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  1. 1. The State of Science andThe State of Science and Technology in theTechnology in the PhilippinesPhilippines andand thethe Advocacy for a Pro-Advocacy for a Pro- People S&TPeople S&T
  2. 2. What is Science and Technology?What is Science and Technology?  Science is…Science is… is the systematic body of knowledge coveringis the systematic body of knowledge covering truths or the operation of general lawstruths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through theespecially as obtained and tested through the scientific methodscientific method  Technology is…Technology is… the application of sciencethe application of science
  3. 3. Advances and challengesAdvances and challenges  Great and exciting advancesGreat and exciting advances  Information technologyInformation technology  AutomationAutomation  Genetics and medicineGenetics and medicine  Greatest challengesGreatest challenges  Famine and hungerFamine and hunger  Rapid ecological destructionRapid ecological destruction  Breakdown of health systemsBreakdown of health systems  Social decay and disintegrationSocial decay and disintegration one billion people are hungry 160 million more malnourished every day world wide: 70,000 persons join hungry and starving masses Despite the advances in science andDespite the advances in science and technology, why is it unable to answer thetechnology, why is it unable to answer the needs of the people?needs of the people?
  4. 4. Science and historyScience and history  Man interacts with natureMan interacts with nature  Produce goods for everyday livingProduce goods for everyday living  Relations in historical epochRelations in historical epoch  Shape knowledge and toolsShape knowledge and tools  Dominant economic and politicalDominant economic and political segmentsegment  Decides and allocates resourcesDecides and allocates resources  Current dominant modeCurrent dominant mode  Favors profit over people’s interestFavors profit over people’s interest  Monopoly capitalMonopoly capital
  5. 5. Science and technology for profitScience and technology for profit  New products and processesNew products and processes  Better and more efficientBetter and more efficient  Survive intense competitionSurvive intense competition  Ultimate objective: gaining profitsUltimate objective: gaining profits  S&T under control of monopoly capitalS&T under control of monopoly capital  Hunger, poverty, environment, healthHunger, poverty, environment, health  Lesser focusLesser focus  DoublespeakDoublespeak  Hunger and genetically engineered foodHunger and genetically engineered food  Priority: marketing and commercial releasePriority: marketing and commercial release  Resolve safety and health concernsResolve safety and health concerns  Profits, not hungerProfits, not hunger
  6. 6. Concentrated Capital and TechnologyConcentrated Capital and Technology  Industrial countriesIndustrial countries  Tight hold on high techTight hold on high tech  70% global market: consumer durables70% global market: consumer durables  Top 5 MNCsTop 5 MNCs  50 % of the world’s total productive output50 % of the world’s total productive output  Top 5 in auto, airline, aerospace, electrical,Top 5 in auto, airline, aerospace, electrical, electronic and steel industrieselectronic and steel industries  40 % of global sales40 % of global sales  Top 5 MNCs in oil, PC and mediaTop 5 MNCs in oil, PC and media  Foreign affiliates of 23 MNCsForeign affiliates of 23 MNCs  80 % of total sales in electronics80 % of total sales in electronics  70 to 80 % of R&D70 to 80 % of R&D  80 to 90 % of technology payments80 to 90 % of technology payments
  7. 7. Third world science and technologyThird world science and technology  Third world industriesThird world industries  Cheap labor for reassembly of partsCheap labor for reassembly of parts  Consumer goods  Consumer goods    More underdeveloped countriesMore underdeveloped countries  Use older production equipmentUse older production equipment  Marked disadvantageMarked disadvantage  International financeInternational finance  Stimulate production and sale ofStimulate production and sale of consumer goodsconsumer goods  Cover debt service burden andCover debt service burden and budgetary deficitsbudgetary deficits  Prescriptions of the IMF and the WBPrescriptions of the IMF and the WB
  8. 8. State of science and technologyState of science and technology  Philippine science and technologyPhilippine science and technology  UnderdevelopedUnderdeveloped  StuntedStunted  DependentDependent  StatisticsStatistics  EducationEducation  industriesindustries
  9. 9. Education: teacher competenceEducation: teacher competence 1992 up institute of science and mathematics education survey1992 up institute of science and mathematics education survey mathmath generalgeneral sciencescience biologybiology physicsphysics chemchem 71 % 40 % 41 % 21 % 8 %
