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    Stateofsnt Stateofsnt Presentation Transcript

    • The State of Science and Technology in the Philippines and the Advocacy for a Pro-People S&T
    • What is Science and Technology?
      • Science is…
      • is the systematic body of knowledge covering truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through the scientific method
      • Technology is…
      • the application of science
    • Advances and challenges
      • Great and exciting advances
        • Information technology
        • Automation
        • Genetics and medicine
      • Greatest challenges
        • Famine and hunger
        • Rapid ecological destruction
        • Breakdown of health systems
        • Social decay and disintegration
      one billion people are hungry 160 million more malnourished every day world wide: 70,000 persons join hungry and starving masses Despite the advances in science and technology, why is it unable to answer the needs of the people?
    • Science and history
      • Man interacts with nature
        • Produce goods for everyday living
      • Relations in historical epoch
        • Shape knowledge and tools
      • Dominant economic and political segment
        • Decides and allocates resources
      • Current dominant mode
        • Favors profit over people’s interest
        • Monopoly capital
    • Science and technology for profit
      • New products and processes
        • Better and more efficient
        • Survive intense competition
      • Ultimate objective: gaining profits
        • S&T under control of monopoly capital
        • Hunger, poverty, environment, health
          • Lesser focus
      • Doublespeak
        • Hunger and genetically engineered food
          • Priority: marketing and commercial release
          • Resolve safety and health concerns
        • Profits, not hunger
    • Concentrated Capital and Technology
      • Industrial countries
        • Tight hold on high tech
      • 70% global market: consumer durables
        • Top 5 MNCs
      • 50 % of the world’s total productive output
        • Top 5 in auto, airline, aerospace, electrical, electronic and steel industries
      • 40 % of global sales
        • Top 5 MNCs in oil, PC and media
      • Foreign affiliates of 23 MNCs
        • 80 % of total sales in electronics
        • 70 to 80 % of R&D
        • 80 to 90 % of technology payments
    • Third world science and technology
      • Third world industries
        • Cheap labor for reassembly of parts
        • Consumer goods  
      • More underdeveloped countries
        • Use older production equipment
        • Marked disadvantage
      • International finance
        • Stimulate production and sale of consumer goods
        • Cover debt service burden and budgetary deficits
        • Prescriptions of the IMF and the WB
    • State of science and technology
      • Philippine science and technology
        • Underdeveloped
        • Stunted
        • Dependent
      • Statistics
        • Education
        • industries
    • Education: teacher competence
      • 1992 up institute of science and mathematics education survey
      math general science biology physics chem 71 % 40 % 41 % 21 % 8 % competent not competent
    • Education: student performance
      • Filipino 13 year olds
        • 40 out of 41 in science
        • 37 out of 39 in math
      • Poor science and math education
      1996 Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1+1=2
      • Low manpower in S&T
      • PhD’s per million
        • UN:380
        • Singapore:2800
        • South Korea: 3300
        • Taiwan:4300
        • Philippines: 155
      • Average number of R&D personnel
        • 14,411
      Research & development: South Korea Singapore Taiwan philippines UN standards Manpower
    • Research&development: resources
      • low expenditures on R&D
      • DOST budget decreasing
      • UN standards for LDC
        • 1% of national budget
        • 1992
          • Japan/US: 2.8%
          • Korea: 1.8%
          • Taiwan 1.1%
          • Philippines: 0.22 %
    • Research&development: resources
      • No research laboratories
      • No extensive S&T libraries/information network
      • No support for R&D workers
      • Low output in scientific publication
        • Share of total int’l scientific publications: phil. 0.035%
        • 51st in world
        • Below singapore, thailand, malaysia and indonesia
    • Allocation of budget
