Leadership and change management to succeed in process improvement


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This workshop was dedicated to the driving forces of behavioural change and leadership; to maximise skills required to deliver on process improvement and culture change initiatives.

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  • What is required of leadership roles in change management? Lead and listenInvolve the group in achieving insightsGenuinely participativeRecognise that cognitive redefinition of employees will only happen if they are involved in the process
  • Impact of Leadership:Leadership has a major impact on the culture and climate in organisations. In order to implement sustainable transformation in organisations the “what” and the “way” of the change initiative should be translated throughout the organisation through a process of Inclusivity. Ultimately, the climate will be conducive, indifferent or destructive – that is virtuous, neutral or vicious, which adds to the complexity of organisational dynamics.So why then is leadership important?
  • Leadership provides the 4 aspects of engagement in the first gear. This in turn drives the engaging climate, leading to the benefits in the last gear. Transformation requires an engaged climate to improve chances of success and ease of change processes. If you attempt to make a change in this climate, you have tackled one of the biggest hurdles, individual engagement. Imagine what this would look like in a disengaged model....
  • Recognising of course that an engaged climate only provides part of the answer – others will be discussed later in this workshop.
  • Consider these questions and the various responses.(culture, type of organisation, different org cultures etc)
  • When we understand the important of engagement, we can understand what an engaged employee looks like...
  • What does an engaged workplace look like? What does an engaged workforce bring to the table? Discuss Apathetic * and what then does the Virtuous Cycle look like?*And how do we measure Engagement?
  • This survey serves to: 1. explore the relations between perceptions that influence organisational commitment and the unleashing of individual voices;2. understand the underlying assumptions as they pertain to the individual, the group, the organisation and the greater organisation; and todetermine the level of engagement within the organisation*Complete surveys and collect...let me take you briefly through the tool and its results...At any point in time, a company should be able to measure the capacity in the system to perform (climate and culture) in order to determine the essence of where it might be, how it’s members perceive it’s goals, objectives, leadership and culture and how this is all informed by the interaction between individuals, teams, the organisation itself, and the greater political, societal, and situational context in which it operates. Depending on how leadership rolls out strategic initiatives, engages its members in decision-making, builds an inclusive, accountable, transparent and consistent climate that encouragesengagement, will to a large extent determine whether the company finds itself in a virtuous or vicious cycle of behaviours. No company can ever see itself in isolation, since the micro and macro environment it forms part of will have direct impacts on its functioning. Changes within these environments are always systemic in nature.
  • Evident Enablers:aid in unleashing the energy if allowed to continue to operateOutcome Compromisers: presently “block” or paralyse the system to function optimallyManifested Dynamic: Climate as is already evident, if left alone or not addressedWhat this also provides us, is the formula for success (particular to Australia and to one particular organisation). This formula appears as:
  • Resistance can manifest in many well understood ways, which is why organisations wish to avoid it.
  • Resistance can happen for a number of well defined reasons, both from an individual and an organisational perspective. Here are only a few examples that may be affected by Process Change.
  • All stakeholders in change ask themselves these questions, and it establishes if they are resistant or accepting of change.The response then falls into these categories:
  • As you can see, there are significant change barriers present here, if stakeholders are not fully satisfied with their internal answers to the questions posed.*
  • Recognising of course that an engaged climate only provides part of the answer – others will be discussed later in this workshop.
  • Types of change can be role changes, supervisor changes, process changes, new technology, etc.Consider “job security”, fear of unknown, changed co-workers, altered social relationships, power balance changes, previous change failures in the org, See Appendix 1 – Building Commitment to Change
  • There are plenty of communication strategy courses you can do, and you are technical experts in this area, but do we understand the human side to communicating for cooperation, critical during periods of change?
  • How does your strategic and operational change plan help drive engagement of stakeholders?
  • Management: Co-design of change plan Discussion at senior management level of symptoms of change requirements Negotiation of objectives Involvement at approval stages Lead the Celebration of successTriallingProcess developmentProfessional development process (BarOn,
  • Involvement in testing and finding issues behind the symptoms driving the changeNew Process developmentTrialling process changes
  • Let’s look at a few published studies of the effect these issues have on process improvements, and discuss examples from our own experiences...
  • Trist and Bamforth studying the change of coal-mining techniques from technical obsolescence to modern machinery. In the course of their study, they discovered that the workers not only resisted verbally, but they failed to produce with any appreciable change in output. The modern machinery caused the men to lose identification with their jobs. They had not been consulted about the change, and therefore they were not conditioned to accept it.
