Introduction1. The Reality of Climate Change2. Projected changes and its impacts3. Causes of change4. Climate change in the Philippines5. Responses to climate change
The reality of climate changeObserved changes in climate
! 1. Life on earth depends on, is shaped by and affects climate. !
Climate system diagram!
! 2. Warming of the climate is unequivocal. !
Temperature rise!Average globaltemperatureincreased by 0.74degrees Celsiusbetween 1906 and2005. !In its 2007Assessment, IPCCpredicted anadditional rise of1.8–4.0 degreesCelsius this century,depending on howmuch and how soongreenhouse gasemissions arecurbed. !!
Sea level rise!Sea levels acrossthe globe haverisen in a wayconsistent with thewarming – since1961 at an averageof 1.8 mm per year,and since 1993 at3.1 mm per year.The total global risein the 20th centuryamounted to 17 cm.!!
Melting snow and ice!Decreases in snowand ice extent arealso consistent withwarming. Satellitedata recorded since1978 show theannual averageArctic sea ice extenthas shrunk by 2.7per cent eachdecade, with largerdecreases insummer. Mountainglaciers andaverage snow cover Minimum arc*c sea-‐ice extent from 1979 to 2007 have declined inboth hemispheres.!
Extreme weather events From 1900 to 2005 precipitation (rain, sleet and snow) increased signiﬁcantly in parts of the Americas, northern Europe and northern and central Asia, but declined in the Sahel, the Mediterranean, southern Africa and parts of southern Asia. ! ! Increasing Strength and frequency of Typhoons (Category 4/5)!Source: Science Magazine, Sep 16, 2005
! 3. Human activities are impacting the climate system. !
Surging GHG emissions !
Projected change and its impacts
! 4. Climate change will have consequences for the earth system and human lives.!
Causes of changeUnequal histrorical responsibilities
! 5. It is the rich and industrialized nations who have emitted most GHG in the atmosphere.!
• Top 25 GHG emitters account for an estimated 80% of global emissions.!• Top 7 emitters accounted for 52% of the 185 nations’ emissions.!• In 2000, the US emitted 19% of the world total, followed by China with 14%; !• No other country 2000 GHG Emissions! reached 6%!
• In terms of historical emissions, industrialize d countries where less than 20% of the total world population lives account for 80% of the CO2 buildup in the atmosphere to date.! 1850-2000 GHG Emissions!
Consumption of energy and fuels! • COAL: The top 25 GHG emitting countries account for approx 92% of global coal consumption, production, and known reserves. 5 countries account for 3/4 of worldwide consumption. ! • OIL: The top 25 GHG emitting countries account for 78% of oil consumption, 61% of production, and 51% of known oil reserves.! • NATURAL GAS: The top 25 GHG emitters account for 77% of global consumption, 67% of production, and 58 % of gas reserves. ! !
! 6.The ecological crisis is indeed historical and linked with the current global economic crisis. !
Historical context!• Unprecedented rise in GHG production and concentration on the onset of capitalist system!• Industrial revolution!• Modern technology!• Intensive use of machines and fossil fuels for transportation, trade and energy. !
• Almost half the world — over three billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day.! Great and exciting• 1.6 billion people — a quarter of humanity — live without electricity! advances!• Nearly a billion people entered the • Information technology, 21st century unable to read a book automation, genetics and or sign their names!• 1.4 million die each year from lack medicine! of access to safe drinking water Greatest challenges! and adequate sanitation!• According to UNICEF, 25,000 • Famine and hunger, rapid children die each day due to ecological destruction, poverty.! breakdown of health• In 2005, the wealthiest 20% of the systems, world accounted for 76.6% of total private consumption. The poorest social decay ﬁfth just 1.5%:! and• About 0.13% of the world’s disintegration! population controlled 25% of the world’s ﬁnancial assets in 2004.! !• For every $1 in aid a developing country receives, over $25 is spent on debt repayment!
Characteristics of production of Corporate Capitalism !• The goal: to maximize short-term private ﬁnancial proﬁts !• Anarchic !• Wasteful and pollutive!• Monopoly on production, resources, capital!• Division of the world – market, raw materials and war!!
MNCs and the exploitation of natural resources in developing countries!