  10. 10. Education: student performanceEducation: student performance  Filipino 13 year oldsFilipino 13 year olds  40 out of 41 in science40 out of 41 in science  37 out of 39 in math37 out of 39 in math  Poor science and mathPoor science and math educationeducation 1996 Third International Mathematics and Science Study
  11. 11.  Low manpower in S&TLow manpower in S&T  PhD’s per millionPhD’s per million  UN:380UN:380  Singapore:2800Singapore:2800  South Korea:South Korea: 33003300  Taiwan:4300Taiwan:4300  Philippines: 155Philippines: 155  Average number ofAverage number of R&D personnelR&D personnel  14,41114,411 South Korea Singapore TaiwanUN standards Research &Research & development:development: ManpowerManpower
  12. 12. Research&development:Research&development: resourcesresources  low expenditures on R&Dlow expenditures on R&D  DOST budget decreasingDOST budget decreasing  UN standards for LDCUN standards for LDC  1% of national budget1% of national budget  19921992  Japan/US: 2.8%Japan/US: 2.8%  Korea: 1.8%Korea: 1.8%  Taiwan 1.1%Taiwan 1.1%  Philippines:Philippines: 0.22 %0.22 % 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 94 95 96 98 99 '00 '01
  13. 13. Research&development:Research&development: resourcesresources  No research laboratoriesNo research laboratories  No extensive S&T libraries/information networkNo extensive S&T libraries/information network  No support for R&D workersNo support for R&D workers  Low output in scientific publicationLow output in scientific publication  Share of total int’l scientific publications: phil. 0.035%Share of total int’l scientific publications: phil. 0.035%  51st in world51st in world  Below singapore, thailand, malaysia and indonesiaBelow singapore, thailand, malaysia and indonesia
  14. 14. Allocation of budgetAllocation of budget Higher Education Government Non-Government Private Industry Basic Research Applied Research Experimental Development
  15. 15. Patents ratio: nationals/foreignersPatents ratio: nationals/foreigners CountryCountry Patents GrantedPatents Granted Patents GrantedPatents Granted to Nationalsto Nationals to Foreignersto Foreigners    19761976 19861986 19941994 19761976 19861986 PhilippinesPhilippines 108108 8282 3939 767767 755755    19761976 19861986 USAUSA 169%169% 116%116% KoreaKorea 92%92% 32%32% PhilippinesPhilippines 14%14% 11%11%
  16. 16. IndustryIndustry Agriculture Industry Services Major Industry GroupMajor Industry Group TotalTotal PhilippinesPhilippines 30,11930,119 AgricultureAgriculture 11,14611,146 Agriculture, hunting, andAgriculture, hunting, and forestryforestry 10,01210,012 FishingFishing 1,1341,134 IndustryIndustry 4,5604,560 Mining and quarryingMining and quarrying 9898 ManufacturingManufacturing 2,7672,767 Electricity, gas, and waterElectricity, gas, and water 117117 ConstructionConstruction 1,5781,578 ServicesServices 14,41414,414
  17. 17. AgricultureAgriculture Crops Livestock Poultry Fishery SubsectorSubsector Gross ValueGross Value TotalTotal 617.9617.9 CropsCrops 305.4305.4 LivestockLivestock 110.8110.8 PoultryPoultry 88.688.6 FisheryFishery 113.1113.1 P 617.9 billion exportsexports $ 1.30 billion$ 1.30 billion importsimports $ 2.10 billion$ 2.10 billion
  18. 18. R&D in agricultureR&D in agriculture Research expenditureResearch expenditure 19851985 19951995 1,000 1995 U.S. dollars1,000 1995 U.S. dollars Agricultural machineryAgricultural machinery 305305 Unknown,Unknown, butbut smallsmall Agricultural chemicalsAgricultural chemicals 1,6571,657 2,5622,562 LivestockLivestock 708708 1,4801,480 Plant breedingPlant breeding 2,2422,242 1,8001,800 PlantationsPlantations 1,6101,610 4,6804,680 Total private researchTotal private research 6,5226,522 10,52210,522 Public research expenditurePublic research expenditure n.a.n.a. 37,00037,000 Private research as a percentagePrivate research as a percentage of total researchof total research n.a.n.a. 22%22% Agricultural gross domestic productAgricultural gross domestic product 11,054,00011,054,000 16,319,00016,319,000 Private research as percentage ofPrivate research as percentage of agriculture gross domestic productagriculture gross domestic product 0.06%0.06% 0.06%0.06% Types of agricultural firms with RD activities. TypeType NumNum berber Agrichemical producerAgrichemical producer 99 Animal breederAnimal breeder 77 Banana fruit producerBanana fruit producer 55 Poultry integratorPoultry integrator 44 Seed producerSeed producer 44 Organic fertilizersOrganic fertilizers producerproducer 44 Animal health productAnimal health product producerproducer 44 Feed producerFeed producer 33 Hog growerHog grower 33 MachineryMachinery fabricators/assemblerfabricators/assembler 11 Grain producerGrain producer 11 Ornamental plant growerOrnamental plant grower 11 Research foundationsResearch foundations 44
