Literature reviews & literature searches


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Literature reviews & literature searches by Dr. Taghreed Justinia

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Literature reviews & literature searches

  1. 1. Literature Reviews &Literature SearchesTaghreed Justinia Msc PhDAsst. Professor, Department of Health InformaticsAsst. Director, Information & Communication TechnologyKSAU-HS, NGHATel. +966 2 6240000 ext 26217 / 26210Email:
  2. 2. In this session… Definition and understanding of a literature review Important steps in literature review writing Critical appraisal of journals, articles and websites2Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  3. 3. Literature Search The best way to find high quality information is tocarry out a literature search on one or more databasesand to download, copy or request relevant currentpublications on the topic/s of interest.3Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  4. 4. What is a research literaturereview? It is a systematic, explicit and reproducible methodfor identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing theexisting body of completed and recorded workproduced by researchers, scholars, and practitioners.Fink, A. (2005). Conducting Research Literature Reviews. London: Sage.4Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  5. 5. Steps inliterature review writing Selecting the research questions Selecting the sources Choosing search terms Conducting the search Applying practical screening criteria Critically appraising the literature Journals & Articles Websites5Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  6. 6. Selecting the researchquestions6Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  7. 7. Research questions influencesearch resultsRelevancyRetrieval(# of searchresults)BroadQuestionsNarrowQuestionsHigh =lots ofarticlesLow =very fewarticlesHigh = directlyrelevant articlesLow = mostlyirrelevant articles7Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  8. 8. Possible research questionsBroad question:What is the prevalence of bacterial meningitis?Narrow question:What costs are associated with hospitalization for bacterialmeningitis?Very narrow question:What strategies have been utilized in Saudi Arabia to reduce lengthof stay for patients with bacterial meningitis?8Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  9. 9. Selecting Sources9Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  10. 10. Literature review data sources Online public bibliographic databases Commercial bibliographic databases Specialized bibliographic databases Manual or “hand searches” of references lists “Grey literature” Web reports Expert opinions10Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  11. 11. Bibliographic Databases Medicine PubMed (or Ovid MEDLINE), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO Multidisciplinary Scopus Web of Science Nursing and Allied Health CINAHL11Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  12. 12. Websites Associations, Organizations & Government World Health Organization (WHO) Health Canada Canadian Medical Association National Health Service (NHS)12Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  13. 13. “Grey Literature” Dissertations & Theses SCOPUS (conference proceedings) Web search engines13Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  14. 14. Choosing Search Terms14Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  15. 15. Break down theresearch question Select your database Break down the research question into concepts Identify subject headings (descriptors) for each concept Identify text words for each concept Use a “target article” to help identify search terms Use a worksheet to keep track of your terms1. Your database will determine your subject headings andoperators (i.e., truncation symbols)15Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  16. 16. Different databases havedifferent subject headings Select subject headings that are the closest match for your concept General descriptors: Anatomy More specific descriptors: AnkleDatabase Subject HeadingsMedline MeSHEMBASE EMTREECINAHL CINAHL HeadingsCochrane Library MeSHPsycINFO Thesaurus of Psychological IndexTermsScopus, Web of Science N/A16Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  17. 17. Search Strategy WorksheetSearch Strategy Worksheet_________________________________________________Search statement: I am looking for articles about ___________________________________________________________________After writing out the search statement, underline the key concepts. Decide how the concepts will be combined together using theAND and OR Boolean operators. Concepts to be ANDed go across the grid and concepts to be ORed go down the grid.Fill in the grid with the key concepts and possible synonyms for each concept.AND AND AND ANDORORORORORORORDatabases to search:___________________________________________________________________________________________Limits to apply:_______________________________________________________________________________________________17Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  18. 18. Key Operators in OVIDOperator Command Example* Find alternate endings to thiswordnurs* [will find nurse, nursing,nurses].tw. Search for this term in theTitle and Abstract Search for one term within xnumber of terms from anotherpatient adj3 anxiety [will findpatient within three words ofanxiety]AND Find articles where both termsappearsmoking AND cessationOR Find articles where eitherterm appearssmoking OR tobacco18Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  19. 