Companion Planting - How to Grow Garden Vegetables


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Companion Planting - How to Grow Garden Vegetables

  1. 1. Companion Planting - How to Grow Garden VegetablesYarrowbiodynamic gardeners who follow the teachings of rudolph steiner, believe that yarrow increases theoil content of aromatic herbs. this airy delicate looking plant spreads fast in loose rich garden soiland self sows abundantly. plant in ornamental beds and the herb garden. in the vegetable garden,deadhead vigilantly and use barriers to contain its growth. plant creeping, low growing types asfragrant groundcovers around garden benches where foot traffic is light. no known incompatibleplants. yarrow is easy to grow from seed. in early spring, sow shallowly in pots indoors to keep trackof the tiny seedlings. plant in average well drained soil in full sun when seedlings reach amanageable size. divide large clumps in spring and fall to extend planting. yarrow blooms dry wellfor craft use, hang teh flowers to dry and mix their pastelcolors in wreathes and other crafts. thewhite flowered american wildflower known as yarros is actually a european import now naturalizedin the us. the flat flower clusters attract beneficial insects, and the ferny foliage provides good coverfor lady beetles and other predaceous species.Zinniainterplant zinnias in the vegetable garden to add a dash of color. butterflies and beneficial insects aredrawn by the flowers, and birds often appreciate the seeds. zinnias attract all kinds of insects to thegarden with their bright flowers and bushy foliage. Nectar seeking wasps and hover flies are two ofthe beneficials that come to the feast. zinnias also attract butterflies of many species. zinnias areoutstanding plants for beds, borders and containers. These rewarding gail colored annuals bloomprolifically from summer to frost. interplant in the vegetable garden to add a dash of color. be sure togrow a few rows just for cutting; cut flowers stay fresh for over a week with no special treatment. noknown incompatible plants. zinnias thrive in full sun inaverage well drained soil and are at their bestin hot summer weather. they are among the quickset and easiest annuals you can grow from sow 1/4" deep in the spring after danger of frost has passed. deadhead regularly to keep theflowers coming. powdery mildew often causes dusty white spots on the foliage. look for resistancespecies. let some plants go to seed to attract goldfinches and other seed eaters to the garden. easy togrow zinnias are a great way to introduce children to the pleasures of growing flowers.Tarragontwo tarragons are commonly sold, russian and french. rub a leaf and sniff before you buy. the eyeopening licorice scent and flavor is evident only the French Type. tarragon is one of the aromaticherbs recommended by companion gardeners to improve growth and flavor of neighboringvegetables. Place a tarragon plant at the corners of raised beds, grow it in the herb garden, orinterplant it among pots of tomatoes, potatoes, and other vegetables. Tarragon also adapts well to alife in a container, either outside or on a sunny windowsill. transplant young plants 1-2 apart in welldrained light non-acidic soil in full sun. make sure the plant gets good air circulation. eight weeks
  2. 2. after setting the plant out, cut stems back by about half. pinch budding stems to keep plant vigorous.divide older plants every 3 years. freeze leaves in zippered plastic bags or use fresh to flavor fish,chicken, fream soups, and other dishes. use sparingly as this herb has a very strong flavor and canoverpower other ingredients.TansyCompanion gardeners recommend tansy to improve the vigor of roses and bramble fruits. teh scent isalso said to repel japanese beetles, flea beetles and many other pests. Studies at rosedales researchfarm in PA indicated some reduction in numbers of squash bugs and colorado potato beetles on cropsinterplanted with tansy, but researchers also noted an increase in imported cabbageworms. fastgrowing tansy can quickly get out of hand int he loose rich soil of the garden. any benefits ofcompanio planting tansy with other crops could be canceled out by the overcrowding effect of thetansy. if you want to grow tansy with other crops, consider planting it in a bottomless bucket thatyouve sunk into the soil. Tansy may negatively interfere with collard growth.Start from nurseryplants or seed sown shallowly indoors or outdoors in spring. grow in average well drained soil in fullsun. tansy grows and spreads very fast, even in poor soil. confine it in a border, a seperate bed, or awooden half barrel. divide overgrown plants in spring or fall. the yellow button like flowers attractbutterflies and insects to the garden, including beneficials and predators as well as white cabbagemoths. tansy was formerly popular in herbalists remedies but its use can cause violent reactions anddeath. it contains the same toxin - thujone as in wormwood.Sunflowerrearch is turning up strong evidence of allelopathy in sunflowrs. just how significant the effect is inthe home garden has yet to be determined. no known beneficial effects of for companion planting.sunflowers are commonly planted with corn, beans and squash. plant a strip of tall growingsunflowers between plantings of popcorn an sweet corn to block wind borne pollen that could crosspollinate the crops. wild sunflowers, a common crop weed have been shown to inhibit or prevent thegrowth of many species of plants. field and laboratory studies show that cultivated types can beequally detrimental to some of their neighbors. most home companion gardeners notice no detriminalefects from the plants. some claim that the sunflower hulls dropped from bird feeders inhibit plantgrowth around the base of the feeder. sunflowers couldnt be simpler to grow. they thrive in averagesoil in full sun. in spring, after danger of frost has passed, push a seed 1/2 inch deep into the soilevery 6 ". thin to 18"-24" apart. you can transplant the thinings. plants are drought tolerant butmulching and regular watering will encourage larger seed heads. Before you cross sunflowers offyour companion list, do a little experimenting yourself. most research has been done on sunflowerseffect on weeds not on home garden crops.Winter Savory is more strongly aromatic than summer savory. it has a reputation as an insectrepellent in both the garden and the home. some companion gardeners plant the herb with beans and
  3. 3. cabbage in the hope of deterring pests. research doesnt support yet though. winter savory is also saidto improve teh flavor and growth of onions. winter savory is a perennial, is lower growing than itssummer cousin. its thin leaves are dark glossy green, adding some contrast to herb garden plantings.plant it near the kitchen door, so its in easy reach for cooking. the leaves hold well into winter, soyou can snip them as needed, sometimes even at Christmastime. no known incompatible companionplants. winter savory seed can be slow to sprout. sow shallowly in pots in spring or buy a youngplant. give winter savory well drained soil in full sun. it may rot over winter in heavy clay. spaceplants 12 inches apart. take cuttings or divide clumps in spring or fall. winter savory has a strongalmost pinelike fragrance. use it with strong tasting meats or fish. savory is sometimes used to repelmoths from the clothes closet.Summer savory is a popular choice for companion planting with beans. some gardeners claim thatthis herb improves the flavor of beans, for giving onions a mild sweetness. this bushy annual reachesabout 1 foot high. use it as a border or interplant with annual vegetables. savory bears many smallflowers much appreciated by bees. Virgil recommended a planting near beehives to flavor the honey.No known incompatible plants for companion planting. Summer savory sprouts fast from freshseeds. sow shallowly in pots in spring. when the seedlings reach a manageable size, transplant themto average weell drained soil in full sun, spacing about 10 inches apart. snip off the tips of branchesto use fresh in cooking. When the plant flowers, clip off the stems just above the ground and laythem on a screen to dry. Crumble leaves and store in tightly closed jars for winter use. let a plantstand to self sow for next year. summer savory has a taste similar to thyme with a bit of pepper bite.known to many as the bean herb, summer savory improves the flavor of all bean dishes and has somereputation as an antiflatulent. Try dried savory in winter bean soups, or use fresh finely choppedleaves with fish or in gazpacho. mash a few leaves into butter for an interesting taste on heartybreads.RoseGarlic oil is effective against japanese beetles, aphids, and spider mites, it may also control diseases.Alliums, including garlic, onions, leeks, and chives are reputed to protect roses against black spot,mildew, and aphids. parsley is said to repel rose beetles. some companion gardeners suggest thatstrongly aromatic herbs may also repel aphids. low growing plants, such as creeping thyme or sweetalyssum, make attractive ground covers beneath rose bushes, these small flowered plants may alsoatrtact beneficials to protect roses. never plant new roses in an old roses bed. disease pathogens orallelopathic substances that hinder the growth of a new plant of the same genus may be lurking in thesoil. roses need at least 6 hours of sun each day, and must have excellent drainage. they do best infertile soil enriched with humus or other organic material. dig the hole deep enough so the graftunion the scar on the sterm that indicates where the rose has been budded onto its rootstock - is at orjust below the soil surface. trim canes back to 8" and mulch plants with compost. prune off anddestroy any diseased leaves or branches.Rhubarbrhubarb leaves containe oxalic acid in amounts toxic to humans. makes a good companion to mostother plants as long as you allow plenty of space. Although rhubarb is big, it is not invasive and willstay where you put it. Give it a permanetn planting site, keeping in mnind that the large leaves may
