Introduction to Frontend Development - Session 2 - CSS Fundamentals
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Introduction to Frontend Development - Session 2 - CSS Fundamentals

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Slides for the CSS-related lectures in the fundamentals front-end development course at init Lab (http://initlab.org)

Slides for the CSS-related lectures in the fundamentals front-end development course at init Lab (http://initlab.org)

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Introduction to Frontend Development - Session 2 - CSS Fundamentals Introduction to Frontend Development - Session 2 - CSS Fundamentals Presentation Transcript

  • Front-end development Novice to professional Practical HTML, CSS and JavaScript Session 2: CSS Fundamentals
  • Agenda● What do we have so far● What is CSS● Including CSS in your documents● Block-level elements properties● Setting up the layout of the document● CSS properties and selectors to learn today● Class and home exercises
  • What do we have so far● Documents ○ index.html● HTML tags in practice ○ paragraphs, spaces and breaks ○ links, images● CSS we have ○ none so far● JavaScript we have ○ none so far
  • What is CSS● CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets● Styles define how to display HTML elements● External style sheets save a lot of work● External style sheets are stored in CSS files
  • What is CSS - Example
  • Methods of including CSS● Inline stylesPlaced inside the HTML document, style information on a single element,specified using the style attribute● Embedded styleBlocks of CSS information inside the HTML itself● External style sheets - highly recommendedSeparate CSS file is referenced.● ImportImporting CSS file from another CSS file when many files are to be edit
  • Rule of thumbWhen styling a HTML element, the closer the CSS rule is tothe given element, it overrides any preceding CSS rulesbefore that.By importance: Link > Import > Embedded > InlineNote: Override any rule with the !important property.
  • PracticeDoing: Try the 4 methods of including CSSAt the end: separate file style.css in css folder
  • Block-level elements● May appear only within a <body> element● Typically formatted with line breaks● May contain both inline and other block-level elements● Contain "larger" structures
  • Block-level elements Source: MDN
  • Inline elements● May contain only data and other inline elements● By default, do not begin with a new lineList of inline elements:● b, big, i, small, tt● abbr, acronym, cite, code, dfn, em, kbd, strong, samp, var● a, bdo, br, img, map, object, q, script, span, sub, sup● button, input, label, select, textarea Source: MDN
  • Setting up the layout - the source
  • Setting up the layout - browser
  • PracticeDoing: Setup the header, content and footer regions.At the end: an index.html file with HTML markup forheader, content and footer div containers, together with aCSS file (empty)
  • Display property● Sets the way to display a HTML element● Most popular values ○ none - not displayed at all ○ block - displayed as a block-level element ○ inline - default value, displayed as an inline element ○ table - displayed as a table
  • Width and height properties● height property sets the height of the element● width property sets the height of the elementBoth could take dimensions in px, pt, etc., orpercentage metrics.Values can also be auto or inherit.
  • Float properties● Property to specify whether or not an element should float.● Property options ○ left ○ right ○ none - default value
  • Clear properties● Property to specify which sides of an element do not allow other floating elements● Property options ○ left/right ○ both - most common use ○ none
  • Position property● Specifies the type of positioning method used for an element● Property options ○ static - elements render in the same order they are in the document ○ absolute - relative to the first positioned (not static) ancestor element ○ fixed - relative to the browser window ○ relative - relative to its normal position
  • Border property● Sets properties for the outline of the element● Shorthand for setting all properties at once● Property options ○ border-width ○ border-style ○ border-color
  • Padding and margin properties● Padding - space between content of an element and its border. Negative values are not allowed.● Margin - space between element border and elements next to it. Negative values are allowed.
  • CSS box model
  • PracticeDoing: Write the CSS to visualize the layoutAt the end: an index.html file with HTML markup forheader, content and footer div containers, together with aCSS file with selectors and properties to visualize themarkup well enough so one can "see" the divisions.
  • Summary: HTML study● Block-level and inline elements in HTML● HTML tags: ○ html, head, body ○ header, content, sidebar and footer ○ navigation
  • Summary: CSS study● Theory: Including CSS to HTML documents● Techniques: CSS reset● Properties: display block, inline, none position relative, absolute width size metric border size, color and place height size metric padding b/n content and border float left, right margin b/n border and outer element clear both
  • Practice at class● CSS reset● Layout setup for ○ header ○ group ○ content ○ main ○ footer● Set fixed sizes on block elements● Color the borders to see the layoutIf youre ready, start your homework at class :)
  • Practice at home● Read and learn about: ○ fonts in CSS ○ text CSS properties ○ background properties● Repeat class exercises if necessary● Make sure you understand how to make layouts
  • ContactsKalin Chernevt: @kalinchernevu: http://shtrak.eu/kalatae: kalin.chernev(at)gmail.com