Questionnaire design & basic of survey

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Questionnaire design & basic of survey by Dr. Badr Aljaser as part of the 5th Research Summer School at KAIMRC

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Questionnaire design & basic of survey

  1. 1. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data1Questionnaire
  2. 2. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data35.3• Statistics is a tool for converting data intoinformation:Data Statistics InformationBut where then does data come from? How is itgathered? How do we ensure its accurate? Is thedata reliable? Is it representative of the populationfrom which it was drawn?Questionnaire
  3. 3. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data4EvaluationquestionsIndicators:Evidence thatanswers yourquestionsSources ofinformation:program records,individuals,publicMETHODSWhoWhatQuestionnaire
  4. 4. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data5• Existing information• People• Pictorial records and observationsQuestionnaire
  5. 5. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data6Quantitative: numbers breadth generalizabilityQualitative: words depth specificRemember, "Not everything that counts can be counted."Questionnaire
  6. 6. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data7Quantitative QualitativeSurveysQuestionnairesFocus groupsTests UnstructuredinterviewsExisting databases UnstructuredobservationsQuestionnaire
  7. 7. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data8Mixed methods for one program• Log of activities and participation• Self-administered questionnairescompleted after each workshop• In-depth interviews with keyinformants• Observation of workshops• Survey of participantsQuestionnaire
  8. 8. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data9• Validity: Are you measuring what you thinkyou are measuring?• Reliability: if something was measuredagain using the same instrument, would itproduce the same (or nearly the same)results?Questionnaire
  9. 9. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data10What do these words mean relative toyour evaluation information?How can you help ensure that yourevaluation data are trustworthy andcredible?Questionnaire
  10. 10. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data11• Survey• Case study• Interview• Observation• Group assessment• Expert or peerreviews• Portfolio reviews• Testimonials• Tests• Photographs,videotapes, slides• Diaries, journals,logs• Document reviewand analysisQuestionnaire
  11. 11. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data12 The purpose of your evaluation − Will themethod allow you to gather information thatcan be analyzed and presented in a waythat will be credible and useful to you andothers? The respondents − What is the mostappropriate method, considering how therespondents can best be reached, how theymight best respond, literacy, culturalconsiderations, etc.?Questionnaire
  12. 12. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data13Consider…• Resources available. Time, money, and staff to design,implement, and analyze the information. What can youafford?• Type of information you need. Numbers, percent,comparisons, stories, examples, etc.• Advantages and disadvantages of each method.• The need for credible and authentic evidence.• The value of using multiple methods.• The importance of ensuring cultural appropriateness.Questionnaire
  13. 13. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data14UTILITYWill the data sources andcollection methods serve theinformation needs of your primaryusers?Questionnaire
  14. 14. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data15FEASIBILITYAre your sources and methodspractical and efficient?Do you have the capacity, time, andresources?Are your methods non-intrusive andnon-disruptive?Questionnaire
  15. 15. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data16PROPRIETYAre your methods respectful, legal,ethical, and appropriate?Does your approach protect andrespect the welfare of all thoseinvolved or affected?Questionnaire
  16. 16. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data17ACCURACYAre your methods technically adequate to:• answer your questions?• measure what you intend to measure?• reveal credible and trustworthy information?• convey important information?Questionnaire
  17. 17. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data18There is no one right method of collectingdata.Each has a purpose, advantages, andchallenges.The goal is to obtain trustworthy, authentic,and credible evidence.Often, a mix of methods is preferable.Questionnaire
  18. 18. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data19• How appropriate is the method given theculture of the respondent/the setting?• Culture differences: nationality, ethnicity,religion, region, gender, age, abilities, class,economic status, language, sexualorientation, physical characteristics,organizational affiliationQuestionnaire
  19. 19. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data20Things to consider:• Literacy level• Tradition of reading, writing• Setting• Not best choice for people with oral tradition• Translation (more than just literal translation)• How cultural traits affect response – response sets• How to sequence the questionsQuestionnaire