  4. 4. cast shade on nearby crops. Some gardeners are tempted to use rhubarb in ornamental plantings forfoliage effect, but the leaves often have a tattered look by the end of the season. no known conflictswith other plants. This dramatic plant grows best where the mean summer temperature is about 75degrees and the mean winter temperature is below 40 degrees. buy dormant fotts or potted plants inearly spring to establish a new rhubarb bed. Plant in well drained fertile soil in full sun, setting rootsso that the crown of the plant is just below the surface. Space clumbs 4 feet apart. Water well. Mulchdeeply after the leaves appear. wait until the second year after planting before harvesting the stalks.cut out flower stalks as they appear to avoid slowing down leaf production. thin leaf stalks are a signthat the plant needs divided. Wait until the following spring then dig up the plant before the leavesunfurl. separate the crown into pieces, each with two or three buds. replant.Petuniasplant petunias as a vegetable garden border, or grow some near your favorite summer sitting spot andwatch for hummingbird like sphinx moths visitn gthe blossoms at dusk. some companion gardenersintercrop petunias with beans, squash, and potatoes i the belief that petunias will controls squashbugs, mexican bean beetles, and potato bugs. scientific trials with beans failed to confirm this, butanother study indicated that petunias may help control tobacco hornworms. Use petunias as a borderaround vegetable beds, especially raised beds where the flowering stems can trail over the sides. Noknown incompatible companion plants. Petunias are slow to grow to blooming size from seed. sowindoors in late winter. if you dont want to bother with the tiny seeds choose from the many flowertypes and coloars that are available at garden centers. plat in average, well drained soil in full sun..Rejuvenate lanky plants by nipping the trailing stems in half to encouarge new lateral growth.petunias often put on a new show of flowers when days shorten near fall. Let hybrid petunias selfsow for a pleasant surprise. what comes up next spring will bear only the slightest resemblance to theparents. Big single flowers in quiet pinks lavenders and whites. best of all, self sown petunias oftenhave outstanding fragrance. Tehyll resow year after year.PeachSome companion gardeners believe that a planting of garlic close to peach tree trunks repel borers.strawberries have proven to be another good companion for peaches. strawberries are alternate hostsof a parasite that attacks oriental fruit moths, a common peach pest, researches noted reducedpopulations of these destructive moths when strawberries were growing nearby. Weeds and grassharbor parasitic and predacious insects that attack red spider mites, another pest of peach trees;unfortuantey, they may also increase borer populations. plant annual vegetables or herbs around andbetween the trees while they are young. Use strawberries as a cover crop, border, or strip plantingnear peaches. Peaches are susceptible to verticillium wilt, dont plant them where potatoes,raspberries, tomatoes, or other wilt carriers once grew. as with other memebers of the rose family,peaches fail to thrive if planted in the grave of an old tree. plant a new tree elsewhere to avoidpathogens that may be in the soil. plant young dormant trees in spring in well drained soil with a phof 6 - 6.5. most cultivatars are self polinating. to avoid frost damage, plant near the top of a slope.Mulch with compost to keep the soil evenly moist. peach trees are seldom long lived, plan on a 12year life span, and start replacements ahead of time. select a disease resistant cultivar and buy onlycertified disease free stock.
  5. 5. PEASa weedy garden may benefit your pea crop. Researchers found that white mustard shelters a peaaphid parasite; weeds also offer egg laying sites for helpful hover flies. Companio gardeners belivethis nitrogen fixing legume stimulates the growth of corn, beans, potatoes, toatoes, radishes, carrots,turnips and cucumbers. Scientific research indicates that exudates from the roots of cabbage familycrops may help prevent pea root rot. Grow tomatoes, eggplants, lettuce or spinach in the shade oftrellised pea plants. The pea vines also protect these tender crops from wind damage. Alternate rowsof peas with shade tolerant chinese cabbage. After you harvest an early crop of peas, remove thevines and plant squash, beans or otehr crops to utilize the space. Pea greens are an oriental delicacy.plant an extra row of peas and leave them unthinned to supply your kitchen with these tasty delicategreens.NasturtiumCompanion gardeners suggest nasturtiums as a trap crop for aphids. destroy infected plants. if youregrowing nasturtiums as ornamentals, control pests with soap spray. nasturtiums are said to deterpests, including whiteflies, from beans, cabbage and its relatives, and cucumbers. some companiongardeners plant nasturtiums where they will later plant their squash, hoping to keep squash bugsaway. scentific trials show conflicting evidence. nasturtiums are available in compact or trailingforms. they flower well in poor soil and tend to produce more leaves than flowers if you can plantthem in the rich soil of the vegetable garden. trailing types are pretty in a window box with marigoldsand other annuals. No known companion planting incompatibles. nasturtiums grow and flower bestin average to poor soil. plant seed 1/2" deep in full sun in well drained soil, after danger of frost haspassed. thin or space plants to stand 6-12" apart. mulching and watering encourages blooms duringhot weather. the colorful spurred flowers attract hummingbirds.Mustardscience confirms much of traditional companion planting lore about mustard. cultivated species canbenefit many crops; wild mustard may be helpful or harmful. according to some studies, mustarddeters flea beetls and aphids from collards and brussels sprouts. bruseels sprouts and collardsintercropped with wild mustard had fewer cabbage aphids, collards had fewer flea beetles. cultivatedand weedy mustard species are reputed to improve the vigor of beans, grapevine and fruit trees. growmustard as a border or strip planting in garens, orchards or vineyards. gardening lore recommendskeeping mustard plants away from turnips. wild mustard may bring more troubles to the garden thanit prevents. it hosts insect pests such as pea aphis and may attract cutworms and other pests that willthen move on to cabbage and otehr garden crops. some studies indicate and allelopathic reactionfrom wild studies indicate an allelopathic reaction from wild mustard that can stunt the growth oflettuce and other neighboring plants. its probably best to confie yoru pmustard plantings to cultivatedtypes, and pull and destroy wild ones that crop up. mustard is easy to grow from seed in early springor mid to late summer. sow seed 1/2inch deep, 3 inches apart in average well drained soil in full sun.thin to 6" apart. use the thinnings in soups and salads. pull out flowering plants. Mustards tang getshotter as air temperatures rise. for mildest flavor, pick young leaves.
  6. 6. MELONSapply fish emulsion when fruits set and repeat 2 weeks later. judging ripeness is tricky. the tesm of aripe fruit will usually slip off easily, often as you pick up the melon. lift the fruit to gauge ripeness ofcasabas, honeydews and other melson, if the stem breaks cleanly with no pressure, the melon isready. Thumping is traditional but not always reliable. Check the bottom of the watermelon. if it hasa definite yellow, gold, or orange huge. its ready to pick. If its a pale yellow color usually means themelon is still unripe.SWEET MARJORAMbushy aromatic plant with a mild oregano taste. in summer, the plentiful clusters of tiny flowrs attractmany beneficial insects to the garden. companion gardeners recommend planting sweet marjoram toimprove the growth and flavor of other nearby herbs. sweet marjoram can sprawl to cover a goodsized piece of ground. either prune it back or give it plenty of room. plant with sage, chives, andother herbs, or add it to the flwoer garden. it also grows well in a container. no known incompatiblecompanion plants. the seeds are small and slow to germinate. if you want to try growing plants thisway, sow seed shallowly indoors in spring. you can also buy plants at a garden center. grow sweetmarjoram in well drained average to lean soil in full sun. cut back in late spring to keep the plant tidyand well branches, dry and store the clippings fo r seasoning. In summer the bush, branching plant isdotted with appealing clusters of tiny purple and pink flowerss. after flwoering, shear stems to 1"above the ground to produce vigorous new growth. Hang flowe heads to dry for dried arrangementsand wreaths. sweet marjoram may self sow in warm regions. this herb has a tast like mild oregano.dried marjoram retains its flavor all winter. sprinkle a handful of crushed leaves in scrambled eggs,potato soup, or eggplant dishes.Marigoldshave aquired a large body of companion gardening lore surrounding their reputed insect repellingqualitites. companion gardeners suggest planting them with cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, and roses,insisiting that the pungently scented plants control aphids, cabbage loopers, imported cabbagworms,mexican bean beetles, and nematodes. only a few of the claims are backed up by scientific research,and sometimes the results are contradictory. In addition the marigolds appear to have an allelopathiceffect on some neighbors. In one study, french marigolds repelled mexican bean beetls, but thegrowth of the beans was stunted, aparantly from the presence of marigolds. One study oncabbageworm counts found that marigolds had no effect. in another the number of worms wasreduced but so was the size of the heads. Nematode studies are more definititve showing a decreasein population in at least five species of nematodes. early studies focused on the resistance ofmarigolds to nematodes and found that the plants contain a potent nematocide that controlledmeadow and root knot nematodes on infested land. Later studies showed that potato root nematodeswere unaffected or only slightly reduced by the toxin. spectacular nematode control resulted whenmarigolds were interplanted with tomatoes and also the same when planted with tobacco. Gardenersin India grow marigolds between beds of tomato family vegetabls such as potatoes, chili peppers, andeggplants, changing the layout by year so the whole garden receives a dose of marigold nematocide.
