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By Kaitlin Prince<br />Texas A&M Corpus Christi<br />Professional Skills<br />BIOL 2200.003<br />Morphological and behavio...
Outline<br />Overview of O. orca<br />Importance of classification<br />Definition of species and ecotype<br />Methods<br ...
Current Taxonomy<br />Animalia<br />Chordata<br />Mammalia<br />Cetacea<br />Odontoceti<br />Delphinidae<br />Orcinus<br /...
Overview of O. orca<br />Dorsal Fin<br />Saddle Patch<br />Eye Patch<br />Adult Male<br />Adult Female<br />Juvenile<br />...
Distribution of O. orca<br />Fig. 2: Distribution of O. orca (2)<br />
Social Structure of O. orca <br />Pods: small groups of directly related individuals that constantly travel, hunt and live...
Species<br />Ecotype<br />Often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring i...
Methods: Observations<br />Morphological differences<br />Size/shape of eye patch<br />Presence of dorsal cape<br />Size/s...
Type A<br />Type B<br />O. orca Populations of the Antarctic<br />Typically feed on minke whales<br />No cape markings<br ...
Type C<br />Physical Comparisons<br />Largest pods<br />Eye patch slanted forward; “smudged” appearance; small, gray body ...
Comparison of Type A and Type B Movements<br />Fig. 11: Comparison of Type A and Type B Movements (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
Residents<br />Transients<br />O. orca Populations of the North American West Coast<br />Primarily eat fish<br />Live in m...
Comparison of Residents and Transients<br />Fig. 10: Differences between residents and transients (Baird, Abrams, Dill, 19...
Methods: Satellite Tracking<br />Satellite tracking is a useful way to track individuals<br />Small dart with transmitter ...
Type B Individual<br />Type C Individual<br />Comparison of Type B and Type C Movements<br />Fig. 13: Satellite tracking (...
Culture<br />Application to O. orca<br />Consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to ...
Type D (Antarctic)<br />Offshore (North American West Coast)<br />Identified by mass stranding in New Zealand/handful of s...
Conclusion<br />Evidence for separate species or subspecies<br />Morphological differences<br />Behavioral differences<br ...
Discussion<br />More information is needed on the lesser known groups<br />Genetic analysis of populations would provide e...
References<br />Baird, Robin. Abrams, Peter. Dill, Lawrence. Possible indirect<br />interactions between transient and res...
Image References<br />(1) http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.acsonline.o rg/factpack/images/KillerWhaleRangeMa...
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  • Subspecies: differences between subspecies are usually less distinct than the differences between species, but more distinct than the differences between races or breeds
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBF9cDBUakA– orcas teaching younghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8GaDuCvYbE – CA2 attacks great white shark
  • Transcript of "Separate orca populations presentation"

    1. 1. By Kaitlin Prince<br />Texas A&M Corpus Christi<br />Professional Skills<br />BIOL 2200.003<br />Morphological and behavioral differences between separate populations of Orcinus orca<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Overview of O. orca<br />Importance of classification<br />Definition of species and ecotype<br />Methods<br />Conclusion<br />Discussion <br />
    3. 3. Current Taxonomy<br />Animalia<br />Chordata<br />Mammalia<br />Cetacea<br />Odontoceti<br />Delphinidae<br />Orcinus<br />orca<br />Classified as a dolphin<br />Common name, “killer whale”, misleading<br />Most widely distributed species after humans<br />Classification can effect conservation status<br />
    4. 4. Overview of O. orca<br />Dorsal Fin<br />Saddle Patch<br />Eye Patch<br />Adult Male<br />Adult Female<br />Juvenile<br />Figure 1: Diagram of O. orca (1)<br />
    5. 5. Distribution of O. orca<br />Fig. 2: Distribution of O. orca (2)<br />
    6. 6. Social Structure of O. orca <br />Pods: small groups of directly related individuals that constantly travel, hunt and live together<br />Clans: related pods that have overlapping ranges and occasionally mingle<br />Communities: sets of clans that regularly intermingle<br />
    7. 7. Species<br />Ecotype<br />Often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring in the wild<br />Describes a genetically distinct geographic variety, population or race within species which is adapted to specific environmental conditions<br />Definitions of Species and Ecotype<br />
    8. 8. Methods: Observations<br />Morphological differences<br />Size/shape of eye patch<br />Presence of dorsal cape<br />Size/shape of dorsal fin<br />Behavioral differences<br />Feeding patterns<br />Movement patterns<br />Group size<br />Reviewing available photographs<br />Fig. 3: Type A attacking a minke whale (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