  20. 20. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data21Things to consider:• Preferred by people withan oral culture• Language level proficiency;verbal skill proficiency• Politeness – responding to authority (thinking it‟sunacceptable to say “no”), nodding, smiling,agreeing• Need to have someone present• Relationship/position of interviewer• May be seen as interrogation• Direct questioning may be seen as impolite,threatening, or confrontationalQuestionnaire
  21. 21. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data22A structured way to collect informationusing questionnaires. Surveys aretypically conducted through:Hand to hand or face to faceMail (electronic or surface)PhoneInternet.Questionnaire
  22. 22. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data23Surveys are used…• To collect standardized informationfrom large numbers of individuals• When face-to-face meetings areinadvisable• When privacy is important orindependent opinions and responsesare neededQuestionnaire
  23. 23. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data241. Decide who should be involved in the process.2. Define survey content.3. Identify your respondents.4. Decide on the survey method.5. Develop the questionnaire.6. Pilot test the questionnaire and other materials.7. Think about analysis.8. Communicate about your survey and its results.9. Develop a budget, timeline, and managementprocess.Questionnaire
  24. 24. How survey work to produce statisticsRespondentanswers toquenstionsInferenceCharacteristics of arespondent StatisticalcomputingCharacteristics ofthe sampleCharacteristics ofthe populationInference
  25. 25. A survey from a process perspectiveDefine research objectivesChoose mode ofcollectionConstruct andpretest aquestionnaireChoosesampling frameDesign andselect sampleRecruit andmeasure sampleCode and edit dataMake postsurvey adjustmentsPerform analysisQuestionnaire
  26. 26. The life cycle of a survey from a designperspectiveConstructMeasurementResponseEditedResponseSurvey statisticsTarget PopulationSampling FrameSampleRespondentPostsurvey AdjustmentsThe Measurement dimension describeswhat data are to be collected about theobservational units in the sampleThe Representational dimentionconcerns what population aredescribed by the surveyWhatis thesurveyabout?Whois thesurveyabout?
  27. 27. The measurement dimensionConstructs are the elements of information that aresought by the researcher :How many incidents of crimes with victims there were in the last year;The consumption of coffee in the last month;The degree of knowledge of mathematics of childrens…Measurements are ways to gather information aboutconstructs :Questions posed to a respondent (“During the last 6 month, did you call the policeto report something that happened to you that you thought was a crime?”)NB: the critical task for maesurement is to design questions that produce answersreflecting perfectly the construct we are trying to measure.Response could be produced in a variety of meansBut in general the nature of the response is determined by thenature of the measurementEditing of data may examine the full distribution ofanswers and look for atypical patterns of responsesEdited responses are the data from wich inference is made about the values ofthe construct for an individual respondentConstructMeasurementResponseEditedResponse
  28. 28. The representational dimensionThe target population is the set of unit to be studiedThe adult population living in households in 2009;The frame population if the set of target population membersthat has chance to be selected into the survey sample :In a simple case it is a list of all units in the target population, but sometimes it isa set of units imperfectly linked to population members.i.e. a list of telephone numbers when the target population is the adult populationThe sample is the group from wich measurement will besought. In many case it is a very small fraction of the the sampling framePostsurvey adjustments consist on weighting up theunderrepresented groups in order to improve the surveyestimateBecause of mismatches of the sampling frame and the target population(coverage problems) statistics based on the respondents can differ fromcaracteristics of the target population. Examination of non response patterns maysuggest an underrepresentation of some groupes relative to the sampling frameTarget PopulationSampleRespondentPostsurveyAdjustmentsSampling FrameRespondents are the elements successfully measures.Non respondents is the complement
  29. 29. Evaluating survey questions:Are the answers good measures of theintended construct?Example of methods that can be usedto evaluate draft survey questions Expert reviewsThe substantive expert review the wording, theorder and the structure of questions, theresponse alternatives etc.A small number of target population participate in asystematic discussion about the survey topic. Theresearcher learn about the nomenclature of the concept,the common perspective taken by the target populationon key issues etc… Focus groups Questionnaire pretest Researcher test how questions are readand answered. A behaviour coding isoften usedQuestionnaire
  30. 30. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data32The proportion of people who respond: divide thenumber of returned surveys by the total number ofsurveys distributed.Example: If you distribute 50 questionnaires andyou get 25 questionnaires back, your response rateis 50%.Questionnaire