  7. 7. due to the possible allelopathic effects, its probably best to plant marigolds and vegetables inseperate beds. grow the marigolds as a cover crop and turn them into the soil at the end of the season.the brightly colored flowers are always welcome in ornamental plantings. marigolds appear to beallelopathic to beans and vegetables of the cabbage family. Sow weed in lean to average soil withfull sun after the last frost, or start with purchased plants. space them 1-2 feet apart. at the end of thesason, let a few seed heads mature and save the seed for next year. mulches of the marigold leaveshave been effective in suppressing nematodes. root mulches are also repellant. these findings suggestthat you might be better off tossing pulled up marigolds on teh garden rather than on the compostpile. a border of compact colorful marigolds can give any garden a neat appearance. pinch off spentflowers to promote bushier growth and the production of more flowers.marigolds can inhibit thegrowth of other plants.Loveagesome companion gardeners claim that lovage improves the growth and flavor of pole and bush may also improve the flavor of other vegetable crops. lovage is recommended as a trap crop to luretomato hornworms away from tomatoes. hand pick the pests or cut off and destroy infested foliage.the umbels of tiny greenish yellow flowers attract parasitic and predaceous insects ot the garden, thethe bushy plants provide shelter for predatory insects. lovage takes up quite a bit of room in thegarden. a single plant may be all you need as a trap crop. plant it at the back of the ornamental borderfo an eye catching accent. no known incompatible companion plants.this perennial herb can easilytake the place of celery in recipes and is easier to grow. one plant is enough for most gardens. sowseed shallowly in late summer or early fall or purchase a young plant. give lovage fertile well drainedsoil in full sun. clip back young stems to encourage bushiness. lovage dies back in winter. protect theroots with mulch. it is occasionally attacked by leafminers, so remove and destroy affected leaves.leaves, stems, and seeds all have a savory celery like flavor. try the chopped leaves in potato saladand cream soups.LEMON BALMthe aromatic leaves ma have some effect as an insect repellent. rub them on a picnic table todiscourage flies, or brush yourself with a handful to keep away pesky mosquitoes.LAVENDERsome companion gardeners claim that lavender acts as a fly and tick repellent. lavender is useful inthe garden because its plentiful flowers attract nectar seeking insects including beneficials. plantlavender as a hedge or border, or incorporate it into vegetable and ornamental gardens to increasepopulations of visiting beneficial insects. No known incompatible companion plants. You can startlavender from seed, but germination is slow and seedlings may vary widely in plant habit andflowering qualities. Most nurseries start their plants from cuttings. plant lavender in dry, light,garvelly or stony soil in full sun. clip back periodically the first year to encourage dense branchingstructure. plants often weaken after 5 years. start new ones from cuttings taken in summer. used inspray, lavender is reputed to control pests of cotton. it has shown some repellent effect towardclothes moths, dry a sprig and slip it in a pocket or pin it to a sleeve in sweater draweres or closes. oil
  8. 8. of lavender is said to rejuvenate the sking of face and hands so that hte look younger. at least it willmake you smell good!Hyssopreputed to repel flea beetles, lure away cabbage moths, and otherwise deter pests from garden crops,probably because of tis strong, camphor like odor. long standing tradition holds that a nearby plantingof hyssop increases the yield of grapevines. it is also recommended for orchards because its flwoersare a magnet for honeybees. plant hyssop around the geet of grapevines and between cabbages andits relatives like broccoli and cauliflower. if you keep bees, plant hyssop near the hive. the collectednectar will flavor the honey. this perennial herb makes an attractive short evergreen hedge and is alsogood in ornamental beds. according to folklore, radishes planted near hyssop will not thrive. startfrom nursery grown plants or sow seed 1/4" deep in early spring. thin or space plants to 12 inchesapart. Hyssop grows well in average well drained soil in full sun. Multiply your planting by rooting6" stem cuttings or dividng clumps in sprin gor fall. teh plants are perennial but become less vigorousafter 5 years or so. REplace with new plants started from cuttings or division. This pretty blueflowered plant is one of the better behaved members of the mint family, it doesnt spread rampantly.Horseradishit can spread rapidly. new plants will spring up from root pieces that break off during harvesting. itsbest to give horseradish a permanent spot of its own, where you can keep it under control. If you dowant to grow it next to your potatoes, control its spread by planting it in a bottomless bucket thatyouve sunk in the soil. buy plants or plant a piece of root bought at the groccery store. horseradishwill quickly root from even a small sized root cutting. plant it about 2" deep, small end down, inmoist, rich soil in full sun. Deep loose rock free soil will encourage the longest straightest roots. keepwell watered unti leafy shoots appear. water regularly in late summer when roots are fattening. Digin October or November, before the ground freezes. The pieces you miss will renew the patch nextspring. Somecompanion gardeners grind the roots for a spray for their fruit trees, claiming it hasantifungal properties. chop a bit of the leaf to add zing to salads. peel and grate the roots, add vinegaror mayonaise to make horsey sauce.Grapefor centuries, grape growers have recommended planting hyssop near the vines to increase yields.Cabbage and radishes groweing nearby may have the opposite effect. Companion gardeners note thatlegumes may benefit grapevines. grow grapes near blackberries, which serve as a host for parasitesof grape leafhoppers in studies. these parasites drasticall reduced popualtions of the pest. cabbageand radishes have long been thought to affect grapes negatively. plant dormant vines in spring inloose deep fertile soil, liberally enriched with organic matter. grapes thrive at a ph of 5 to 6 and needadequate amounts of nitrogen, magnesium, and potassium; test your soil before planting and correctany deficiencies. cut back new vines to two live buds, and train shoots to a trellis as the vines grow.Mulch lightly with compost; too much fertilize causes rampant growth of the vinews and a smaller
  9. 9. crop of fruit. pruning in mild to late winter encourages optimum fruit production, but even aneglected vine may produce some luscious bunches.Goldenrodoffers attractive shelter to praying mantids and other predatory insects. in winter youll often seefoamy looking brown mantid egg cases on old stems. Goldenrod is one of the best plants forattracting beneficials to the garden. Its fall blooming plumes or spikes are tighly clustered iwththousands of tiny flowers rich with pollen and nectar. blue mud daubers, hornets, hover flies, and amyriad of other smaller predaotry and parasitic beneficials come to take advantage of the feast. Plantgoldenrod in masses or weave clumps into ornamental plantings near the vegetable garden. Manyspecies self sow freely or spread quickly by creeping roots, so dont invite them into the vegetablepatch. plumes of golden rod an dpurple asters are the perfect combination for fall, in fields or aflower border. some research indicates that goldenrod may inhibit the germination and growth ofsugar maple and black locust by releasing an allelopathic substance. Most goldenrods thrive in fullsun to partial shade in average soil, rich fertile soil promotes soft stems that are prone to flopping.divide plants every few years in spring or after flowering. goldenrods are often mistakenly blamedfor causing drippy noses and watering eyes in fall. the real cluprit is an inconspicuous weed calledragweed whic produce allergy causing pollen grains.Geraniumthe dense, leafy growth of geraniums provides welcome hiding places for insect predators -especially spides. You will enjoy the colorful flowers and appealing fragrances. The snowyflowering types of geranium are reputed to repel cabbageworms, corn earworms, and japanesebeetles. the scented ones are thought to deter red spide mites and cotton aphids. some companiongardeners believe that white flowered geraniums are effective as a trap crop for japanese beetles.handpick the beetles from the leaves. interplant flowering or scented geraniums with vegetables -especially among cabbage and its relatives or use as a border to the vegetable garden. platngeraniums around roses for a pretty combination. Geraniums are easy to start from cuttings, sometypes will also grow from seed. grow plants in full sun in lean to average, well drained soil. removespent flowers on seed grown plants to encourage more blooms. in frost free climates, geraniums areperennial. elsewhere, take cuttings in late sumer or pot up plants when frost threates and bringindoors to verwinter. platns grow tall and crooked with age. To reclaim an old plant, cut the stemsback to short stubs, this will encourage vigorous new growth. Keep a pot of scented geraniums nearwalkways, where passersby will brush against the foliage and relases the fragrance.Garlicsprays can help repel japanese beetles and aphids. science has proven the insecticidal qualities ofgarlic sprays, but its effectiveness as a companion plant in the garden is unconfirmed. plant garlicbetween tomatoes, eggplants, or cabbage plants, or use it as a border planting. Plant garlic in fall,around Columbus Day for a vigorous crop. Garlic needs a chilling period for best growth, and fallplantd bulbs will benefit from the winter cold. the bulbs will put out a few roots before winter, butgreen shoots wont usually appear until spring. give garlic a site with loose rich soil in full sun. plantcloves 2 inches deep and 4 inches apart. mulch to keep weeds down and water during dry spells. a