  • One of the skills required is knowing how to manage resistance.**Then, Systems thinking allows you to understand the link between Engagement, resistance to change, and the engagement quotient to help build levels of engagement while reducing resistance!See Appendix 2: Reducing Resistance to Change
  • BehavioursResilience – must be able to persist despite a lack of immediate feedback and constant stakeholder questioning (self-confidence, desire to achieve, willingness to take risks)Insight – Clear and complete organisational picture and understanding own roleIdentity – internalised the change/direction – leaders are able to change their self-concept in line with the direction of the changeSelf-awareness, self-regulatory, motivation, empathy and social skillGoal-focusedHave clearly defined rolesGood intrapersonal skills (EQ)Good interpersonal skills (communication, negotiation, managing up etc) Good organisation-related competencies (political skills to gain commitment etc)Skills/CapabilitiesTranslate vision to othersCommunicate and obtain feedbackPersuade others to adopt the changePlan and build change readinessBuild training, development and reward schemesManage resistance to change
  • Consider conducting the BEQ prior to major change initiatives, particularly transformational change.Worst case scenario, you are intuitive enough to do a thumb suck....
  • See Appendix 3 – Assessment of Change Checklist
  • Leadership and change management to succeed in process improvement

    1. 1. The Critical Value of Engagement Leadership and Change Management to Succeed in Process Improvement
    2. 2.  Change Management, Leadership and Engagement  Engagement Theory  Benchmarking Your Organisational Engagement  Understanding Resistance to Change  Quotient of Engagement: Promoting Change Success  Enablement  Inclusion  Corporate Citizenship  Change Agent Skills Sets  Overcoming Challenges in Engagement/Resistance Agenda
    3. 3.  Lead and listen  Involve the group in achieving insights  Genuinely participative  Recognise that cognitive redefinition of employees will only happen if they are involved in the process Schein, E. H. (2004). Organisational Culture and Leadership (3 ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Leadership and Change
    4. 4.  Major impact on culture/climate  Change initiative translation throughout organisation  “What” and “Why” of the change is clear  Build inclusivity Change Management/Leadership Impact
    5. 5. Clarity of: • contribution • measures • authority • reward Engaging Climate Productivity Efficiency Job Satisfaction Safety Engagement in Organisations
    6. 6. • Uninformed Stakeholders • Disconnected Managers • etc Change Initiative Fails Reduced or Stagnant Org Performance Apathetic Climate Change Resistance Criticality of Engagement/Leadership
    7. 7. 1. What is engagement? - Behaviour, attitude, or outcome 2. What does engagement look like? 3. What does a workforce require to feel engaged? 4. What factors may contribute to different responses?
    8. 8. Viljoen (2007) defined engaged commitment as: “the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose, a person of energy and commitment” and “the act of binding oneself to a course of action” What is Engagement
    9. 9. Virtuous Cycle: EngagedVicious Cycle: Apathetic  Unleashing Voice  Productivity  Staff Retention  Employee Satisfaction  Creativity And Innovation  Value Based Behaviour  Safe Behaviour  Disengagement  Absenteeism  Staff Turnover  Change Resistance  Low Morale  Negative Behaviour  Poor Service Delivery  Incidents And Accidents Engagement Correlation
    10. 10. Benchmark of Engagement Quotient: BeQ (Mandala Consulting)  This tool measures the level of engagement within an organisation.  It is customised to measure unique business needs at a site. Please complete the survey.
    11. 11. Sample Result: 76.73% = Engaged (careful engagement) Engagement Quotient
    12. 12. The Story of an Organisation
    13. 13. I_ENGAGE = .153*ENABLED + .125*INCLUSION + .103*CORPOR_CITIZEN + .089*SUPPORT + 1.405 But we will save this for later... What?!
    14. 14.  Leaders impact engagement  Engagement impacts change resistance  Change resistance impacts organisational performance Where are we so far…
    15. 15.  Strikes  Sabotage  Drop in motivation  Insecurity  Loss of morale  Non-participation in change initiatives Resistance to Change
    16. 16.  Individual Barriers  Economic fears  Loss of role identification  Organisational Barriers  Structural inertia  Performance norms (procedures, work agreements etc)  Previous unsuccessful changes Reasons for Resistance
    17. 17. Whether disconnected or engaged:  Will this change cause me to gain or lose something of value?  Do I understand the nature of this change?  Do I trust the initiators of this change?  Do I agree with the advisability of this change? Furnham, A. (2005). The psychology of behaviour at work: The individual in the organization (2 ed.). London: Psychology Press. Acceptance/Resistance
    18. 18.  Quitting  Active resistance  Opposition  Acquiescence  Acceptance/modification  Acceptance  Active support (Greenberg & Baron, 1992) Disengaged + (-) response Engaged + (+) response Response to Change Decision
    19. 19. • Engaged employees • Management buy-in • etc Change Initiative Successful Improved Org Performance Engaged Climate Change Support Criticality of Engagement/Leadership
    20. 20. Think of a change you have been involved in at a superficial level, that is, not as the Change Agent. How would you have answered these questions?  Will this change cause me to gain or lose something of value?  Do I understand the nature of this change?  Do I trust the initiators of this change?  Do I agree with the advisability of this change? If negative, how do we turn it around?