    9. 9. Type A<br />Type B<br />O. orca Populations of the Antarctic<br />Typically feed on minke whales<br />No cape markings<br />Medium-sized eye patch<br />Very large eye patch<br />Well-defined cape markings<br />Lighter, grey colored body<br />Typically feed on seals<br />Fig. 5: Type B (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />Fig. 4: Type A (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
    10. 10. Type C<br />Physical Comparisons<br />Largest pods<br />Eye patch slanted forward; “smudged” appearance; small, gray body with cape<br />Typically feed on Antarctic cod<br />O. orca Populations of the Antarctic cont.<br />Fig. 7: Comparison of Types <br />(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killer_whale)<br />Fig. 6: Type C (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
    11. 11. Comparison of Type A and Type B Movements<br />Fig. 11: Comparison of Type A and Type B Movements (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
    12. 12. Residents<br />Transients<br />O. orca Populations of the North American West Coast<br />Primarily eat fish<br />Live in matrilineal pods<br />More vocalizations<br />Most extensively studied group<br />Exclusively eat marine mammals<br />Typically live in groups of three<br />Less vocalization; complex dialects<br />Fig. 8: Resident dorsal fin (Baird, Abrams, Dill, 1992)<br />Fig. 9: Transient dorsal fin (Baird, Abrams, Dill, 1992)<br />
    13. 13. Comparison of Residents and Transients<br />Fig. 10: Differences between residents and transients (Baird, Abrams, Dill, 1992)<br />
    14. 14. Methods: Satellite Tracking<br />Satellite tracking is a useful way to track individuals<br />Small dart with transmitter attached<br />Temporary<br />Fig. 12: Satellite tracking (Russell, Pitman, Ballance, 2008) <br />
    15. 15. Type B Individual<br />Type C Individual<br />Comparison of Type B and Type C Movements<br />Fig. 13: Satellite tracking (Russell, et. al., 2008) <br />Fig. 14: Satellite tracking (Russell, et. al., 2008) <br />
    16. 16. Culture<br />Application to O. orca<br />Consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society<br />Have been shown to teach their young certain behaviors (namely hunting)<br />Pass on specific dialects from one generation to the next<br />Behaviors NOT common to all members of the species, only that pod or clan<br />Definition of Culture and Application to O. orca<br />
    17. 17. Type D (Antarctic)<br />Offshore (North American West Coast)<br />Identified by mass stranding in New Zealand/handful of sightings<br />Unknown diet<br />Extremely small eye patch; bulbous head<br />Primarily feed on schooling fish<br />Live far from shore; rarely in shallow waters<br />Live in large groups of 20-50, sometimes more<br />Other Possible Groups<br />
    18. 18. Conclusion<br />Evidence for separate species or subspecies<br />Morphological differences<br />Behavioral differences<br />Geographic isolation<br />Fig. 15: Type B spy-hopping (Pitman, Ensor, 2003)<br />
    19. 19. Discussion<br />More information is needed on the lesser known groups<br />Genetic analysis of populations would provide evidence of reproductive isolation<br />Important to determine conservation status (endangered)<br />Fig. 16: Type C mother and calf (3)<br />
    20. 20. References<br />Baird, Robin. Abrams, Peter. Dill, Lawrence. Possible indirect<br />interactions between transient and resident killer<br />whales: implications for the evolution of foraging<br />specializations in the genus Orcinus. 1992. J. Oecologia.<br />89: 125-132. <br />Pitman, Robert. Ensor, Paul. Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus<br />orca) in Antarctic waters. 2003. J. Cetacean Resource<br />Management. 5(2): 131-139.<br />Russell, Andrews. Pitman, Robert. Ballance, Lisa. Satellite tracking<br />reveals distinct movement patterns for Type B and Type C<br />killer whales in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica. 2008.J.<br />Polar Biology. 31: 1461-1468. <br />
    21. 21. Image References<br />(1) http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.acsonline.o rg/factpack/images/KillerWhaleRangeMap.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/orca/kidDistribution.html&usg=__lUmoZMbLL_QUoq3v9uxbWGeenXY=&h=430&w=720&sz=168&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=oOe7Pvao84Mf8M:&tbnh=112&tbnw=188&ei=Ybl3Tc6BDurj0gHC9uSkBw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkiller%2Bwhale%2Bdistribution%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DX%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26channel%3Ds%26biw%3D1366%26bih%3D607%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=117&vpy=111&dur=75&hovh=173&hovw=291&tx=120&ty=114&oei=Ybl3Tc6BDurj0gHC9uSkBw&page=1&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0<br />(2) http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/images/orca-family-med.gif<br />(3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Type_C_Orcas.jpg<br />
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