  10. 10. 20 row will yield 5-10 lbs of garlic. timing the harves is a little tricky. too early and bulbs will besmall. too late and theouter skin may tear, making the bulbs store poorly. wait until leaves being toturn brown, then check the status of one head before you harvest the whole crop. Hang bulbs by theleaves to dry, or weave them into a braid.FLAXcompanion gardening tradition recommends planting flax to improve the growth and flavor of carrotsand potatoes. Flax may offer some protection against colorado potato beetles, perhaps because of thetanin and linseed oil in the plant. Think carefully before you decide to plant flax in the vegetablegarden. May have allelopathic properties. Annual flax grows readily from seed sown in spring. Thinplants to 4" apart in mass plantings. STart perennial species by sowng seed indoors or outside in anursery bed in late summer or fall. plant annual and perennial flax in full sun in light well drainedaverage to lean soil. both types self sow. Annual flax is a common escapee from american gardensand can be gfound growing wild in stretches along the roadsieds. the seed is a favorite of seed eatingbirds including goldfinchines, house finches and purple finshes. it often shows up in premiumbirdseed mixes and sprouts from spilled seed beneath feeders. Collect your own seed for winterfeeding by shaking the seed heads into a paper bag.FEVERFEWbiennial or perennial feverfew is a favorite of companion gardeners for its reputed ability to repelaphids and root knot nematodes. its also an attractive ornamental. the daisy like flowers, especiall onsingle floweredtypes, attract foraging beneficials and the bush foliage provides shelter to predatoryinsects. some companion gardeners recomend ferevew to help repel root knot nematodes. if yourfarden soil is infested with these pests, t ry a companion planting of feverfew with susceptible cropssuch as tomatoes, peppers, and lettuce. or apply a mulch of feverfew branches around these crops sothat the plant toxins leach into the soil. interplant feverfew in the vegetable garden or grow inornamental plantings. t ry a circle of it around roses for an attractive and possibly pest controlingcombination. some companion gardeners say that bees hate the small of feverfew and will not visitother flowers planted near it. sow seed shallowly outdoors after danger of frost has passed, or plantdivision. feverfew thrives in average well drained soil in full sun. it will also grow in partial shadebut develops a mroe open ahbit. pinch young plants to encouarge bushiness. cut back after bloom fora second crop of flowers. sprays and dusts made of the dried ground flowers can be effective againstmany insects, but they can kill beneficials too. apply only as a last result.Dahliatry as a trap crop for cucumber beetles and grasshoppers. the pests devour the flowers. corn stemboreres also attack dahlias. however, some gardeners feel that planting these colorful flowers in thevegetable garden will just attract more of these pests. grow dahlias from seed, nursery grown beddngpacks, or tuberous roots. wait until the ground has warmed and danger of frost is long past beforeplanting out market packs or tubers. plant in deep fertile well drained but moisture retentive soil
  11. 11. enriched with organic matter. when plants reach 6" high pinch out the center growing tip toencourage branching. part of the fun of growing dahlias is collecting the boungy of tubers at the endof the season. cut back after foliage is killed by frost, then lift the clump. sotre the root clumps indamp vermiculite in a cool place. in spring, seperate the tubers so each piece has at least one eye (bd)at the stem end and replant. in zones 8-11 dahlias are prennial and overwinter in the ground it soil iswell drained and does not freeze.Cosmosan excellent plant for attracting birds, bees, and other beneficials to your vegetable garden.Goldfinches are particularly fond of the seeds. the flat daisy like flowers of cosmos make a goodlanding platform for honeybees and beneficial insects seeking nectar or pollen. plant either cosmosbipinnatus the old fashioned ferny folliaged plant with pink red and white flowers or c. sulphureus,the hot colored shorter type. the abundant foliage offers shelter to predatory insects. Cosmos are easyto grow from seed and easy to transplant,even when quite large. after danger of frost has passed,direct sow seed 1/4" deep in average well drained soil in full sun. thin seedlings to stand about 3"apart, and pinch them when young and single stemmed to encourage bushiness and branching. cbipinnatus grows fast and lush and it occasionally falls over from its own weight, snapping a heavybranch of buds or bloom. To salvage the plant, stick the broken end of the branch into the ground afew inches deep or lay it horizontally and mound 2-3 inches of soil over the stem. it will recover inless than a week. Both types of cosmos are beautiful in bouquets. try with a few stems of orangeklondike blooms, buds, and spiky seeds in a green vase.Cilantro / Corianderplentiful blooms attract beneficial insects to the garden, especially parasitic wasps. The pungentsmell of its foliage may deter aphids from nearby crops. Coriander is reputed to help the germinationand growth of anise. the pungent smell of its foliage may help deter aphids from nearby crops.interplant coriander anywehre in the garden. its abundant blossoms increase the population ofvisiting beneficial insects. Coriander makes a good companion for biennial caraway because of theircomplimentary growth habits. some companion gardeners think that coriander inhibits seedformation in fennel. sow seed for this annual herb in average to lean soil in full sun where it is togrow, like most other carrot family plants, it does not transplant well because of tis taproot. sow 1/2inch deep and thing to 6 inches apart. be stingy with fertilizer to keep flavor strong. snip off smallyoung leaves and use in salsas or middle eastern dishes. wait to harvest seed until the foliage andflower heads turn brown but watch plants closely to catch the seed before it drops. plants may selfsow if you let a few seed heads remain. the odor of teh seed changes from mildly unpleasant todeliciously savory as it dries. try 1/2 tsp of ground seed in banana or carrot bread for an unusualcitrusy tang.Coreopsisfree blooming yellow flowers bring butterflies, honeybees, and beneficial insects to the garden allsummer long. plant a border or row of them with your vegetables. its easy to grow most coreopsis
  12. 12. specises from seed sown indoors or outdoors, in fact, many readily self sow. propagate cultivars suchas the popular moonbeam, but taking stem cuttngs in early sumer or dividing plants in spring or fall.Plant in average well drained soil in full sun. All species thrive in less than fertile soil, most arehome in very lean conditions. These native american wildflowers make superb gareden flowers.pernenials and annuals alike bloom over a long period of time and rebloom if you remove spentflowers. thread leaved coreposis c. verticillata does well under dry conditions. calliopsis c. tinctoriais perky annual available in tall and dwarf types,with masses of small gold daisies marked by a russetcentral blotch.Chervilbears heads of tiny white flowers that attract beneficial insect predators and parasites to the garden.grow it as a border or interplant it with your vegetables. some companion gardeners recommendplanting chervil with radishes to improve their flavor. Chervil grows well below taller plants thatoffer some shade. sow seed in average well drained soil in full sun. do not cover. keep the sedbedmosit until the seeds germinate. thin seedlings to 10 inches apart. harvest leaves after about 6 weeks.sow at 2 week intervals for a continuous crop. leave seed heads on the plants to self sow, or collectseed in fall for a spring crop. the warm pungency of chervil liek a combination of anise and parlsey isgood in soups and otehr dishes. the leaves are often included with parsley thyme and tarragon in thefines herbes of french cooking. The plant has been used in folk medicine to treat gout, epilepsy,pleuriss, and high blood pressure, although none of these claims is supported by scientific evidence.Chamomile, romanfresh white daisies and ferny low growing foliage wit the fresh smell of apple makes chamomile afavorite with companion gardeners. the blooms also attract many beneficial insects. its reputed bycompanion gardeners to improve the flavor an dgrowth of cabbages, onions, and aromatic herbs,although no scientific research has been done to conrim this. its daisy like flowers attract manyinsects, including beneficial hover flies and wasps.this perennial herb spreads fast by rooting alongthe sprawling stems. use it as a border herb and ornamental gardens or as an edging for vegetablegardens. try a chamomile lawn around a garden bench where foot traffic is light. start romanchamomile from cuttings or divisions. grow in light, well drained soil in full sun to partial shade. setplants inches apart. shear young plants by hand once or twice to encourage branching. if youregroiwng a chamomile lawn, trim established plants with a mower at a high setting to keep thembushy. roman chamomile is a low growing perennial. german chamomile has similar flwoers butgrows taller and is an annual. roman chamomile is reputed to control damping off disease when usedas a spray. the fresh apple scent is welcome in tea or a bath.Celeriaclet a few plants stay in the garden to flower the second year. the blooms will attract beneficial insectsand you can save the seed for future planting. companion planting lore recommends plantin gceleriacwith beans, cauliflower, leeks, or tomatoes for healthy growth and good flavor. both leeks andceleriac are heavy potassium feeders. plant in alternate rows and freed with fish emulsion. or try