19. Conducting the Search19Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  20. 20. Conducing the Search Start with your first concept Search for the subject headings first Then search text words Combine these synonymous searches with OR using yoursearch history Repeat for your second, third, and subsequent concepts Finally, combine large search results set with AND Example MeSH search: hypertenstion AND toxicity20Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  21. 21. ConceptsWhich concepts are contained in the question:Does hand washing prevent MRSA in the ICU? Hand washing Prevention MRSA ICU21Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  22. 22. Getting the search resultsConcept 1SEARCH 1SEARCH 2SEARCH 3SEARCH 4SEARCH 5 = 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4Concept 1SEARCH 6SEARCH 7SEARCH 8SEARCH 9SEARCH 10 = 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4SEARCH 11 = 5 AND 10 = RESULTS22Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  23. 23. Applying PracticalScreening Criteria23Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  24. 24. Screening Criteria Examples Date of publication only studies conducted between 2005 and 2010 Participants or subjects only children 6 to 12 years of age Publication language only materials written in English or French Research design only clinical trials24Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  25. 25. Citation List Searching databases will result in a list of citations,which include the information needed to locate thearticles in print journals and other sources25Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  26. 26. Critically AppraisingJournals & Articles26Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  27. 27. Be Critical Once you have obtained the papers most relevant toyour question you should consider a number of thingsbefore using the results. This applies even when the publications are from peerreviewed journals.27Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  28. 28. Publication Bias Negative results don’t (often) get published – If youwant to carry out a detailed or systematic review of asubject area, you might consider trying to get hold ofunpublished studies. Reviewers may be biased against unconventionalversus conventional techniques (eg orthodox drugversus alternative therapy).28Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  29. 29. Authorship Are the authors based at a well-established Centre ofExcellence? Are there any issues of sponsorship or competinginterests?29Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  30. 30. Journal Ranking &Impact Factors Impact Factor is: A measure of the frequency with which the "averagearticle" in a journal has been cited in a particular year orperiod The impact factor of a journal is linked to itspopularity and accessibility Journals with higher impact factors in a subject areaare generally more highly regarded30Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  31. 31. Abstract Quality Read the paper carefully; don’t rely on only the abstract Many abstracts in peer reviewed journals have errors Three common types of inaccuracies are: data inconsistent in abstract and body of the paper,tables, and figures data or information in the abstract do not appearelsewhere; and conclusions in the abstract not substantiated in the paperitself31Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  32. 32. Critically AppraisingWebsites32Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  33. 33. Be critical, be selective The peer review system for journal articles provides adegree of quality control. However, anybody can put anything on the web (youhave to do your own critical appraisal).33Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  34. 34. What to consider Content consider intended audience, purpose of site, accuracy are the sources of information provided? Source; Consider author(s) is it current and up to date? depth/breadth of coverage bias – are there any conflicts of interest Structure; Consider graphics, presentation, ease of use, clarity34Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  35. 35. Don’t forget! Your subject librarian can always help you. Don’twaste that valuable resource. Make an point to meet your medical/universitylibrarian to assist and advise you on your literaturesearches and literature reviews.35Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  36. 36. Useful References Fink, A. (2005). Conducting Research Literature Reviews. London:Sage. Greenhalgh, T. (2006). How to read a paper (3rd ed.). London: BMJPublishing Group. Sackett, D., Straus, S., & Richardson, W. (2000). Evidence-basedmedicine (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Wilson, P. (2002). How to find the good and avoid the bad or ugly.A short guide to tools for rating quality of health information onthe internet. BMJ, 324, 598-602.36Literature Reviews & Literature Searches
  37. 37. Useful Sites NHS Solutions for Public Health CADTH. Grey Matters: a practical search tool for evidence-basedmedicine - Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions - IOM (Institute of Medicine). Finding what works in health care:standards for systematic reviews - Reviews & Literature Searches
  38. 38. Questions?38Literature Reviews & Literature Searches