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Lecture 15 a


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  • 1. Forging theForging the NationalNational EconomyEconomy 1790-1860
  • 2. QUICKWRITEQUICKWRITE:: How did TWO of the followingHow did TWO of the following contribute to the reemergencecontribute to the reemergence of the two-party system in theof the two-party system in the period 1820 to 1840?period 1820 to 1840? Major political personalitiesMajor political personalities States’ rightsStates’ rights Economic issuesEconomic issues
  • 3. Creating theCreating the AmericanAmerican CharacterCharacter
  • 4. Westward movement continued 1850 – population center located west of Alleghenies
  • 5. Effects of the Wilderness Young population constantly in motion Importance of wealth & the constant pursuit of wealth
  • 6. American pioneers Rough characters Wilderness required hard work & left little time for slacking Self-centered, provincial, & isolationist “self-reliance”
  • 7. Contrasted with the need to work together log-rolling & barn raising American tall-tales & exaggeration Boasting & bluffing (poker playing) Gambling, drinking & fighting
  • 8. Effects on the Wilderness Kentucky cane fields burned off & planted with bluegrass Mountain men began to “trap out” the beaver in the Rocky Mountains
  • 9. The Buffalo Vast herds of American Bison covered the Great Plains Estimated pre-European herd size: 30,000,000 to 70,000,000
  • 10. Buffalo hunters, trading in furs and tongues, began to kill off the great herds Unregulated killing of bison led to the reduction of the herds to no more than 1500 individuals in the mid to late 1800
  • 11. Bison RangeBison Range
  • 12. California Otter Highly prized pelts of the Pacific Sea Otter led trappers to hunt the animals to near extinction
  • 13. American’s love of the Wild Praised the unspoiled wilderness & the beauty of nature This ideal of the idyllic came to be expressed in arts & literature
  • 14. George CatlinGeorge Catlin Painter & student of the Native Americans Wished to preserve the natural beauty of the west Proposed the creation of National Parks
  • 15. George CatlinGeorge Catlin Corn Buffalo Bulls Running
  • 16. George Caleb BinghamGeorge Caleb Bingham Boatmen on the Missouri
  • 17. Fur Traders Descending on the Missouri
  • 18. The Hudson River SchoolThe Hudson River School by Thomas Cole
  • 19. Demographic ChangesDemographic Changes Population doubling every 25 years Population moving farther west every 10 years
  • 20. By 1860… 33 states 4th most populous country in the western world 43 cities over 20,000
  • 21. American Population Centers in 1820
  • 22. American Population Centers in 1860
  • 23. Rapid urbanization led to many problems Slums, filth, & crime Cities slowly began to build water & sewer services
  • 24. Immigration tripled in the 1840’s & quadrupled in the 1850’s Many push & pull factors brought immigrants to America
  • 25. National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860 Why now?Why now?