Transnational corporations!• 1998, 4 out of the 11 biggest producers of oil are TNCs (BP Amoco-Arco, Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch Shell at Chevron-Texaco). !• 2005, oil TNCs like British Petroleum, Exxon Mobil, Shell Dutch controls 18% of global oil reserves!• 2004, the 10 biggest oil TNCs in the US control around 55% of the oil production while the top 50 controls 77%!• 2006, Exxon Mobil Corporation reported — TNC having the biggest GHG emission in the world (150 million tons-6th largest if it were a country ) – and a net proﬁt of $39.5 billion from gross income of $377.6 billion !• TNCs owns the biggest agricultural plantations, logging corporations, large dams, energy plants, etc..!
System in crisis!Extraction -> Production -> Distribution -> Consumption -> Disposal!
Climate change in the Philippines
7. It is the poor ! and marginalized people who are most vulnerable and affected by the impacts of climate change.!
Human Resources!• 92.2 M population (2009 est.)!• 27.6 M or 33/100 poor Filipinos !• 4.7 M or 24/ 100 poor families!• PhP 6,274 monthly income of Filipino family of ﬁve to stay out of poverty!• 71. 4 % Self rated poverty (Oct 2009 by Ibon National Opinion Survey!
Poverty incidence among the basic sector!
• Poor countries like the Philippines are vulnerable to enhanced hazards due to climate change!• Already a disaster-prone country!• 12th country in the world most at risk to disasters UNISDR!• Destroyed environment!• Lack of ﬁnancial, institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge!• Exacerbates inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources.!
6th most vulnerable in the world!
Most vulnerable in Southeast Asia!
Climate Change in the Philippines!• From 27 typhoons during the period 2000-2003, the number ominously increased to 39 from 2004-2007!• The typhoons are getting stronger and stronger, especially since the late 1990s. Typhoon signal no. 4 is a fairly recent category.!• Total damages brought about by typhoons increased by 408% from 2003 to 2006!• Seven of the 20 deadliest typhoons in the Philippines covering the period 1947-2006 occurred in 1990-2006!
Global warming worsens theimpact of imperialist plunder!• Under a systerm where proﬁt is the primary objective of societal production, the environment and our ecosystems are reduced to being a source of raw materials and dumping ground for wastes.!• Under such a system, countries which top the list in terms of proﬁt and industrial might also become the worlds foremost culprits of environmental degradation. !!
8. The Philippine ! government is largely responsible for the environmental crisis and lack of disaster- preparedness program in the country.!
Government Initiatives!• Climate Change Task Force! • EPIRA (privatization of• Clean Development energy plants and building Mechanism! of new ones by private• 1991 Inter-Agency sector) ! Committee on Climate • Philippine Energy Plan Change! 2005-2014 – building new• Oct. 29 – Arroyo signed (RA coal power plants and 9729) Climate Change increasing it share in energy production by 40% ! Commission! • Others – Mining Act,• 2009 Climate Change Bill! Biofuels Act, Clean Air Act, Joint explorations!
Philippine Government!l Large scale plunder of the environment! l Without beneﬁt to the majority of our people! l Beneﬁts only a small segment of society!l Government policies aggravates our climate vulnerability! l Biofuels Act! l Oil deregulation law! l Mining Act 1995! l EPIRA! l Forestry Code! l Neoliberal Globalization! l Corruption!
Responses to climate change
9. Any genuine move resolve! the problem of global warming must critically recognize and address the larger socio- economic context in which it occurs.! !
UNFCCC and KYOTO PROTOCOL! l 1992: Interna*onal agreement under the United Na*ons Framework Conven*on on Climate Change (UNFCCC) l reduce GHG emissions, on average by about 5% between 2008-‐2012 rela*ve to 1990 l 1997: Kyoto Protocol; The ﬂexibility mechanisms • Funding mechanisms to assist developing countries l 175 countries except US and Australia (Australia later signed on Kyoto)
Conclusion1. Climate chnge is real.2. Climate change is not just an environmental issue but a social justic issue.3. Historically linked with the the world socio- economic crisis.4. Will worsen the Philippine crisis.5. Inaction is inexcusable.
10. The decisions, actions and! solutions should primarily consider and uphold the interest an welfare of the majority of our people and environment.! ! !