  31. 31. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data33# that answered# you contactedResponse rate =Questionnaire
  32. 32. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data34• High response rate promotes confidence inresults.• Lower response rate increases the likelihood ofbiased results.Questionnaire
  33. 33. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data35• There is no standard response rate. “Thehigher, the better.” Anything under 60% is awarning.• Why is high return important? It‟s the onlyway to know if results are representative.• Address low response. How are peoplewho didn‟t respond different from thosewho did? Only describe your results interms of who did respond.Questionnaire
  34. 34. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data36• Generate positive publicity for your survey.• Over sample.• Ensure that respondents see the value ofparticipating.• Use a combination of methods.• Make (multiple) follow-up contacts.• Provide incentives.• Provide 1st class postage/return postage.• Set return deadlines.• Make the survey easy to complete.Questionnaire
  35. 35. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data37Use language that is suggestiverather than decisive.Examples: “The data suggests” vs.“These data show”; “It appears” vs.“We can conclude”• Don‟t generalize findings to theentire group.• Clearly describe who the datarepresents.Questionnaire
  36. 36. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data391. Decide what information you need.2. Determine sample – respondents.3. Develop accurate, user-friendlyquestionnaire.4. Develop plan for distribution, return,and follow-up.5. Provide clear instructions and agood cover letter.6. Pilot test.Questionnaire
  37. 37. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data40• Be specific• Need to know Vs. would like to know• Check to see if information existselsewhere• What do you want to be able to say:counts, percentages, relationships,narrativesQuestionnaire
  38. 38. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data41• Who will complete the questionnaire?• What do you know about theirpreferences, abilities, and culturalcharacteristics that may affect the waythey respond?Questionnaire
  39. 39. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data42• Make sure questions cover information needed.• Word questions carefully.• Consider cultural nuances.• Sequence questions appropriately.• Attend to formatting.Questionnaire
  40. 40. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data43• Write clear, complete directions.• Review to see if it is user-friendly; consider therespondent.• Make the questionnaire attractive.• Work as a team.• Plan on writing several draft questionnaires.Questionnaire
  41. 41. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data44Distribution: when, where• At meetings, sites, through mail, email, internetReturn: when, where• Return to individual, collection box• Return envelope addressed/stamped• Return envelope addressed onlyFollow-upQuestionnaire
  42. 42. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data45• Purpose of questionnaire –how information will be used• Why they are being asked to fill it out• Importance of their response• How and when to respond• Whether response will be anonymous orconfidential• Your appreciation• Promise results, if appropriate• Signature − sponsorshipQuestionnaire
  43. 43. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data46• Always• With people as similar to respondents as possible• Do they understand the questions? The instructions?• Do questions mean same thing to all?• Do questions elicit the information you want?• How long does it take?• Revise as necessaryQuestionnaire
  44. 44. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data47• Knowledge − what people know, how well theyunderstand something• Beliefs − attitudes, opinions• Behaviors − what people do• Attributes/Demographics − what people are andwhat people haveQuestionnaire
  45. 45. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data48Impact of divorce on childrenAs a result of this program, to what extent do youunderstand the following about children and divorce:Not well Somewhat Very well Already knewa. Stages of grief 1 2 3 4b. Self-blame or guilt 1 2 3 4c. The desire forparents to reunite1 2 3 4Questionnaire
  46. 46. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data49Communication skillsList three communications techniques you learned inthis course that you have used with your children:1.________________________________2.________________________________3.________________________________Questionnaire
  47. 47. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data50As a result of this course, to what extent do you feelthat your attitude has changed about:a. Discussing your children with your exnot at all / somewhat / a great dealb. Allowing your former in-laws to see your childrennot at all / somewhat / a great dealQuestionnaire
  48. 48. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data51How visitation disputes are handled1. Describe how you and your ex-spouse handledvisitation disagreements before the course.2. Describe how you and your ex-spouse have handledvisitation disagreementssince the workshop.Questionnaire