  13. 13. growing cleeriac at the foot of retllised scarlet runner beans. a platning of winter vetch the yearbefore enriches the garden bed for celeriac. it is a cold tolerant plant that grows well in cool weatherand can be overwintered with a heavy mulch. start seed indoors about 6 weeks before the averagedate of the last spring frost in your area. after danger of frost has passed, set out plants into fertile,well drained soil in full sun. space plants 112-15 inches apart. as the root egins to enlarge around theend of the sumer, pull off some of the coarse outer leaves to keep the top of the crown smooth.Harvest by pulling up the plant when roots reach about 4" wide. peel the celery flavored root and addit to soups and stews.Catnipif you plant catnip in the vegetable garden, be prepared to pull out self sown seedlings and creepingshoots to control its spread, or grow it in an unused area. companion gardeners note that plantingcatnip near susceptible plants such as eggplants and turnips appear to reduce infestations of fleabeetles. a scientific research isolated a compound from catnip and tested the insect repellent qualitiesof its vapors. besides repelling flea beetles the vapor also chased away spittlebugs, ants, japanesebeetles, weebils, adn a dozen other species. controlled field research yielded sometimes conflictingresults; the rampantly spreading catnip often inhibited the growth of companion plants. try a mulchof catnip branches around plants to take advantage of insect repellent qualities without thecompetition. catnip seeds are tiny and hard to handle. you could try sowing them outdoors in earlyspring. for more reliable results, start with a small nursery grown plant or a division from a clumps 18" apart. catnip does well in full sun or partial shade, in average well drained soil.Place fresh catnip on shelves to help repelants. A spray of catnip and water was shown to detercolorado potato beetles. cats will ignore catnip unless the leaves are crushed.Calendulaattract beneficial insects, but the plants themselves are often beset by aphids, whiteflies, and otherpests. It may be used as a trap crop. Some companion gardners belive a border or interploanting ofcalendula protects plants against asparagus beetles, tomato hornworms, and other insects. This maybe due to a masking effect or repellent created by the pungent scent of its foliage. It is reputed torepel dogs when planted around shrubs and trees. Its a compact annual that fits easily in thevegetable garden. Its easy to grow. Scatter seed in early spring in average well drained soil in fullsun. Cut plants back to 3" after the first flush of bloom for color until frost, or sow again for fallblooms. Calendulas thrive in cool weather and keep blooming through the first ligth frosts. let a fewseed heads stand for self sown plants next spring. In olden days, the gold organge petals werepopular in cooking and their inclusion in certain concoctions supposedly allowed the consumer to seefairies. you can use the crused dried petals as a substitute for the coloring effect of saffron.Boragebears a blue star shaped flowers that makes is a fine plant for ornamental plantings as well as thevegetable patch. It will also attract large numbers of honeybees. some companion gardeners believe
  14. 14. that borage improves the flavor and stimulates the crop of straberries and other crops. others believethat borage strengthens the resistance of neighboring plants to disease and pests. borage also has anunsubstantiated reputation for deterring cabbageworms. a planting of tall sprawling borage isappealing in a wildflower garden or with shorter cultivars of sunflowers. orchards may benefit from aborder of borage, which attracts pollinating honeybees. Sow seed 1/2 inch deep in average welldrained soil in full sun, after danger of heavy frost has passed. Thin or carefully transplant seedlingsto stand 2 feet apart. Occassionally borage acts as a biennial, not blooming until the following year.Once it blooms, it will self sow freely. Borage in teas or salads is said to create a feeling of wellbeing and joy. A pretty way to serve borage is to freeze a flower in an ice cube and drop in lemonadeor other clear light colored drink.AstersBesides adding masses of welcome color, a border of perennial asters can attract a variety ofbeneficial insects to your late season companion garden. Perennial asters are useful for attractingbeneficial insects such as hover flies and lacewings to the late summer and fall garden. branchingspecies, such as the bush aster (aster dumosus), smooth aster (a. laevis), stiff aster (A linearifolius),and calico aster (a lateriflorus) are often home to praying mantids. Asters complement many lateblooming plants in flower beds, borders and naturalistic plantings. Try them with other beneficialattracting flowers like perennial sunflowers and coneflowers. Most asters prefer a sunny well drainedsite and thrive in average to lean soil. Many species are easy to grow from seed or divisions;propagate named cultivars by division in early spring or fall. New York aster and a few other speciessometimes show signs of powdery mildew; give them a sunny open spot and thin crowded clumps toavoid problems. Grow several different species and cultivars to extend the color range and prolongthe bloom season from midsummer through late fall.Asparaguswait to harvest your asparagus until the third spring after planting crowns or seedlings. Break spearsoff at soil level, using a knife can nick and damage the crown. Ferny asparagus foliage can providewelcome shade for summer plantings of lettuce and spinach. Remove and destroy old foliage eachspring to control pests and diseases. Asparagus grows well in most areas that have either winterground freezes or dry seasons. Choose a well drained spot in full sun and dig in plenty of compost oraged manure. its important to prepare the soil well, since plants may stay in place for 20 years. mostgardeners start asparagus from 1 year old crowns. buy all male plants if available. females dontproduce as many spears, but they can yield large numbers of seeds which will lead to unwantedseedlings. If youre not in a hurry, its also not difficult to grow asparagus from seed. In cold climates,sow seed indoors in peat pots in late february or early march; transplant the seedlings to a nurserybed after danger of frost has past. in warm areas direct sow into nursery bed as soon as you can workthe soil in spring. sow two seeds at a time, 1 inch apart, in rows 1 1/2 feet apart. germination can beslow, up to 30 days, although seed sown in warm areas may sprout in only 10 days. thin seedlings tostand 4" apart. transplant to their permanent bed at end of summer. Place transplants or purchasedcrowns 18"-24" apart in a trench that is 12" wide and 8" deep. Allow 4-5 feet between rows. coverwith 2" of soil. Add another 2" of soil every 2 weeks until the trench is filled. Mulch well and water
  15. 15. regularly during the first 2 years after planting and side dress with compost or aged manure. look forcultivars that are resistant to diseases like aspargus rust or fusarium wilt. handpick asparagus beetlesthat appear on foliage or spears. if diseases infect the bed, its best to begin a new bed in another partof the garden.Barleytry barley as a cover crop to protect bare garden soil from erosion and weed invasion after youveharvested your early or midseason vegetable crops. for a grain crop, replace early maturing plots oflettuce and spinach or a cucumber patch that has lost its vigor with a late season planting of barley.Alternate plots of corn or popcorn with plantings of beans, then replace harvested beans with a barleycrop. Plant in late summer or early fall for a thick cover crop. Prepare the seedbed in full sun inaverage, well drained soil. Broadcast the seed by hand or with a crank type seeder using about 4 lbsper 1000 sq ft. harvest the grain early in the following summer while the heads are still greenish. if akernel dents with your fingernail but does not squash into milky mush, its ready to harvest. cut stemsat the soil surface and hang in bundles to dry. add barley to soups or other dishes, or use a blender tomill small amounts into flour.Apricotssome apricot cultivatars need a second tree for pollination, others are self pollinating. to get a goodcrop, make sure you know which kind youre buying! Plant dill parsnips anise and other carrot familyplants near your apricot tree. their flowers will attract beneficial insects that prey on codling mothlarvae and tent caterpillars. underplant with a groundcover of whie clover, buckwheat or fava beansto attract predatory insects such as ground beetles. apricots are susceptible to a virus like diseasecalled yellows to fungal verticillum wilt, which can be carried by nearby plants. avoid plantingapricots near plum trees or solanaceous plants such as tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants. plantdormant trees in spring, spacing them 20 feed apart. apply a 2 inch layer of compost around the tree,keeping it 1 foot away from the trunk, to supply nutrients, conserve moisture and preventcompetition by weeds. Trees bear fruit in 4-5 years. apricot blossoms are often damaged by latespring frosts; avoid planting ptrees in an area where cold air collects, such as the bottom of a hill. toprevent mold problems, thin out fruit so that it doesnt touch. apricots fall victim to many of the samepests and diseases as peaches. select cultivars that have been bred for disaes resistance. if yoursummers are humid, look for cultivars such as harglow, hargrand, and others starting with har.ApplesAvoid planting young apple tree in an old trees grave, as pathogens may linger in teh soil. removedropped leaves and fruit to minimize the spread of diseases. research shows that carrot family plantssuch as dill and queen annes lace with their abundant heads of flowers, attract parasitic insects thathelp control codling moths and tent caterpillars. Trap crops or repellents planted around or beneathapple trees are homegrown remedies that may help other problems; try mulleins to trap stinkbugs andnastrutiums to trap aphids. Grow white clover, buckwheat or fava beans as a groundcover beneatholder trees to attract predatory insects such as ground beetles. studies have found that ripe applesinhibit the development of tomato plants. and some gardeners claim that potatoes interfere withphotosynthesis and nitrogen absorption in apple trees. plant dormant young trees in early spring (or
