what color is your green economy? Kalikasan Partylist World Environment Day 2012
Outline• History of Rio+20• Issues at Rio+20 • Green economy in the context of sustainable develop • Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development• Our stake at Rio+20
History of Rio+20 20 - 22 June 2012: “Rio+20”, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1992: Rio Earth Summit Agenda 21, Rio Declaration and the Forest principles 2002: World Summit on Sustainable Adopted by 178 governments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Development (Johannesburg) 1983: UN World Commission on Environment and Development 1987: Brundtland report on “Sustainable Development” Environmental protection, economic growth and social equityApril 22, 1970:First Earth Day 1972: First UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) 1962: “Silent Spring”, Rachel Carson
Issues at Rio+20• Two themes • Green Economy • Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development• Rio+20 is a UN process: involves governments and treaty making
“Green economy” UN Environmental ProgrammeOne that “results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.” • Produce low greenhouse gas emissions; • Use resources more efficiently; • Continue to generate growth, income and jobs; • Observe social equity and inclusiveness.
Transition to a “green economy”• Measure the monetary value of the environment and its resources (natural capital)• Prove the viability and profitability of enhancing this natural capital as a “new engine of growth”• Create the enabling conditions incorporating broader environmental and social criteria.
Green vs. Brown• “Brown economies” • Engine of growth is physical- technological and financial capital (also called “built capital”) • Wealth comes at the cost of environmental losses.• “Green economies” refocuses on natural capital • “Can generate as much growth and employment as a brown economy” • Yielding more environmental and social benefits.
“Greening” Key Economic Sectors• Natural capital (4): agriculture, fisheries, forests and water • Needs “more sustainable and equitable management” • More investments that rebuild or maintain ecosystem services on which they are based• Built capital: energy, manufacturing, waste, construction, transportation, tourism and cities • Adopting technologies and processes which are low- carbon and more energy- and resource efficient
Policy measures for a “green economy”• Prioritized investment and spending to stimulate greening of sectors. From $1.2-3.4 trillion annually until 2050. (~ 2% of global GDP)• Taxes and market-based instruments as “powerful tools to promote green investment and innovation.”• Reform on subsidies and other “poorly managed government spending” in environmentally harmful activities• Framework of laws, regulations and enforcement at national level to reduce business risks and increase confidence among green investors and markets.• Investment in capacity-building and training essential to green transition.• Strengthened international governance to promote a green economy
Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development• 1992 Earth Summit described general contours of global governance for sustainable development through Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, and the Rio Conventions • International action and cooperation • Principle of common but differentiated responsibilities • “Polluter pays” principle • Policy integration and coherence • Enhanced access to participation, information and justice • Precautionary principle
Options for IFSD• Enhancing UNEP• Establish a new umbrella for sustainable development• Establish a specialized agency such as a World Environmental Organization• Reforming the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Sustainable Development• Enhancing institutional reforms and streamlining existing structures
Problems and critique• Same economic model has been dressed in green. “Green” or “Brown” as long as it is for the profit of a few would still be the same. • No question on models of consumption and industrial overproduction. • Opens new territories to the economy that exploits people and environment• Submitting all the vital cycles of nature to the markets rules• Privatization and commodification of nature and of its vital functions• Strengthening speculative financial markets through carbon markets, environmental services, compensations for biodiversity and other mechanisms• Technological solutions and not addressing real causes of poverty• Expansion of agro-industrial food system at the expense of local producers
Regression from Rio principles• Some rich-country governments propose a regression from the principles agreed at Rio 92 • Removing the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, the precautionary principle, the right to information and participation. • Threaten long-fought for rights: right of indigenous peoples, the right of peoples and nations and farmers, the right to water, the rights of working men and women, migrant rights, the right to food, housing, the city, the rights of youth and women, the right to health concerning sexuality and reproduction, education and cultural rights.• Attempts to stablish Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which will be used to promote "Green economy",• Proposals to implement forms of global environmental governance, through the World Bank and other financial institutions • New cycle of debt and structural adjustment dressed in green.
Ways forward• On the green economy • Public enterprises should remain in public control and privatization should be reversed. • Promote sufficiency based economies • Promote domestic closed-loop manufacturing with minimum use of energy and materials, longer life spans and with maximum reuse and recycling of parts and components. • Promote mass public transportation systems. • Implement genuine agrarian, aquatic, pastureland and forestry reforms; and promote biodiverse ecological agriculture • Stop profit oriented exploitation and destruction of natural resources • People centered sustainable economies should promote the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities
Ways forward• Operationalize and implement the Rio principles including the Right to Development, common but differentiated responsibility, the polluter pays principle and the precautionary principle.• Build a strong body on sustainable development that works on a global level and can integrate the disparate UN bodies• Rio+20 should work for the immediate establishment of a broad inclusive multi-stakeholder consultative body or network tasked with supporting the promotion and implementation of Agenda 21 and Rio+20 resolutions.• Ultimately, the effectiveness of a global body on sustainable development rests on the effective functioning of similar institutions at the local and national levels and its relevance to people’s lives
Rising up to the challenge ofbuilding our own green economy• Communities have shown extreme resilience and creativity in confronting the spiraling multiple crises of the global capitalist system• We assert our economic, social, cultural and political rights in light of its steady erosion through the years• Build a new world where development is for the well-being and dignity of all • Prosperity is created through shared resources and efforts • Where nature’s limits are respected • Where nations, peoples and communities cooperate to ensure democracy, justice, equity, peace and prosperity for all.