  49. 49. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data52Demographic characteristics − age, education,occupation, or income• Where do you currently live?• How many children do you have?• What is your age?• How many years have you been employed at yourcurrent job?Questionnaire
  50. 50. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data53• Open-ended questions − allow respondents toprovide their own answers• Closed-ended questions − list answers andrespondents select either one or multipleresponsesQuestionnaire
  51. 51. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data54• Do not provide any specific responses from whichthe participant would choose.• Allow respondents to express their own ideas andopinions.Questionnaire
  52. 52. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data55Pros:• Can getunintended orunanticipatedresults• Wide variety ofanswers• Answers inparticipants‟“voices”Cons:• More difficult toanswer• May be harder tocategorize forinterpretation• More difficult forpeople who don‟twrite muchQuestionnaire
  53. 53. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data56Examples:What communication skills did youlearn in this workshop that you willuse with your children?What benefits do you receive fromthis organization?Questionnaire
  54. 54. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data57• Provide specific answers fromwhich the participant mustchoose.• Sometimes called “forcedchoice.”• Response possibilities include:one best answer, multipleresponses, rating, or rankingscale.Questionnaire
  55. 55. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data58Pros:• Easy to analyzeresponses• Stimulates recallCons:• Chance of none ofthe choices beingappropriate• Biases response towhat you‟re lookingfor• Misses unintendedoutcomesQuestionnaire
  56. 56. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data59Example − one best answer:What does the word “nutrition” mean toyou? (Circle one number.)1 Getting enough vitamins2 The food you eat and how your bodyuses it3 Having to eat foods I don‟t like4 Having good healthQuestionnaire
  57. 57. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data60Example − multiple responses:Of the communication skills taught inthis workshop, which will you usewith your children? (Check all thatapply.)___active listening___acknowledge feelings___ask more open-ended questions___provide one-on-one time for discussion___negotiation___other_____________________Questionnaire
  58. 58. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data61Example − rating scaleTo what extent do you agree or disagree with thenew Speeding Monitoring System „‟ SAHER”” ?(Circle one.)1 Strongly disagree2 Mildly disagree3 Neither agree or disagree4 Mildly agree5 Strongly agreeQuestionnaire
  59. 59. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data62• The particular people for whom thequestionnaire is being designed• The particular purpose of thequestionnaire• How questions will be placed inrelation to each other in thequestionnaireQuestionnaire
  60. 60. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data63• Match vocabulary and reading skills ofyour respondents.• Are any words confusing?• Do any words have a double meaning?• Avoid the use of abbreviations andjargon.Questionnaire
  61. 61. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data64• Avoid jargon or technical language.Jargon:What kind of post-litigation concerns haveyou and your ex-spouse had?Better:Since having your visitation rights set by ajudge, what other concerns have you andyour ex-spouse had about visitation?Questionnaire
  62. 62. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data65• Avoid vague questions and answers.• Avoid ambiguous words or phrases.• Avoid questions that may be toospecific.• Avoid making assumptions.Questionnaire
  63. 63. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data66Vague:How will this seminarhelp you?Questionnaire
  64. 64. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data67Poor spacing andlogic:Children‟s Ages0−11−33−67−1213−18Better spacing, logic, andmutually exclusive:Children‟s Agesunder 1 year of age1−3 years of age4−6 years of age7−9 years of age10−12 years of age13−15 years of age16−18 years of ageQuestionnaire
  65. 65. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data68Vague:How often did you attend a workshop for self-improvement during the past year?a. Neverb. Rarelyc. Several timesd. Many timesQuestionnaire
  66. 66. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data69Better:How often did you attend a workshop for self-improvement during the past year?a. Not at allb. One to two timesc. Three to five timesd. More than five timesQuestionnaire
  67. 67. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data70• Ordered options to gauge difference ofopinion.• Keep the order of choices the samethroughout the form.• Odd number of options allows people toselect a middle option.• Even number forces respondents totake sides.• Simpler is better.Questionnaire
  68. 68. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data71Category scalesNumeric scalesSemantic differentialsQuestionnaire
  69. 69. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data72• Use words or phrases to express a range ofchoices.• The number of categories depends on the amountof differentiation.• Three, four, or five categories are most common.Questionnaire
