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Lecture 16

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    Lecture 16 Lecture 16 Presentation Transcript

    • The Ferment of Reform & Culture 1790-1860
    • Religion in America
      • 75% of 23 million attended church regularly
      • Religion had become more liberal
      • 1794 – Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason attacked the church
    • In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832 The Rise of Popular Religion R1-1
      • Deism
        • Franklin & Jefferson
        • Relied on reason over faith
      • Unitarianism
        • belief in God as one person not the Trinity
        • Stressed the essential goodness of human beings
      • Embraced by intellectuals such as Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • The Second Great Awakening
      • 1800 - began as a backlash against the liberalism of the Age of Reason
      • Led to an era of evangelism & reform
    •  
      • Effects:
        • “ Born-again” Christians
        • Reorganized churches & new sects
        • New reform movements:
          • Temperance
          • Abolitionism
          • Women’s Movement
          • Prison Reform
      • Methodists & Baptists led camp meetings
        • sent missionaries to the Indians & overseas
        • Peter Cartwright
          • Methodist “circuit rider” preacher
    • Second Great Awakening Revival Meeting
      • Charles Grandison Finney
        • Greatest of revival preachers
        • Conducted revivals in eastern cities
    • The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation. Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895) “ soul-shaking” conversion R1-2
    • New Religious Sects
      • “ Burned-Over District”
        • Western NY
      • Adventists (Millerites)
        • William Miller led to believe the second coming was to happen on Oct. 22, 1844
    • “ Burned-Over” District in Upstate NY
      • Class & region lines widened as well
        • Southern & northern churches broke apart over slavery
        • Foreshadowing of secession
      • Mormons
        • 1830 – Joseph Smith founded Mormon church
          • Claims to have been given golden plates by the Angel Moroni
      • Plates constituted the Book of Mormon & gave rise to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
      • Mormons followed Smith west to Ohio, Missouri & finally Illinois
      • Persecuted for cooperativism, voting as a unit, having their own militia, & practicing polygamy
      • 1844: Joseph Smith & his brother were killed by a mob in Carthage, IL
      • 1846-47: Brigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake, Utah
        • 5000 settled by 1848
    • The Mormon Trek
      • 1850: Young becomes territorial governor
      • 1859: “Mormon War”
        • Federal troops forced Mormons to submit to Federal authority
    • Education Reforms
      • Free tax-supported education slowly gained support at all levels of society (1825-1850)
        • The Little Red Schoolhouse & the “3 R’s”
    • Winslow Homer
    • Horace Mann
      • Led the crusade for better teachers, better schools & longer school years
      • Helped create “normal schools”
        • Teaching colleges to train teachers
    • Noah Webster
      • “ Schoolmaster of the Republic”
      • Improved textbooks & standardized an American dictionary
    • William H. McGuffey
      • Created McGuffey’s Readers
      • Taught grammar, morality, patriotism, & idealism to grade schoolers
    • Higher Education
      • Second Great Awakening led to the creation of many small, denominational liberal-arts colleges
      • Federal land grant colleges
    • University of Virginia 1819
      • Founded & designed by Thomas Jefferson
      • Founded as a non-religious institution dedicated to science & modern language
    • Women’s Education
      • Considered frivolous
      • 1821 – Emma Willard established the Troy Female Seminary
      • 1837 – Oberlin College admitted women after already having admitted Blacks
      • Mary Lyon established Mount Holyoke Seminary in Mass.
    • The Lyceums
      • Travelling lecturers made the circuit
      • Gave talks on science, literature, & philosophy
      • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Age of Reform
      • Most driven by evangelical Christians
      • Reform movements included:
        • Education
        • Women’s rights
        • Communal living
        • Slavery
        • Medical programs
        • Polygamy
        • Celibacy
        • Anti-tobacco
        • Anti-alcohol
        • Mail on Sundays
    • Memory Aid
      • A T otally W icked E lephant M ade P eople D evour W orms
      • Abolition
      • Temperance
      • Women’s Rights
      • Education
      • Mental Inst.