  • 26. Irish ImmigrantsIrish Immigrants 1844 – The Potato Famine Potato blight in Ireland led to famine & massive emigration 1830-1860: Largest immigrant group 2 million
  • 27. Irish Catholics moved to the large cities New York & Boston Anti-Irish prejudice NINA: “No Irish Need Apply” Catholic & poor
  • 28. Anti-Catholic riots in Philadelphia & Boston Black & Irish relations bad Ancient Order of Hibernians helped to get better conditions Irish votes gained power Tammany Hall Many became policemen
  • 29. GermansGermans 1830-1860: 1.5 million came to America Middle class farmers & political refugees Moved to the Mid-West
  • 30. Many isolationists Most better educated Often abolitionists Kindergarten, beer, & the hot dog
  • 31. NativismNativism “Hatred of foreigners” Anti-Catholic prejudice led to the creation of Catholic parochial schools
  • 32. 1849 - Order of the Star- Spangled Banner formed Led to the creation of the American Party “Know-Nothings” Wanted immigration & naturalization restrictions
  • 33. ““Citizen Know-Nothing”Citizen Know-Nothing”
  • 34. The IndustrialThe Industrial RevolutionRevolution
  • 35. 1750 – Industrial Revolution begins in Britain Slow to arrive in America because: Land cheap Labor scarce
  • 36. Capital investment not plentiful Raw materials undiscovered Consumers scarce Long established British factories more competitive Britain had a monopoly on textile machinery
  • 37. Samuel Slater (1791) “Father of the American Factory System” Built first U.S. factory - a Textile mill in Rhode Island
  • 38. Eli Whitney (1793) Invented the Cotton Gin Made cotton profitable & slavery an institution in the South
  • 39. The Cotton EngineThe Cotton Engine
  • 40. 1798 – Whitney later develops the idea of interchangeable parts which leads to mass production
  • 41. Rise of nationalism increased the call to “buy American” Embargo, Non- Intercourse, & the War of 1812 increased need for American made goods
  • 42. Treaty of Ghent Britain began dumping its products into America Led to many US mills closing down US reacts with the Tariff of 1816 & beginnings of protectionism
  • 43. 1814 – 1st Spinning- Weaving cloth factory built in Waltham, Mass. Manufacturing goes from home to factory Lowell Girls Boston Associates
  • 44. Sewing MachineSewing Machine Elias Howe (1846) invents the sewing machine Later perfected by Isaac Singer
  • 45. 1844 - Samuel F.B. Morse invents the Telegraph & Morse Code “What hath God wrought”
  • 46. The Single CurrentThe Single Current Morse KeyMorse Key
  • 47. Why New England?Why New England? Poor, rocky soil Dense population Shipping & seaports made importing raw materials practical Water power from rivers
  • 48. New EnglandNew England TextileTextile Centers:Centers: 1830s1830s
  • 49. New England Dominance in TextilesNew England Dominance in Textiles
  • 50. CorporationsCorporations “Limited Liability” More people risk capital 1848 – 1st General Incorporation Law in NY Creating a corporation became easier
  • 51. Creating a Business-Friendly ClimateCreating a Business-Friendly Climate Supreme Court Rulings:Supreme Court Rulings: ** Fletcher v. PeckFletcher v. Peck (1810)(1810) ** Dartmouth v. WoodwardDartmouth v. Woodward (1819)(1819) ** McCulloch v. MarylandMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819)(1819) ** Gibbons v. OgdenGibbons v. Ogden (1824)(1824) ** Charles Rivers Bridge v. WarrenCharles Rivers Bridge v. Warren BridgeBridge (1835)(1835) General Incorporation LawGeneral Incorporation Law  passed inpassed in New York,New York, 1848.1848. Laissez faireLaissez faire  BUT, govt. did much toBUT, govt. did much to assist capitalism!assist capitalism!
  • 52. Distribution of WealthDistribution of Wealth v During the American Revolution,During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.the population. v 1845 Boston1845 Boston  top 4% owned overtop 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.65% of the wealth. v 1860 Philadelphia1860 Philadelphia  top 1% ownedtop 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.over 50% of the wealth. v The gap between rich and poor wasThe gap between rich and poor was widening!widening!
  • 53. Labor ChangesLabor Changes Industrialization led to an increase in factories in “Spindle Cities” Factories filled with “Wage Slaves” who lived in slum conditions
  • 54. Independent Craftsmen & home workers moved to the factory Men, women,& children worked 6 days a week, 12-13 hours a day for pennies
  • 55. Labor Unions forbidden by law Strikes uncommon before 1830’s 1830’s & 1840’s saw increase in labor Unions & Trade organization for higher wages & the 10- hour day
  • 56. 1840 - President Van Buren establishes the 10-hour day for federal employees Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) declares labor unions legal
  • 57. Changing Occupation Distributions:Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 18601820 - 1860
  • 58. Women in the WorkforceWomen in the Workforce Lowell factory system in Mass. considered to be a showcase Factory girls lived & worked under supervision
  • 59. The Lowell/Waltham System:The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile PlantFirst Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814
  • 60. Lowell in 1850Lowell in 1850
  • 61. Lowell MillLowell Mill
  • 62. Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?”What was their typical “profile?”
