you are interested in shaping the future of P2P, contact: [email_address] Efficient Search in Surrounding A B C D E F G H I J K
    6. 6. KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Accountability <ul><li>Accounting for P2P: Controlled Exchange of Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute resource usage to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using tokens in transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed token scheme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take into account forgery & double spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and implement an accounting infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content Distribution Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of multimedia content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale infrastructures supporting file transfer and streaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment and production service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Management – Managing Digital Media Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CMS Infrastructures, Metadata, and Media </li></ul></ul></ul>Trusted Peer Trusted Peer Trusted Peer Trusted Peer Trusted Peer Collected (foreign) Tokens 2 3 5 6 7 New (unsigned) Tokens Partially signed Tokens New Tokens 1 4 4 4 4 Signing with partial keys Peer <ul><li>Trusted Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Resposibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Selected via reputation system </li></ul>8 Combining tokens
    7. 7. Research Challenges: Quality Properties (English) Costs Security Quality of P2P Systems Trust Adaptivity Efficiency Validity Retrievability Coherence Consistency Correctness Performance Scalability Flexibility Stability Dependability Services Provisioning Overlay Operations Individual Nodes Complete System (Impact on) IP Infrastructure Availability Reliability Robustness Integrity Confidentiality Authentication Non-repudiation see DFG Forschergruppe QuaP2P, TU Darmstadt (www.quap2p.de)
    8. 8. KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Quality Properties (German) Aufwand Sicherheit Qualität von P2P-Systemen Lokalisierbarkeit Kohärenz Konsistenz Korrektheit Leistungsfähigkeit Skalierbarkeit Flexibilität Stabilität Verlässlichkeit Dienster-bringung Overlay-Operationen Individueller Knoten Gesamtes System IP Infrastruktur Verfügbarkeit Zuverlässigkeit Robustheit/ Fehlertoleranz Integrität Vertraulichkeit Authentizität Verbindlichkeit Vertrauenswürdigkeit Validität Effizienz Adaptivität see DFG Forschergruppe QuaP2P, TU Darmstadt (www.quap2p.de)
    9. 9. KOM III: Location-based Search and P2P <ul><li>Location-aware services… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are highly attractive for end-users and providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they can offer highly personalized services based on the user‘s location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>returns a list with only those Italian restaurants within walking distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P2P approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an alternative / complementary approach to mobile service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offering these services practically for free </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for ALL peers that are in some geographical area </li></ul></ul>Results <ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every peer knows its exact GPS coordinates </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. KOM III: A P2P Overlay for Location-based Search <ul><li>GLOBASE ( G eographical LO cation- BA sed SE arch): </li></ul><ul><li>World divided into disjoint, rectangular zones </li></ul><ul><li>Two-tier overlay: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical tree of superpeers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstructured P2P network of interconnected peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure recovery and search efficiency  interconnections : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from received messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling tree awareness </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. KOM III: Simulation of Large Scale P2P Networks <ul><li>Size of P2P Systems = more then 1 million peers </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. PlanetLab = 704 nodes / average 200 online Simulation necessary </li></ul>User Layer Overlay Layer Simulation Core Network Layer Package Lost … … … Delay Model Connection Management Routing Model Resource Model Online-time Model Requested Services Offered Services Look-up Model
    12. 12. KOM III: Evaluation of P2P (Overlay) Networks Trade-offs Mechanisms CANdemila Metrics 0 1 2 3 4 5 100 0 200 300 500 400 ms 48 132 187 383 411 492 Benchmarks Chordtella
    13. 13. <ul><li>How can efficiency be increased? Are current overlays perfect? </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to increase the efficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider heterogeneity of peers , links and messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate and eliminate resource-bottlenecks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current focus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity of message types </li></ul></ul>Heterogeneous model KOM III: Efficiency in Peer-to-Peer Systems Chord Gnutella Kademlia Homogenous graph Reality CAN
    14. 14. KOM III: Research Agenda for Improving Efficiency <ul><li>Improve resource (bandwidth) utilization in each individual node </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate fair and efficient resource allocation strategies for P2P overlays </li></ul><ul><li>Derive a strategy for Internet Service Provider to cope with P2P traffic </li></ul>Layers of Interest Evaluation Devices IP Infrastructure 3 P2P Overlay 2 User Layer Overlay Layer Simulation Core Network Layer PeerfactSim.KOM Concepts for 1 Concepts for 2 ^ Peer IN OUT 10100110110001000110011 1
    15. 15. KOM III: Issues at P2P (Overlay) Networks Underlay Networks Overlay network 1. Efficient Mapping 2. Heterogeneity 5. Dependency/Security 4. Scalability/Extendability 6. Fault-tolerance 3. Incentives/Fairness
    16. 16. KOM III: Peer-to-Peer Overlays <ul><li>Design principles of Overlay Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Macro Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant node degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finer load balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling hot spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locality aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li> to enhance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability.. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. KOM III: Location Aware Services and P2P <ul><li>Location-aware services… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are highly attractive for end-users and providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they can offer highly personalized services based on the user‘s location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walking at the Prenzlauer Berg </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I am hungry, need some Italian food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context (location) aware mobile networked device (with GPS) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>returns a list with only those restaurants within walking distance. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS devices become cheap & ubiquitous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offering location-aware services seems like a good source of income for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Mobile Phone Service Providers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, an alternative / complementary approach is to build a P2P system that could offer these services practically for free. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. First prototypes exist… </li></ul></ul>http://www.haddock.org/directory/?i=13119
    18. 18. KOM III: Example CamNet Application <ul><li>P2P Network of webcams supporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata-based search: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search all the webcams with the description “Alps” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient P2P location-based area search: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Find all webcams in a certain area” </li></ul></ul></ul>

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