      • Prisons
      • Debtors prisons
      • War
      • Women very involved in abolitionism, women’s suffrage & other reforms
    • Prison Reform
      • Laboring class voted for an end to debtors prisons
      • Number of capital crimes reduced
      • Prisons called to reform instead of punish
    • Dorothea Dix
      • Traveled 60,000 miles chronicling the abuses against the mentally ill
      • Petitioned Massachusetts Legislature to improve conditions
    • American Peace Society
      • Anti-war group led by William Ladd called for an end to all war
    • Temperance Movement
      • Custom & hard lifestyle led to widespread alcohol abuse
      • 1826 – American Temperance Society formed
      • Tolerance
        • moderation in use of alcohol
      • Prohibition
        • make alcohol illegal
    • Annual Consumption of Alcohol
    • Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There
      • Novel by T.S. Arthur in 1854
      • Depicted how a stable village was transformed by a new tavern
    •  
    • “ The Drunkard’s Progress” the first glass to the grave , 1846
      • Neal S. Dow
        • sponsored the Maine Law of 1851
        • prohibited the manufacture & sale of alcohol
        • 12 states had laws by 1857
    • Women’s Rights
      • Industrial Rev. had separated men & women into distinct roles
      • Women physically & emotionally weak yet artistic & refined
      • “ Cult of domesticity”
    • Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton
      • Stanton & Mott organized Seneca Falls Conference
      • Stanton urged equality, rights to sue & own property
      • Advocated women’s suffrage
    • Susan B. Anthony
      • Militant lecturer for women’s rights
      • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
        • first female graduate of a medical college
      • Margaret Fuller
        • edited The Dial
      • Grimke sisters
        • spoke against slavery
      • Lucy Stone, abolitionist, who kept her maiden name after she married
      • Amelia Bloomer wore a short skirt with “Turkish” trousers
    • Seneca Falls (1848)
      • Women’s Rights Convention
      • 61 women, 34 men attended
      • “ Declaration of Sentiments” read by Stanton
        • “ All men & women are created equal”
        • Demanded women’s suffrage
      • Launched woman’s rights movement
      • Eclipsed by Abolition & the Civil War
    • Utopianism
      • 40+ communes created during the period
      • New Harmony (1825)
        • Robert Owen established in Indiana with 1000 people
        • Attracted scholars & scoundrels
    • Brook Farm (1841)
      • 20 transcendentalist intellectuals
      • Successful attempt at communal living until fire destroyed the experiment
    • Oneida Colony (1848)
      • Founded in NY
      • Experimented in “complex marriages” & eugenics
      • Made & sold steel traps & silverware
      • Troubles with law led to end
    • Shakers (1776-1940)
      • 6000 members in 1840
      • Celibacy & simplicity
      • Equal spirit of men & women
      • Opposition to marriage & sex led to extinction
    • Shaker Meeting
    •  
    • Scientific Achievement
      • Practical science
      • Nathaniel Bowditch (Navigation)
      • Matthew Maury (Oceanography)
      • Benjamin Silliman (chemist & geology professor at Yale)
      • Louis Aggasiz (biology professor at Harvard)
      • Asa Gray (Botany at Harvard)
      • John J. Audubon - painted birds in the wild
        • “ Birds of America ”
    • Audubon’s Birds
      • Medicine slow to catch up to scientific achievement
        • Bleeding
        • Smallpox plagues
        • 40 year life expectancy in 1850
        • Surgery & whiskey
    • Artistic Achievements
      • Architecture - Jefferson
      • Painting handicapped by lack of wealthy class & Puritanism roots
      • Moved from portraits to landscapes
    • John Singleton Copley
    • Watson and the Shark
    • Gilbert Stuart
    • Gilbert Stuart’s Washington
    • Charles Wilson Peale
    • John Trumbull
    • Music
      • Minstrels in “blackface” sang “darky tunes”
      • Stephen Foster - “Old Folks at Home”
    • Literature
      • Essays - The Federalist, Common Sense.
      • Ben Franklin's - Autobiography
      • The Knickerbocker Group
        • Washington Irving
          • 1 st to gain international recognition
          • Rip Van Winkle
        • James Fenimore Cooper
          • 1 st American novelist to gain world fame
          • Last of the Mohicans
        • William Cullen Bryant
          • Poet (“Thanatopsis”)
          • Editor of the New York Evening Post
    • Transcendentalism
      • Truth “transcends” the senses & cannot be found by observation alone
      • Believed people have an inner light that allows direct contact with God
      • Emphasized individualism & self-reliance
      • Hostile to formal institutions & conventional wisdom
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
      • Famous address to Phi Beta Kappa “The American Scholar”
      • Stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, optimism & freedom as a practical philosopher
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Henry David Thoreau
      • Poet & non-conformist
      • Walden: Or Life in the Woods
      • Refused to pay taxes to support war in Mexico
      • Civil Disobedience
    • Walt Whitman “The Poet Laureate of Democracy”
      • Romantic, emotional
      • Leaves of Grass (1855)
      • Wrote of enthusiasm of expanding America
    • Literary Lights
      • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
        • Historically-based poems
      • John Greenleaf Whittier
        • Influenced social action
      • James Russell Lowell
        • Political satirist
      • Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
        • Poet
      • William Gilmore Simms
        • Southern novelist
      • Edgar Allan Poe
        • Short story author
      • Nathaniel Hawthorne
        • The Scarlet Letter
      • Herman Melville
        • Moby Dick
    • Daily Diversions
      • Stage plays: Uncle Tom’s Cabin & Ten Nights in a Barroom
      • Famous Actors: Edwin Forrest, Junius Brutus Booth (sons Edwin Booth & John W. Booth)
      • Horse racing
      • Baseball (1845)
      NY Knickerbockers 1858
      • Showboats
      • Circuses
        • Phineas T. Barnum “a sucker is born every minute”
      • Upper class crowd “summered” at resorts like Saratoga Springs & Newport, RI
      • Rich often made the “Grand Tour” of Europe
    • Alexis de Toqueville
      • Democracy in America (1835)
      • Individualism & equality characterized antebellum America
    • The Frontier Experience
      • Frederick Jackson Turner
      • “ Significance of the Frontier in American History”
      • 1893 essay described that the frontier forged the American character