  19. 19. Research & development: outputResearch & development: output  PhilippinesPhilippines  42 out of 4842 out of 48  Thailand (31st)Thailand (31st)  Malaysia (33rd), china (26th), singapore (10th)Malaysia (33rd), china (26th), singapore (10th)  Technology indexTechnology index  -0.1-0.1  Patents and registration of new designsPatents and registration of new designs  Technology tradeTechnology trade  Value added in manufacturingValue added in manufacturing  Export of technology intensive goodsExport of technology intensive goods  Low level of technology in manufacturingLow level of technology in manufacturing  Federation of Philippine Industries from 1988-1996: no R&DFederation of Philippine Industries from 1988-1996: no R&D  Local companiesLocal companies
  20. 20. Historical contextHistorical context  Pre-spanishPre-spanish  Handicrafts, pottery,Handicrafts, pottery, weaving, blacksmithing andweaving, blacksmithing and boat building/wet and dryboat building/wet and dry rice agriculturerice agriculture  Banawe rice terracesBanawe rice terraces
  21. 21. History:Spanish RuleHistory:Spanish Rule  SpanishSpanish  EncomiendaEncomienda  Hacienda system,Hacienda system, cigar manufacturing,cigar manufacturing, abaca rope making,abaca rope making, telegraphtelegraph
  22. 22. History:American RuleHistory:American Rule  AmericanAmerican  Slight processing ofSlight processing of agricultural productsagricultural products  Sugar millsSugar mills  Export of raw materialsExport of raw materials  mineral oresmineral ores  Unequal trading systemUnequal trading system between Philippines andbetween Philippines and USUS  Import-dependent,Import-dependent, export-oriented economyexport-oriented economy  What is left for theWhat is left for the scientist?scientist?
  23. 23. Current situationCurrent situation • No program for ruralNo program for rural industrialization, agriculturalindustrialization, agricultural modernizationmodernization • No basic industriesNo basic industries • No infrastructure in energy,No infrastructure in energy, transportation,transportation, communications, informationcommunications, information technology and basic servicestechnology and basic services
  24. 24. Role of S&T workersRole of S&T workers  Key players in industrializationKey players in industrialization  S&T workersS&T workers  Lifeblood of research, innovationLifeblood of research, innovation  Have important roles in the industry andHave important roles in the industry and manufacturing sectormanufacturing sector  Scientists must become advocatesScientists must become advocates  science and technology for the peoplescience and technology for the people
  25. 25. Patriotic Science and TechnologyPatriotic Science and Technology  Pro-people developmentPro-people development  National industrializationNational industrialization  Genuine Agrarian ReformGenuine Agrarian Reform  United with otherUnited with other progressive sectorsprogressive sectors
  26. 26. Science and technology for theScience and technology for the peoplepeople  Committed to people’s interestsCommitted to people’s interests  science for people’s requirements and needsscience for people’s requirements and needs  responsive and constantly plansresponsive and constantly plans  Development and managementDevelopment and management  science, technology and natural resourcesscience, technology and natural resources  consciously linked on people’s needsconsciously linked on people’s needs  Greatest and continuing challengeGreatest and continuing challenge  progress for benefit of the peopleprogress for benefit of the people Make science and technology serve the people
  27. 27. AGHAMAGHAM  organization of patriotic, pro-organization of patriotic, pro- people science and technologypeople science and technology advocatesadvocates  promoting science andpromoting science and technology that genuinely servetechnology that genuinely serve the interest of the Filipino peoplethe interest of the Filipino people  direct technical service todirect technical service to communities through researchescommunities through researches  advocacy through various formsadvocacy through various forms not only limited to research,not only limited to research, education, fora and discussioneducation, fora and discussion groupsgroups
  28. 28. Five concernsFive concerns  Food Security and Self-sufficiencyFood Security and Self-sufficiency  Scientific and Mass CultureScientific and Mass Culture  EnvironmentEnvironment  Pubic UtilitiesPubic Utilities  National IndustrializationNational Industrialization
  29. 29. Man can find meaning in life. Short andMan can find meaning in life. Short and perilous as it is, only through devotingperilous as it is, only through devoting himself to society.himself to society. ––Albert Einstein, in “Why Socialism”Albert Einstein, in “Why Socialism”
  30. 30. Samahan ng Nagtataguyod ng Agham atSamahan ng Nagtataguyod ng Agham at Teknolohiya Para sa SambayananTeknolohiya Para sa Sambayanan