    21. 21. I_ENGAGE = .153*ENABLED + .125*INCLUSION + .103*CORPOR_CITIZEN + .089*SUPPORT + .1.405 Engagement v. Resistance to Change
    22. 22. Information flows freely and appropriately  Employees have the necessary information to work within the organisation (clarity)  Employee fear reduced/managed  Management able to make correct decisions  Management able to make timely decisions Enable
    23. 23.  Contributors to low levels of enablement:  ineffective communication flow  lack of transparent information-sharing  lack of consultation about changes  Leads to:  Frustration  Lack of energy for change  Feeling isolated within the organisation  “Rumour mill” Enable
    24. 24.  Leadership impact through communication processes and style What then defines good communication to assist managing stakeholders? Enable
    25. 25.  Descriptive (not evaluative) speech  Present feelings and perceptions that do not imply that others need to change  Problem orientation - implies a desire to collaborate in exploring a mutual problem rather than trying to alter colleagues or subordinates  Convey empathy for the feelings of stakeholders, rather than appearing unconcerned or neutral about the listener’s welfare  Do not give the impression of knowing all the answers and do not need help from anyone Cooperative Communication
    26. 26.  Generation,  Implementation and  Diffusion Enabling stakeholders throughout the change process What type of information would we present at each stage the change process and to whom? Continual Communication
    27. 27.  Enablement is part of engagement equation  Information on its own has merit  Information on its own may appear coercive or lacking empathy Inclusion
    28. 28.  Stakeholders need to feel included in the change process  Inclusion techniques should be applied at various stages of the change process  Consideration of different levels of stakeholders Inclusion
    29. 29.  Organisational transformation methodology which aligns the doing and the being side of the organisation  Focuses on underlying beliefs and assumptions  Leads to spending energy and engaging in a sustainable, inclusive manner with the purpose to achieve shared consciousness  Co-create values and principles (Viljoen, 2007) Inclusivity
    30. 30. A B C D ABCD Framework
    31. 31.  Clear understanding of the change objectives leads to management buy-in and commitment to change  Resourcing issues occur with lack of commitment  Without management commitment, change is unlikely to succeed or be sustainable What are some inclusion techniques to gain management buy-in of change objectives? • Generation, Implementation, Diffusion Inclusion
    32. 32. What are some bottom-up inclusion techniques to build employee engagement to changes in an organisation? • Generation, Implementation, Diffusion Inclusion  Employees support of change is critical to success  Engagement relies in large part on inclusion
    33. 33. Building an Inclusive Style  Inclusion is a critical variable for change management  Managers and change agents can build skills to create more inclusive styles  Professional development (BarOn Emotional Intelligence)
    34. 34.  Enablement/Inclusion – not critical to develop sense of corporate contribution  But it certainly helps!  Apply systems thinking when working with organisational change –  each variable of the org engagement quotient is not successful stand alone Corporate Citizenship
    35. 35.  Feeling of ownership within the organisation  Treat the company as their own  Strong sense of contribution  Adapt and support change initiatives  Create ownership in the change and align stakeholders to the “big picture” - (requires enablement and inclusion) Corporate Citizenship
    36. 36.  Old fashioned hand-hewn coal mine to long-wall  High level of Corporate Citizenship  Attitudes of the workers  Identification with the work  Family/kinship connections Trist, E.L., & Bamforth, K.W. Some social psychological consequences of the long-wall method of coal-getting. Human Relations, 1951, 4, 3-38 Corporate Citizenship
    37. 37.  Change of coal-mining techniques from hand-held to modern machinery  Men lost identification with their jobs  New shift work meant loss of close relationships  Workers not consulted of the changes  Not conditioned to accept the change  Not surprising, active resistance/opposition with no increase in productivity.  Systems thinking – enable, include, build corporate citizenship Corporate Citizenship
    38. 38. Overcoming Challenges - Resistance
    39. 39.  Use during selection phase for change management roles  Use in role-profiling for development requirements  Don’t ignore the characteristics/behaviours over technical skills Change Agent Skills Sets
    40. 40. Other than systems thinking, technical change management skills, strategy development etc, 1. What are the characteristics that are essential for change agents? - Consider need to build trust, gain commitment etc 2. What other skills/capabilities are essential for successful change agents? - Consider what needs to be managed during change Change Agent Skills Sets
    41. 41. 1. Benchmark engagement level in the organisation 2. Establish organisational gaps (outcome compromisers) 3. Include techniques to suit the engagement quotient for your organisation in change management plans 4. Apply appropriate methods for reducing resistance change 5. Build on/use non-technical skills as change agent (EQ, communication, resilience etc) Proactively Manage Change Resistance