  70. 70. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data73• Balance the scale with an equal number ofpositive and negative options.• “No opinion” or “uncertain” are not part of a scale.They are usually placed off to the side or in aseparate column.• All choices should refer to the samething/concept.Questionnaire
  71. 71. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data74Poor:__Not worth my time__Slightly interested__Moderatelyinterested__Very interestedBetter:__Not at allinterested__Slightly interested__Moderatelyinterested__Very interestedLeft column includes two concepts –“worth” and “interest level.”Questionnaire
  72. 72. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data75Not muchSomeA great dealA littleSomeA lotNot muchLittleSomewhatMuchA great dealQuestionnaire
  73. 73. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data76NeverSeldomOftenAlwaysExtremely poorBelow averageAverageAbove averageExcellentQuestionnaire
  74. 74. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data77StronglydisagreeDisagreeAgreeStronglyagreeUncertainDisagreeNeither agreenordisagreeAgreeCompletely disagreeMostly disagreeSlightly disagreeSlightly agreeMostly agreeCompletely agreeQuestionnaire
  75. 75. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data78• Overall appearance• Length of the questionnaire• Order of questions• Demographic data collectionQuestionnaire
  76. 76. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data79• Use an easy-to-read typeface.• Leave plenty of white space.• Separate different components of aquestionnaire by using different type styles.• Use arrows to show respondents where to go.Questionnaire
  77. 77. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data80• Start with the easiest questions −avoid controversial topics.• Address important topics early.• Move from specific questions togeneral questions.• Move from closed-ended to open-ended questions.Questionnaire
  78. 78. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data81• Only include questions aboutdemographic data that you will use.• You may want to preface demographicquestions with the purpose forcollecting the information.• You may need to state that providingthis information is optional and/orexplain how it affects programeligibility.Questionnaire
  79. 79. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data82AgeGenderEthnicityMarital statusFamily sizeOccupationEducationEmployment statusResidencePrevious contact withorganizationPrior knowledge oftopicFirst-time participantvs. repeatsHow you learnedabout the programQuestionnaire
  80. 80. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data83ALWAYSALWAYSALWAYSQuestionnaire
  81. 81. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data84• Does each question measure what it issupposed to measure?• Are all the words understood?• Are questions interpreted in the sameway by all respondents?• Are all response options appropriate?• Is there an answer that applies to eachrespondent?Questionnaire
  82. 82. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data85• Are the answers respondents can choosefrom correct? Are some responses missing?• Does the questionnaire create a positiveimpression - does it motivate people toanswer it?• Does any aspect of the questionnairesuggest bias?• Do respondents follow the directions?• Is the cover letter clear?Questionnaire
  83. 83. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data861. Select reviewers who are similar tothe respondents and who will becritical.(Also ask your colleagues to reviewit.)2. Ask them to complete thequestionnaire as if it were “for real.”3. Obtain feedback on the form andcontent of the questionnaire and thecover letter. Was anything confusing,difficult to answer, de-motivating?Questionnaire
  84. 84. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data874. Assess whether the questionsproduce the information you need.5. Try the tabulation and analysisprocedures.6. Revise.7. If necessary, repeat these steps topre-test the revised version.Questionnaire
  85. 85. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data88• A quality questionnaire is almostnever written in one sitting.• A quality questionnaire goes throughmultiple revisions (maybe a dozen!)before it is ready.• Remember – a list of questions isjust the starting point. There aremany factors that affect response.Questionnaire
  86. 86. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data89When will data be collected?• Before and after the program• At one time• At various times during the course of theprogram• Continuously through the program• Over time − longitudinallyQuestionnaire
  87. 87. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data90• Purpose and importance of thesurvey• Survey sponsor − use letterhead• Why the respondent was selected toparticipate• Benefit(s) of completing survey• Assurance of anonymity orconfidentialityQuestionnaire
  88. 88. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data91• How results will be used• Instruction for returning thesurvey• When to respond• How to obtain survey results• Contact informationQuestionnaire
  89. 89. Building Capacity in Evaluating OutcomesUnit 5: Collecting data92• Personalize the letter in salutation orsignature• Hand-sign the letter• Express appreciation for theirparticipation• Include pre-addressed, stampedreturn envelopeQuestionnaire
  90. 90. Thank you so muchGoodLuck93

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