From Cells to Organisms:  Long-Term Guarantees on Service Provisioning in Peer-to-Peer Networks Kalman Graffi, Aleksandra ...
The Peer-to-Peer Paradigm <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users of a system provide the infrastructure...
Service Level Agreements in P2P Systems <ul><li>One-to-one relationship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer and provider match...
Long-Term Service Guarantees? <ul><li>Distributed computations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seti@home: Just one centralized job ...
One-to-Many Relationship  Resource Trading Characteristics <ul><li>Application Areas:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed c...
Essential Building Blocks for a DISPRO <ul><li>Distributed Supervisor of Peer Resources (Quorum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A c...
Example: Distributed Resource Exchange <ul><li>Demand/provision of: storage space, comp. power, online time, … </li></ul><...
Tasks of the DISPRO <ul><li>Service Provisioning and Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor tasks in charge for </li></ul><u...
Integration in P2P Systems  <ul><li>Components of the DISPRO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Management System </li></ul...
Conclusions <ul><li>System-wide management enabling Service Level Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>DIstributed Supervisor of ...
Further Questions ?
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ACM NOTERE 2008 - Kalman Graffi - From Cells to Organisms - Long-Term Guarantees on Service Provisioning in Peer-to-Peer Networks

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The peer-to-peer paradigm gained more and more impact in the last years. The reason for P2P arising now is related to the continuous development of device capabilities in the last years, like CPU power, storage space and bandwidth. However, the demand for services and resources is permanently increasing, although the peers have a variety of other resources themselves. In this paper we present the idea of a P2P system acting as a service provider using the resources of participating peers and stating guarantees on the quality of the service it provides. In order to fulfill these service level agreements, the peers confederate to a distributed supervisor of peer resources (P2PCLOUD), monitoring the network, predicting trends on resource availabilities and deciding on resource allocation strategies. This paper discusses the challenges and a solution draft of the concept of P2PCLOUD.