  • 63. Lowell Boarding Houses
  • 64. Lowell Mills Time Table
  • 65. Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell
  • 66. Role of Women “the submerged sex” Considered perpetual minors & under the control of father or husband Few jobs available for women factory, nurse, & teacher
  • 67. Catherine Beecher encouraged women to become teachers & the occupation became “feminized” Women also found work as domestics & nursemaids
  • 68. “The Cult of Domesticity” Glorified traditional roles of women Gave women immense moral power over the family & society
  • 69. FamiliesFamilies Families became smaller Marriage for love not arrangement Fertility rates dropped Rise of “domestic feminism” Became more “child centered”
  • 70. Agriculture RevolutionAgriculture Revolution
  • 71. 1830s John Deere developed the steel plow Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical mower- reaper
  • 72. John Deere & the Steel PlowJohn Deere & the Steel Plow (1837)(1837)
  • 73. Cyrus McCormickCyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831& the Mechanical Reaper: 1831
  • 74. 1840-1860: Small-scale & subsistence farming began to give way to extensive, specialized, cash-crop farming Business farmers replaced Yeomen Farmers
  • 75. Trans-Allegheny western states begin to out-produce the eastern states Increased demand for land & machinery led to more debt for farmers
  • 76. Transportation &Transportation & CommunicationCommunication RevolutionRevolution
  • 77. Motivations: Desire of East to tap West Very poor conditions existed Significance: National market economy Regional specialization
  • 78. TurnpikesTurnpikes 1790’s – Completion of Lancaster Turnpike sparked boom in turnpike construction
  • 79. First Turnpike- 1790 Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connectedBy 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities.most major cities.
  • 80. 1811 – Cumberland Road (National Road) begun Eventually stretches from Cumberland, MD to Vandalia, Il – connecting Baltimore to St. Louis
  • 81. Cumberland (National Road), 1811
  • 82. Conestoga WagonConestoga Wagon
  • 83. Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820sConestoga Trail, 1820s
  • 84. RiversRivers Robert Fulton (1807) 1st Steamboat The Clermont runs up the Hudson
  • 85. Steamboats revolutionized river travel in the West, replacing the keel boats Raw materials went east; goods and people went west
  • 86. CanalsCanals 1817-1825: Erie Canal Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York Clinton’s “big ditch” was a major success Linked Great Lakes to Hudson River
  • 87. The Erie CanalThe Erie Canal Buffalo to NYC: $100 to $5 20 days to 6 days
  • 88. Erie Canal System
  • 89. Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825Begun in 1817; completed in 1825
  • 90. New York City became the largest port in America Other states followed suit & built miles of canals in the north
  • 91. Principal Canals in 1840Principal Canals in 1840
  • 92. RailroadsRailroads 1828: Baltimore & Ohio railroad is begun in Baltimore “Tom Thumb” (1830) Locomotive on the B&O Railroad raced a horse drawn car & lost
  • 93. Early railroads were dangerous & unreliable, but improved with time The Pullman Sleeping “Palace” Car was invented in 1859
  • 94. By 1860, the US had 30,000 miles of railroad track 3/4 in the North
  • 95. Inland Freight Rates
  • 96. RegionalRegional SpecializationSpecialization East made machines & textiles South raised cotton for export West grew grain & livestock
  • 97. ShippingShipping Foreign trade = 7% Import manufactured goods Export agricultural goods Clipper Ships Donald McKay’s naval yard in Boston builds the first Faster than competitors
  • 98. Racing ‘round the HornRacing ‘round the Horn
  • 99. American shipping had a brief period of glory & set trans-oceanic speed records Britain will regain dominance with the tramp steamer ship
  • 100. CommunicationCommunication Cyrus Field (1858) Lays the first transatlantic cable It breaks
  • 101. The Pony Express (1860) established - ran mail from St. Louis to Sacramento Lasted a legendary 18 months
  • 102. 1st transcontinental cable is laid in 1861 Transcontinental railroad will follow after the Civil War
  • 103. 1866 – permanent transatlantic cable established linking Europe with North America