Human Factors in Innovation - Euro IA 2009 - Kalbach


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Human Factors in Innovation - Euro IA 2009 - Kalbach

  1. Human Factors in Innovation<br />September 2009<br />
  2. James Kalbach <br />User Experience Consultant LexisNexis<br />LIS Degree Rutgers University<br />
  3. Innovation is the new black<br />
  4. Invention<br />Innovation<br />Idea<br />Concept<br />Thought<br />Vision<br />Physical<br />Proof of concept<br />“Hardware”<br />Social<br />Information<br />“Software”<br />
  5. Innovation is about social applications of inventions, not about the inventions themselves…<br />Engineeering-driven corporate cultures fail…because they don’t address the social needs of their customers… <br /> Bruce Nussbaum<br />“Are Engineers, Scientists And Mathematicians Enemies of Innovation?” Bruce Nussbaum, Business Week (June 16, 2009)<br /><br />
  6. Factors Affecting Adoption<br />Perceived attributes<br />Type of innovation decision<br />Adoption process<br />Communication channels<br />Amount & type of promotion<br />Nature of the social system<br />Type of adopter<br />1.<br />Adoption of Innovation<br />2.<br />Human Factors<br />3.<br />
  7. 1. Perceived Attributes<br />
  8. Perceived Attributes<br />1. Relative AdvantageIs it better? <br />2. CompatibilityIs it appropriate? <br />3. ComplexityIs it understandable?<br />4. TrialabilityCan it be tested? <br />5. ObservabilityWhat does it look like? <br />Examples of non-adoption<br />
  9. 1. Relative Advantage<br />USP?<br />
  10. Strategy Canvas<br />
  11. 2. Compatability<br />Is It Appropriate?<br />
  12. 2. Compatability<br />
  13. 3. Complexity<br />Learning Curve<br />
  14. “Good Enough” Design<br />
  15. 4. Trialability<br />
  16. Persuasive IA<br />
  17. 5. Observability<br />
  18. Visbility<br />Breadth vs Depth<br />“Information Scent“<br />
  19. 2. Adoption Process<br />
  20. Phases In Adoption<br />Knowledge<br />Persuasion<br />Decision<br />Implemen-tation<br />Confirma-tion<br />Relative Advantage<br />Compatabiltiy<br />Complexity<br />Trialability<br />Observability<br />Uncertainty drives the process of adoption<br />
  21. 3. Types of Adopters<br />
  22. Pragmatists<br />‘Stick with<br />the crowd‘<br />Conservatives<br />‘Prove it‘<br />Visionaries<br />‘Be first‘<br />Sceptics<br />‘I doubt it‘<br />Techies<br />‘Let‘s<br />try it out‘<br />Uncertainty drives attitude toward adoption<br />
  23. It turns out our attitude toward technology adoption becomes significant…any time we are introduced to products that require us to change our current mode of behavior... <br />
  24. George<br />Opportunities <br /><ul><li>Due to personnel cuts, needs help with basic administrative tasks
  25. Doesn’t have time to learn new programmes and technologies, but knows they can make things easier
  26. Concerned about data backups
  27. Maintains both electronic and paper client files and calendars</li></ul>Lawyer<br />“Competition is tough, so I <br /> strive to give clients sound <br /> legal advice.”<br />Company & Role<br /><ul><li>Medium-size firm: 8 fee-earning lawyers, 3 secretaries
  28. Practicing law for 7 years
  29. Focus on traffic law and some family law, but takes cases in other areas as needed
  30. Has about 30 active client matters at any time</li></ul>Background & Skills<br /><ul><li>36 years old, divorced, 2 children
  31. Has email and internet for work, used regularly
  32. Novice database searcher, doesn’t invest time to improve
  33. Not very tech affine, doesn’t like to deal with tech problems; Needs certainty new tools will improve work</li></ul>Tools & Resources<br /><ul><li>A few key books at his desk, shared documentation room
  34. Practice management software and paper client files
  35. Subscriptions limited to key journals
  36. Account with an online research service
  37. Firm is very conscious about spending on resources</li></ul>Work Activities (110%)<br /><ul><li>Go to court (45%)
  38. Prepare briefs, documents; Research (20%)
  39. Consult with clients face-to-face (15%)
  40. Admin work on files, time tracking (10%)
  41. Correspond with clients on a matter (10%)
  42. Keep up-to-date (5%)
  43. Manage business (personnel, supplies) (5%)</li></ul>Typical Work Day<br /> 8:30 Check messages, deadlines, prioritize work<br /> 9:00 Go to court<br />12:30 Return, correspond with clients<br />13:00Lunch break<br />14:00 Reprioritize, correspondence, manage office<br />15:00 Consult clients face-to-face in office<br />18:00 Client file work, research, prepare next day<br />19:00 Go home with law journal and client files<br />Late Majority<br />Sources: Interviews internally; Market segmentation documentation;; Interviews with customers<br />
  44. Perceived Attributes<br /> Adoption Process<br />3. Types of Adopters<br />
  45. What are innovations in IA?<br />
  46. Faceted Classification<br />, personality<br />; matter-property<br />: energy <br />. space <br />&apos; time<br />1933: Colon Classification<br />S. R. Ranganathan<br />
  47. Relative Advantage?<br />Compatability?<br />Complexity?<br />Triability?<br />Observability?<br />
  48. Conclusion<br /> IA and UX are fundamentally about innovation<br /> Tie innovation to human behavior<br />Address human factors of innovation <br /> Conduct ethnographic research<br /> Use existing frameworks to lower uncertainty<br /> Take advantage of the paradigm shift<br />Design innovation has never been so relevant<br /> Reach out to managers looking to innovate<br /> Focus on the risk of non-adoption<br /> Leverage existing techniques<br />
  49. Thank You<br /><br /><br />