  16. 16. late fall in zones 8-10). most cultivars requires a second tree for pollination. plant standard types 25feed apart, semidwarfs, 15 feet apart; and dwarfs 10-15 feed apart. prune yearly in late winter orrealy spring to promote good air circulation. choose resistant cultivars to minimize disease problems.a mulch of marigold roots was found to suppress populations of parasitic nematodes in the soil,leading to better growth of apple seedlings in infested siol.Aniselike other plants of the carrot family, anise produces lacey umbels of summer flowers that attractparasitic wasps and other beneficial insects to your garden. Some companion gardeners say that aplanting of anise will encourage coriander to germinate better and grow more vigorously. the strongsmell of anise may repel aphids and fleas. set off this airy 2 foot tall plant with a planting of creepingthyme at its feet. Anise may be detrimental to carrots. Thrives in poor, well drained soil, in full sunand tolerates drought. Sow seed where it is to grow and thin to 1 foot apart. the plant may reach 2feet high, but it tends to sprawl. clip off seed heads into a bag before the seedpods shatter, but leave afew on the plant so it will self sow for next year. Spread the seeds to dry on a piece of cloth in thesun. sTore in sealed containers. Licorice flavored anise seeds are used to flavor candy, pastry,cheese, and cookies such as biscotti, hard, half round cookies that are favorites for dunking in infusion of vermouth and ansie flower sis used to flavor muscatel wine.AngelicaTall growing angelic forms a striking clump of broad lobed leaves. the sweetly scented greenishflowers bloom in midsummer, attracting beneficial insects to your garden. according to companiongardening lore, the pungent aroma of the angelica plant may help ward off aphids from nearbyplants. Its airy white flower clusters attract parasitic wasps, lady beetles, lacewings, and otherbeneficial insects. plant angelica where its 5-8 foot stems wont shade out lower growing plants. its astriking plant for flower borders or herb gardens and it provides effective shade for summer lettuces.May have a negative effect on carrots. Has a reputation for being temperamental about germinating.grow from fresh sheed; store seed in an air tight container in the refrigerator until ready to plant. sowin a partially shaded seedbed in late summer, do not cover. thin to 1 1/2 feet apart. transplant to thegarden the next year, spacing 3 feet apart in partial shade. the plant dies after flowering in its secondor third year. cutting of the flower stalks as they form will help prolong the life of the plant, but thenhyou wont get the benefit of the flowers. to have a continuous crop, set out plants for the first fewseason, then let plants self sow.Amaranthsome companion gardeners believe amaranth benefits potatoes, onions, and corn planted nearby bybringing up nutrients from the subsoil with its deep taproot. Spiny amaranth serves as a decoy cropfor black cutworms; if this weed grows in your area, try leaving a few plants among your cucumbers,beans, or tomatoes. Grow vegetable or grain amaranth among annual vegetables, or let a few plantsstand in the strawberry bed. ORnamental species such as love lies bleeding and josephs coat haveunusual flowers and colorful foliage. field trials indicate that decaying plants may be allelopathic,soybean yields were reduced in one study. Plant amaranth in fertile soil in full sun. Sow vegetablespecies in pots about 4 weeks before the last spring date. transfer to the garden after second set of
  17. 17. true leaves appear, spacing 6-12 inches apart. or direct sow after the last frost, when the soil is warm.once plants are established, harves tender young leaves weekely. Sow grain species in rows afterdanger of frost has passed. thin to stand 8-10 inches apart. Hang mature seed heads to drie in a clothsack. beat the bag to thresh, and sift out the tiny round seeds. eat the young leaves in salads or cooklike spinach. grind the seeds into flour or use whole.Putting the garden to bed. When all your plants are few producing for the season, its time to clean up.Fall is the best time to clean up out int he garden. pests and diseases often linger on old plant debrisor dig in near plant roots to spend the winter close to their preffered food source. when the plants godormant, pests are trapped there, so its the perfect opportunity for you to destroy them and tidy up. Ifyou get rid of old debris and weeds now, youwill eliminate many pest and disease problems for thefollowing season. Dispose of debris - but off old stems and put any that are disease and seed free inyour compost pile. bury the rest or dispose of them with household trash. you want to clear out allthe brown vegetation, with a few exceptions. you can leave fallen aspargus stems (if not bothered byasparagus beetles) to act as a mulch. And spare the dried seed heads of companion coneflowers.Blanket the soil - as garden space becomes vacant in late summer and fall, turn the soil with a spadeor rotary tiller to expose hibernating pests, larvae, or eggs, near the soil surface. this also kills manyweeds. but to be doubly thorough, pull out any roots of perennial weeds that you turn up. otherwisethey could resprout. if there are several weeks before the first hard frost, plant a cover crop such asclover or winter rye to protect the soil form erosion and compaction. work the crop into the soil about2 weeks before planting the following spring. if you are planting late vegetable crops but still want acover crop for winter, try interplanting them. plant the vegetables as usual for fall, and let them growfor about a month. keep the space between the plants weed free. then broadcase the seed of the covercrop over the growing area. by the time your late begetables are ready for harvest,the cover crop willbe large enough to walk on i without damaging it. a thick layer of mulch will provide ampleprotection for hardy root crops like parsnips, carrots, and beets that you leave in the ground. you canalso mulch some perennials once the soil freezes in late fall. mulc prevents the soil from heaving(shifting as it freezes and thaws) which can damage shallow rooted perennials such as strawberries.cover them with a loose airy material such as straw or pine boughs.Hiding places favored by some troublesome pests:- Squash vine borers hibernate about 1" below the soil surface.- european corn borere larvae hide in old corn stalks and plant residue- spotted asparagus beetle hibernate in the soil, often near old asparagus stalks- potato tuberworms overwinter in old pieces of potato left in the ground or in other vegetableremains.-pickleworms roll themselves up in leaves in the garden or in weeds.- striped cucumber beetles hide under plant litter in the garden or burrow in to mats of grass.- codling moth larvae overwinter in cocoons on the underside of loose apple bark.
  18. 18. ~Companion Planting INCREASES Food Production by 250 PercentOne of the goals of research in South Africa is to look at ways to boost food production with thepractice of intercropping (companion planting, or growing crops together) a cereal grain crop, likesorghum, with bean crops. We have been intercropping sorghum with legumes planted in row of zaipits.Why grow beans? Being legumes, bean crops can improve soils by converting nitrogen from the airinto forms that crops can use. The crops we are working with are quite tolerant of dry conditions andproduce vines that cover the ground, protect6ing it from the intense tropical sun and creating anenvironments in which soil microorganisms, can thrive. Moreover, the legumes provide the farmerwith a harvest of dried, edible beans.What are zai holes? The zai system originated in West Africa as a way to cope with drought and hardencrusted soil. Drought tolerant grain crops such as sorghum or millet are planted in pits about 12inches, 6 inches deep. With the excavated soil thrown to the downhill side, the pits act as tiny watercatchment basins, making maximum use of what little rainfall is received. Several handfuls ofmanure are traditionally placed in each pit, concentrating nutrients near the crop roots.Have we seen any benefits? The results we have so far are from year one of a sorghum-legumesintercropping strategy within the zai system. Most of the legumes we have tried have grown verywell, but cowpea produced the most dried beans.It increase total grain production from 400 kilograms per hectare when grown sorghum alone toabout 1400 kilograms per hectare when grown together with cowpeas.It also increased soil nitrogen as well as nitrogen taken up by the sorghum plants.All of this is very encouraging from the perspective of the smallholder farmer, because it means theyhave a way to improve their soils while greatly increasing food production.