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  • Roter Faden: Was ist P2P? Welche QoS Anforderungen bisher gestellt? Evtl. Unklare Details:
  • | | November 19, 2007
  • ACM NOTERE 2008 - Kalman Graffi - From Cells to Organisms - Long-Term Guarantees on Service Provisioning in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    1. 1. From Cells to Organisms: Long-Term Guarantees on Service Provisioning in Peer-to-Peer Networks Kalman Graffi, Aleksandra Kovacevic, Nicolas Liebau, Ralf Steinmetz DISPRO
    2. 2. The Peer-to-Peer Paradigm <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users of a system provide the infrastructure of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service is provided from users/peers to users/peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer overlays: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>virtual networks, providing new functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Distributed Hash Tables, Keyword-based Search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution of applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Quality of Service (QoS) requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video-on-demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time and bandwidth requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More resource sharing? (not just files) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Towards dynamic P2P-based grid functionalities? </li></ul></ul></ul> See: Kalman Graffi, et al. “Peer-to-Peer Forschung - Überblick und Herausforderungen” In: it - Information Technology (Methods and Applications of Informatics and Information Technology), vol. 46, no. 5, p. 272-279, July 2007 H(„ my data “) = 3107 2207 7.31.10.25 peer-to-peer.info 12.5.7.31 95.7.6.10 86.8.10.18 planet-lab.org berkeley.edu 2906 3485 2011 1622 1008 709 611 61.51.166.150 ?
    3. 3. Service Level Agreements in P2P Systems <ul><li>One-to-one relationship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer and provider matching easy to optimize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both have to be online, transaction is interrupted if one leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: BitTorrent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both peers are consumer and provider of chunks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same resource, both online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Potentials and limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any kind of resource can be efficiently allocated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only online peers can be considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No guarantees on service provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers have to organize backup solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What if they are offline? (e.g. reliable storage service) </li></ul></ul></ul>DHT Stores pointers on resource providers Peers interested in the resource ask for providing peers Provider dispatching with focus on load balancing  See: Kalman Graffi, et al. “Load Balancing for Multimedia Streaming in Heterogeneous Peer-to-Peer Systems”. In: 18th Int. Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV '08), ACM SIGMM, May 2008.
    4. 4. Long-Term Service Guarantees? <ul><li>Distributed computations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seti@home: Just one centralized job provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condor: dispatching of individual simulation jobs, no churn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2P based simulations: Many job providers, churn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term observations, who controls migration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Skype: deliver a file to a buddy if he comes online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep data objects available for a specific time with a given probability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To quickly distribute/stream large data objects </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. One-to-Many Relationship Resource Trading Characteristics <ul><li>Application Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed computing, backup service, worldwide testbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services requested, that cannot be fulfilled by single peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One provider is not enough  efforts / contribution has to be combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous resources in focus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Trade” computational power against storage space? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. comp. power, storage space, bandwidth, online time, human presence … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to find specific resource provider, which looks especially for what I offer? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term service provisioning guarantees desired </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if service requester goes offline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is in charge of organizing the service provisioning? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Need for system-wide management enabling SLAs: </li></ul><ul><li>DIstributed Supervisor of Peer ResOurces (DISPRO) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Essential Building Blocks for a DISPRO <ul><li>Distributed Supervisor of Peer Resources (Quorum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cooperative of peers providing the function of service management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An information management approach gathering information about the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prediction on resource trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Models and mechanisms that predict the current (and future) system state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service-level agreement negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the resource predictions, suitable “costs” can be calculated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs describe resource contributions needed in the future for the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service-level agreement enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting of service transactions and reputation maintenance of peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security: authenticity and reliable decision making </li></ul>SLA Accounting Security DISPRO Quorum
    7. 7. Example: Distributed Resource Exchange <ul><li>Demand/provision of: storage space, comp. power, online time, … </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: Exchange resources using a Distributed Supervisor of Peer Resources </li></ul>Name price, e.g. comp. power Request service, e.g. comp. power Name price, e.g. bandwidth Gather information about the system: Who offers & con- sumes what? Statistics? Build DISPRO quorum Request service, e.g. storage space Calculate usage trends and resource availability in the future based on gathered information DISPRO Quorum Accounting of transactions and reputation maintenance of peers. Detect and reallocate
    8. 8. Tasks of the DISPRO <ul><li>Service Provisioning and Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor tasks in charge for </li></ul><ul><li>Reallocate tasks if peers fail </li></ul><ul><li>Account transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain peer reputation, </li></ul><ul><li>consider it in future decisions </li></ul><ul><li> Analytical Models </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret system statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Identify current and future </li></ul><ul><li>system state </li></ul><ul><li>SLA negotiation: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify resources that will be needed in the future: declare them as price for future transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Information Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Gather system statistics on the distributed system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several metrics and parameters per module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average values, standard deviations, confidence intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several (non-) functional requirements for information architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Supports capacity-based peer search </li></ul><ul><li>SLA </li></ul><ul><li>Description Language </li></ul><ul><li>enables porting of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>need for specified resources </li></ul>P2P Systems <ul><li>Security and Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>monitor and consider be-havior of peers </li></ul><ul><li>secure de-cision making </li></ul>SLA Security DISPRO Quorum DISPRO Quorum
    9. 9. Integration in P2P Systems <ul><li>Components of the DISPRO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Management System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates system statistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables capacity-based peer search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics are analyzed distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISPRO quorum negotiates for SLAs, it commands peers what to provide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer view: </li></ul>Internet DHT overlay . Metrics and parameters Peer capacity Result: n peer IDs Query for n peers with list of capacity req. uses Information Management System Over-overlay for sys-tem statistics & cap.- based peer search Peers α β λ μ Information Management System Analysis, modeling and interpretation Using information to determine costs Various P2P functional modules uses DISPRO . Quorum Data Analyzing Generated system statistics Identify missing re- sources in the sys. Calculate price for resource requests Resources to be provided Ask for long-term SLA Accounting
    10. 10. Conclusions <ul><li>System-wide management enabling Service Level Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>DIstributed Supervisor of Peer ResOurces (DISPRO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables long-term SLAs on combined resources provided by various peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a new application of the P2P paradigm: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed resource exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Main building blocks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information management system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides system statistics and capacity-based peer search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed analysis component: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines (future) system state based on statistics, determines prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISPRO quorum: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built of peers, negotiates SLAs, migrates jobs, enforces resource provision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLA description language, security and accounting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For more details: please read the paper </li></ul>
    11. 11. Further Questions ?

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