    42. 42.  Establish upfront  Major requirements for the change imitative are addressed with management and other stakeholders (R. Heller, 2000) Assessment of Change Checklist
    43. 43. Building Commitment to Change  Build the support of key power groups  Use leader behaviour to generate support  Use symbols and language deliberately  Define points of stability  Create dissatisfaction with the current state  Build participation in planning and implementing change  Reward behaviour in support of change  Provide people with the time and opportunity to disengage from the old  Develop and communicate a clear image of the future state  Use multiple leverage points  Develop transitional management structures  Collect and analyse feedback Nadler & Nadler (1998) Appendix 1: Building Commitment to Change
    44. 44. Approach Situational use Advantages Drawbacks Education and communication Where there is lack of information or inaccurate information about change Once persuaded, people often will help with the implementation of the change Can be very time consuming if many people are involved Participation and involvement Where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist People who participate will be committed to implementing change, and any relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan. Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change Facilitation and support Where people are resisting because of adjustment problems No other approach works as well with adjustment problems Can be time-consuming, expensive, and still fail Negotiation and agreement Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change, and where that person/group has considerable power to resist Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance Can be too expensive for others to negotiate for compliance Manipulation and co- optation Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive It can be a relatively quick and inexpensive solution to resistance problems Can lead to future problems if people feel manipulated Explicit and implicit coercion Where speed is essential, and the change initiators possess considerable power It is speedy and can overcome any kind of resistance Can be risky if it leave initiators discredited Kotter and Schlesinger (1979) Appendix 2: Reducing Resistance to Change
    45. 45. Definition of the dilemma to be resolved or opportunity to be taken Is there a clear statement setting out what is to be changed and why? Has this been discussed with all involved to gain understanding and agreement> Is the focus on problems, not symptoms? Statement of the desired outcomes Is there a clear statement setting out what will be different at the end of the change process? Has this been discussed with all involved to gain understanding and agreement? Has a benchmark organisation been identified? Commitment of the senior management team to the leadership of the initiative Is the senior management team really committed to change? Do all members understand the implications for them> Will they all survive the process? Does the desired outcome have a direct relationship to a valued business goal? Appendix 3: Assessment of Change Checklist – p1
    46. 46. Stakeholder involvement through creating the motivation and commitment to change Have the key stakeholders been identified? Have they been involved in designing the change? Is there evidence of this? Is it likely they will cooperate? Is there evidence that their views have been taken into account? Have both plus and minus motivators been identified and built into the plan? Choice of the “tool” Has the change been categorized as innovative or strategic? Has a suitable tool been selected to implement the change? Does everybody know what it is? Does everybody know how it will work? Is it known who has used it before? Is it known what their experience was like? Would you recommend it? Appendix 3: Assessment of Change Checklist – p2
    47. 47. Use of a disciplined, action learning-based implementation strategy Is there a composite programme covering the change? Does it have milestones, time-scales, costs? Has it been communicated to all concerned? Is someone at senior level taking responsibility for managing the implementation? Does it embrace learning opportunities and have the capability for change? Is it based on “action learning”? Focus on measuring success Have performance indicators been identified and targets agreed? Is there an effective monitoring and control structure in place? Is the information being used to control the implementation? Are the necessary changes being made? Appendix 3: Assessment of Change Checklist – p3
    48. 48. For More Information… Change is inevitable and sometimes painful. For every leader who has every sat in their office and thought “Why are they fighting this?”, hopefully this presentation will provide insight. If you have any questions about detail, additional and supporting materials or implementation assistance, please contact me at Kailiford@yahoo.com. Finally, you cannot over-estimate the analytical power of the BeQ . Understand where you are before you plan to go somewhere else.
    49. 49. A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves. Lao Tzu The Ultimate Change Challenge…