  19. 19. ~NATURAL SOLUTIONS in Africa by Using Companion PlantingAcross East Africa, thousands of farmers are planting weeds in their maize fields (CompanionPlanting). Bizarre as it sounds, their technique is actually raising yields by giving the insect pestssomething else to chew on besides maize.It is better than pesticides and a lot cheaper, said Ziadin Khan, whose idea it is.And it has raised farm yields by 60-70 Percents.In East Africa, maize fields face two major pests, and Khan has a solution to both. The first is aninsect called the stem borer. True to its name, it s larvae eat their way through a third of the regionsmaize most years.But Khan discovered that the borer in even fonder of a local weed, napier grass. By planting napiergrass in their fields , farmers can lure the stem borers away from the maize and into a honey trap. Forthe grass produces a sticky substance that traps and kills stem borer larvae.The second major pest is Striga, a parasitic plant that wrecks 10 billion dollars worth damage onmaize crops every year, threating the livelihoods of one hundred million Africans.Weeding Striga is one of the most time consuming activities for millions of African women farmers,says Khan.But he has an antidote: another weed, called Desmodium. It seems to release some sort of chemicalthat Striga does not like. At any rate, where farmers plant Desmodium between rows of maize, Strigawill not grow.Khans cheap fixes for Striga and stem borer are spreading like wildfire through the fields of EastAfrica.Trials on more than 2,000 farms are finished. It is out of our hands now, says Khans boss HansHerren , who is the director of the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi.The ideas are being taken up by framers in countries such as Ethiopia where we have never worked.Khans novel way of fighting pests is one of the host of Low-Tech Innovations boostingproduction by 100 percent or more on millions of poor Thirds World farms in the pastdecade.
  20. 20. This Sustainable Agriculture just happens to be the biggest movement in Third World Farmingtoday, dwarfing the tentative forays in genetic manipulation.It seems peasant farmers have a long way to go before they exhaust the possibilities of traditionalagricultureORGANIC GARDENING TECHNOLOGIESINCREASING Plant Yields by over 400 PERCENT your Soil ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://remineralize.orgSoil Regeneration with Volcanic Rock Dust Rock Dust added to soil can double plant or lawn growth.SoilSoup Compost Tea ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://soilsoup.comSoilSoup Compost Tea is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Soil Soup is very easy to handle and use.Growing Solutions ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://www.growingsolutions.comZing Bokashi: Recycling Organic Waste with Effective Microorganisms (EM) Tea Making: For Organic Healthier Vegetables, Flowers, Orchards, Vineyards, Lawns; byMarc Remillard Kindle book
  21. 21. ~COMPANION PLANTING BOOKS(Intercropping Gardening, Mixed Vegetables Gardening, Polycultures Gardening):Carrots Love Tomatoes and Roses Love Garlic: Secrets of Companion Planting for SuccessfulGardening; by Louise Riotte booksprice.comA-Z of Companion Planting; by Pamela Allardice booksprice.comA Crash Course on Companion Planting; by Ralph Cummings~ Nook book yahoo.comBobs Basics Companion Planting; by Bob Flowerdew booksprice.comBiological Pest Control, including: Bird, Bacillus Thuringiensis, Predation, Companion Planting,Disease Resistance In Fruit And Vegetables, Biocide, Parasitoid, Pyrethrum, Beetle Bank, Scoliidae,Pyrethrin, Fire Ant, Integrated Pest Management, Tansy; by Hephaestus Books Gardening in New Zealand: Working with Mother Nature; by Judith Collins Planting; by Jeannine Davidoff - South African Organic Gardener
  22. 22. ~Companion Planting; by Margaret Roberts Planting; by Richard Bird booksprice.comCompanion Planting and Intensive Cultivation; by Nancy Lee Maffia booksprice.comCompanion Planting Boost Your Gardens Health, Secure It From Pests And Grow More Vegetables ;by Ephraim Acre Kindle book yahoo.comCompanion Planting for Australian Gardens; by Kelly Morris Planting For Beginners; by Wendi Eaton~ Kindle book yahoo.comCompanion Planting for Successful Gardening; by Louise Riotte Planting for Veggies; by Annette Welsford Planting Guide; by Julie Villani
  23. 23. ~Companion Planting In Australia; by Brenda Little booksprice.comCompanion Planting in New Zealand; by Brenda Little booksprice.comCompanion Planting Made Easy; by Editors of Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comCompanion Planting: Successful Gardening the Organic Way; by Gertrud Franck booksprice.comCompanion Plants and How to Use Them: A Guide to Planting the Right Plants to Ward off PlantDiseases; by Helen Louise Porter Philbrick booksprice.comComplete Guide to Companion Planting: Everything You Need to Know to Make Your GardenSuccessful; by Dale Mayer booksprice.comGarden Companion to Native Plants. Selecting, Planting and Caring for over 400 Australian NativePlants; by Allan Seale
  24. 24. ~Good Companions: A Guide to Gardening with Plants that Help Each Other; by Bob Flowerdew booksprice.comGood Neighbors: Companion Planting for Gardeners; by Anna Carr booksprice.comGreat Garden Companions: A Companion-Planting System for a Beautiful, Chemical-Free VegetableGarden; by Sally Jean Cunningham booksprice.comGrowing Together: the A to Z of Companion Planting; by Susan Tomnay booksprice.comHow to Grow World Record Tomatoes: a Guinness World Record Holder, Reveals HisAll-Organic Secrets. His organic methods work with other crops; by Charles Wilber booksprice.comIntercropping: A Step Towards Sustainability; by Haseeb ur Rehman Frenchs Guide to Companion Planting in Australia and New Zealand; by Jackie French
  25. 25. ~List of Companion Plants; by Frederic P Millerhttp://www.alibris.com Garden Companion: A Complete Guide for the Beginner, With a Special Emphasis on UsefulPlants and Intensive Planting in the Wayside, Dooryard, Patio, Rooftop, and Vacant Lot ; by JamieJobb booksprice.comOrganic Gardening Books, Eco Farming Books, DVDs, Newsletter and Much Morehttp://www.acresusa.comPlanting The Future: Saving Our Medicinal Herbs; by Rosemary Gladstar booksprice.comPrimer of Companion Planting: Herbs and Their Part in Good Gardening ; by Richard B. Gregg booksprice.comPrinciples and Practice of Plant Conservation; by David R. Given booksprice.comRodales Successful Organic Gardening: Companion Planting; by Susan McClure
  26. 26. ~Sharing the Harvest: A Citizens Guide to Community Supported Agriculture ; by Elizabeth of Companion Planting: Plants That Help, Plants That Hurt; by Brenda Little booksprice.comSoil Mates: Companion Plants for Your Vegetable Garden; by Sara Alway booksprice.comSouth African Planting and Companion Planting Guide; by Jeannine Davidoff Gardening, including: Raised Bed Gardening, Energy-efficient Landscaping,Permaculture, Masanobu Fukuoka, Companion Planting, Biological Pest Control, Leaf Mold, SpentMushroom Compost, Green Roof, Agroecology, Wildlife Garden, Mulch ; by Hephaestus Books The Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of Californias NaturalResources; by M. Kat Anderson booksprice.comThe A-Z of Companion Planting; by Jayne Neville
  27. 27. ~The Best Gardening Ideas I Know: Foolproof way to start any seed, Compost piles that work,Practical companion planting, More vegetables in less space, Succession planting chart, Naturalweed controls, Mulching with weeds, Midsummer feeding; by Robert Rodale booksprice.comClimate Change, Intercropping, Pest Control and Beneficial Microorganisms ; by Eric Lichtfouse And The Scientific Basis Of Traditional Agriculture; by Donald Quayle Innis Complete Book of Herbs: A Practical Guide to Cultivating, Drying, and Cooking With MoreThan 50 Herbs; by Emma Callery booksprice.comThe Complete Guide to Companion Planting: Everything You Need to Know to Make Your GardenSuccessful; by Dale Mayer booksprice.comThe Cook and the Gardener: A Year of Recipes and Writings for the French Countryside; by AmandaHesser
  28. 28. ~The Ecology of Intercropping; by John H. Vandermeer booksprice.comThe Huge Book of Organic Gardening and Companion Planting; by Billie Rex Natural Garden: A New Zealanders Guide to Companion Gardening, Natural Pest Control andSoil Health; by Michael Crooks Backyard Herb Garden: A Gardeners Guide to Growing Over 50 Herbs Plus How to Use Themin Cooking, Crafts, Companion Planting and More; by Miranda Smith booksprice.comSWAP your Books with Other People