    • Patents ratio: nationals/foreigners Country Patents Granted Patents Granted to Nationals to Foreigners   1976 1986 1994 1976 1986 Philippines 108 82 39 767 755   1976 1986 USA 169% 116% Korea 92% 32% Philippines 14% 11%
    • Industry Major Industry Group Total Philippines 30,119 Agriculture 11,146 Agriculture, hunting, and forestry 10,012 Fishing 1,134 Industry 4,560 Mining and quarrying 98 Manufacturing 2,767 Electricity, gas, and water 117 Construction 1,578 Services 14,414
    • Agriculture P 617.9 billion Subsector Gross Value Total 617.9 Crops 305.4 Livestock 110.8 Poultry 88.6 Fishery 113.1 exports $ 1.30 billion imports $ 2.10 billion
    • R&D in agriculture Types of agricultural firms with RD activities. Research expenditure 1985 1995 1,000 1995 U.S. dollars Agricultural machinery 305 Unknown, but small Agricultural chemicals 1,657 2,562 Livestock 708 1,480 Plant breeding 2,242 1,800 Plantations 1,610 4,680 Total private research 6,522 10,522 Public research expenditure n.a. 37,000 Private research as a percentage of total research n.a. 22% Agricultural gross domestic product 11,054,000 16,319,000 Private research as percentage of agriculture gross domestic product 0.06% 0.06% Type Number Agrichemical producer 9 Animal breeder 7 Banana fruit producer 5 Poultry integrator 4 Seed producer 4 Organic fertilizers producer 4 Animal health product producer 4 Feed producer 3 Hog grower 3 Machinery fabricators/assembler 1 Grain producer 1 Ornamental plant grower 1 Research foundations 4
    • Research & development: output
      • Philippines
        • 42 out of 48
        • Thailand (31st)
        • Malaysia (33rd), china (26th), singapore (10th)
      • Technology index  -0.1
        • Patents and registration of new designs
        • Technology trade
        • Value added in manufacturing
        • Export of technology intensive goods
      • Low level of technology in manufacturing
        • Federation of Philippine Industries from 1988-1996: no R&D
        • Local companies
    • Historical context
      • Pre-spanish
        • Handicrafts, pottery, weaving, blacksmithing and boat building/wet and dry rice agriculture
        • Banawe rice terraces
    • History:Spanish Rule
      • Spanish
        • Encomienda
        • Hacienda system, cigar manufacturing, abaca rope making, telegraph
    • History:American Rule
      • American
        • Slight processing of agricultural products
          • Sugar mills
        • Export of raw materials
          • mineral ores
        • Unequal trading system between Philippines and US
      • Import-dependent, export-oriented economy
        • What is left for the scientist?
    • Current situation
      • No program for rural industrialization, agricultural modernization
      • No basic industries
      • No infrastructure in energy, transportation, communications, information technology and basic services
    • Role of S&T workers
      • Key players in industrialization
      • S&T workers
        • Lifeblood of research, innovation
        • Have important roles in the industry and manufacturing sector
      • Scientists must become advocates
        • science and technology for the people
    • Patriotic Science and Technology
      • Pro-people development
      • National industrialization
      • Genuine Agrarian Reform
      • United with other progressive sectors
    • Science and technology for the people
      • Committed to people’s interests
        • science for people’s requirements and needs
        • responsive and constantly plans
      • Development and management
        • science, technology and natural resources
        • consciously linked on people’s needs
      • Greatest and continuing challenge
        • progress for benefit of the people
      Make science and technology serve the people
    • AGHAM
      • organization of patriotic, pro-people science and technology advocates
      • promoting science and technology that genuinely serve the interest of the Filipino people
      • direct technical service to communities through researches
      • advocacy through various forms not only limited to research, education, fora and discussion groups
    • Five concerns
      • Food Security and Self-sufficiency
      • Scientific and Mass Culture
      • Environment
      • Pubic Utilities
      • National Industrialization
    • Man can find meaning in life. Short and perilous as it is, only through devoting himself to society. – Albert Einstein, in “Why Socialism”
    • AGHAM Samahan ng Nagtataguyod ng Agham at Teknolohiya Para sa Sambayanan