  29. 29. ~ORGANIC GARDENING TECHNOLOGIESINCREASING Plant Yields by over 400 PERCENT your Soil ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://remineralize.orgSoil Regeneration with Volcanic Rock Dust Rock Dust added to soil can double plant or lawn growth.Compost Tea Making: For Organic Healthier Vegetables, Flowers, Orchards, Vineyards, Lawns; byMarc Worm Tea Primer: how to make and use worm tea for a vibrant organic garden; by CassandraTruax~ Kindle book yahoo.comhttp://vermico.comSoilSoup Compost Tea ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://soilsoup.comSoilSoup Compost Tea is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Soil Soup is very easy to handle and use.Growing Solutions ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://www.growingsolutions.comZing Bokashi: Recycling Organic Waste with Effective Microorganisms (EM) Earth Saving Revolution (Volume 2) EM: Amazing Applications to Agricultural,Environmental, and Medical Problems; by Dr. Teruo Higa ~ EM = Effective Microorganism
  30. 30. ~ORGANIC GARDENING and Eco Gardening~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy PeopleAdvanced Aeroponics; by Chad Peterson~ Kindle book yahoo.com20 Best Small Gardens: Innovative Designs for every Site and Situation ; by Tim Newbury booksprice.com101 Ideas for Veg from Small Spaces: Delicious Crops from Tiny Plots; by Jane Moore booksprice.com101 Organic Gardening Tips; by Sheri Ann Richerson Kindle book yahoo.com300 of the Most Asked Questions About Organic Gardening; by Charles Gerras; Rodale OrganicGardening Magazine booksprice.com365 Down-To-Earth Gardening Hints and Tips; by Susan McClure,001 Old-Time Garden Tips: Timeless Bits of Wisdom on How to Grow Everything Organically,from the Good Old Days When Everyone Did; by Roger Yepsen
  31. 31. ~A Beginners Guide to Organic Vegetable Gardening: Introduction to Composting, Worm Farming,No Dig Raised and Wicking Gardens Plus More; by Mel Jeffreys Kindle book yahoo.comA Brief Guide to Organic Gardening; by Irish Seed Savers Associationhttp://www.irishseedsavers.ie Childs Organic Garden: Grow Your Own Delicious Nutritious Foods, Australia; by Lee Fryer booksprice.comA Guide to Organic Gardening in Australia; by Michael J. Roads Patch of Eden: Americas Inner-City Gardeners; by H. Patricia Hynes booksprice.comA Treatise on the Management of Peach and Nectarine Trees: Either in Forcing-Houses, or on Hotand Common Walls. Containing an Effectual and Easy Process for Preventing Them from BeingInfected with Any Species of Insects; by Thomas Kyle Year on the Garden Path: A 52-Week Organic Gardening Guide; by Carolyn Herriot
  32. 32. ~Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings: Design and Construction; by Paul G. McHenry booksprice.comAdvanced Organic Gardening (Rodales Grow-It Guides); by Anna Carr booksprice.comAdvancing Biological Farming: Practicing Mineralized, Balanced Agriculture to Improve Soils andCrops; by Gary F. Zimmer in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba; by Maria Caridad Cruz booksprice.comAgricultural Options of the Poor: A Handbook for Those Who Serve Them; by Timothy N. Motts Best Gardening Secrets; by the Editors of Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comAllergy-Free Gardening: The Revolutionary Guide to Healthy Landscaping; by Thomas Leo Ogren
  33. 33. ~Allotment Gardening: An Organic Guide For Beginners; by Susan Berger, the Organic Centre, Ireland Kindle book yahoo.comAlternatives to Peat; by Pauline Pears to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions; by Laura S. Meitzner booksprice.comAn Earth Saving Revolution (Volume 2) EM: Amazing Applications to Agricultural,Environmental, and Medical Problems; by Dr. Teruo Higa ~ EM = Effective Microorganism booksprice.comAny Size, Anywhere Edible Gardening: The No Yard, No Time, No Problem Way to Grow YourOwn Food; by William Moss Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAnything Grows: Ingenious Ways To Grow More Food In Front Yards, Backyards, Side Yards, InThe Suburbs, In The City, On Rooftops, Even Parking Lots; by Sheryl London
  34. 34. ~Apartment Gardening: Plants, Projects, and Recipes for Growing Food in Your Urban Home; byAmy Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAquaponic Gardening: A Step-By-Step Guide to Raising Vegetables; by Sylvia Bernstein Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAsphalt to Ecosystems: Design Ideas for Schoolyard Transformation; by Sharon Gamson Danks booksprice.comAttracting Native Pollinators: The Xerces Society Guide Protecting North Americas Bees andButterflies Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAustralia and New Zealand Guide to Compost Gardening: A Guide to Gardening Without Digging:by David Hornblow booksprice.comBackyard Farming: Growing Your Own Fresh Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in a Small Space; by LeeFoster booksprice.comBack to Eden; by Jethro Kloss - he was curing cancer in the Kindle book ~ Nook book
  35. 35. ~Backyard Organic Gardening in Australia; by Brenda Little booksprice.comBackyard Bounty: The Complete Guide to Year-Round Organic Gardening in the Pacific Northwest;by Linda A Gilkeson Kindle book ~ Nook book booksprice.comBalcony Gardening : Growing Herbs and Vegetables in a Small Urban Space; by Jeff Haase Kindle book yahoo.comBasic Book of Cloche and Frame Gardening; by W E Shewell-Cooper Book of Natural Gardening; by Wilfred Edward Shewell-Cooper booksprice.comBasic Vegetable Gardening: Small-Scale Vegetable Production in Tropical Climates; by E.D. Adams Ideas for Organic Vegetable Growing; by Glenn F. Johns
  36. 36. ~Best Methods for Growing Fruits and Berries; by Rodale Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comBetter Vegetable Gardens the Chinese Way: Peter Chans Raised-Bed System; by Peter Chan Plants for American Gardens; by Eleanor Anthony King booksprice.comBig Ideas for Northwest Small Gardens; by Marty Wingate booksprice.comBiodynamics for the Home Garden, New Zealand; by Peter Proctor booksprice.comBiofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture; by Arun K. Sharma Transmutations; by C. Louis Kervran booksprice.comBioshelter Market Garden: A Permaculture Farm; by Darrell Kindle book ~ Nook book
  37. 37. ~Botanicas Organic Gardening: The Healthy Way to Live and Grow; by Judyth McLeond. booksprice.comBreaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival; by David Hanson Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comBuilding and Using Cold Frames; by Charles Siegchrist Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comBuilding Soils Naturally: Innovative Methods for Organic Gardeners; by Phil Nauta With Cob: A Step-by-step Guide; by Adam Weismann Kindle book bookfinder.comBush-Fruits: A Horticultural Monograph of Raspberries, Blackberries, Dewberries, Currants,Gooseberries, and Other Shrub-Like Fruits; by Fred W. Card Nook book yahoo.comCharles Dowdings Vegetable Course; by Charles Dowding
  38. 38. ~Chicos Organic Gardening and Natural Living; by Frank Bucaro booksprice.comCity Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America; by Laura J. Lawson booksprice.comCity Peoples Book of Raising Food; by Helga Olkowski booksprice.comCity Permaculture, Volume 1: Sustainable Living in Small Spaces; by Earth Garden Publication Permaculture, Volume 2; by Earth Garden Publication Soil Gardening - Australasian Edition; by Michael Carr~ Kindle book yahoo.comCold-Climate Gardening; by Lewis Hill booksprice.comComfrey: Fodder, Food and Remedy, United Kingdom; by Lawrence Donegan Hills
  39. 39. ~Comfrey Report: The Story of the Worlds Fastest Protein Builder and Herbal Healer; by Lawrence D.Hills booksprice.comCommonsense Gardening in Australia: Organic Growing for All Gardeners ; by Panorama Books booksprice.comCommon Sense Organic Gardening; by Warner Fremont Bower Gardening, New Zealand; by Stephen Trinder Organic Gardening: A Comprehensive Guide to Better Gardening and Increased SelfSufficiency; by Jonathan Sturm booksprice.comCompost and Mulch Gardening; by Rodale Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comCompost Gardening: A New Time-Saving System for More Flavorful Vegetables, Bountiful Blooms,and the Richest Soil Youve Ever Seen; by by Wilfred Edward Shewell-Cooper
  40. 40. ~Compost, Vermicompost, and Compost Tea; by Grace Gershuny Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comComposting: The Ultimate Organic Guide to Recycling Your Garden, Australia; by Tim Marshall booksprice.comComposting for Manure Management; by The Staff of BioCycle Inside And Out: The Comprehensive Guide To Reusing Trash, Saving Money AndEnjoying The Benefits Of Organic Gardening; by Stephanie Davies Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comCountry Wisdom and Know-How: Everything You Need To Know to Live Off the Land; by StoreyPublishing Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comContour Farming with Living Barriers; by World Neighbors to Organic Farming; by Nicolas Lampkin