Waterwise Florida Landscapes: Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape

  • 1,913 views
Uploaded on

Waterwise Florida Landscapes: Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape

Waterwise Florida Landscapes: Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,913
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. St. Johns River Water South Florida Water Southwest Florida Water Waterwise Management District Management District Northwest Florida Water Suwannee River Water Management District Management District 81 Water Management Drive 9225 County Road 49 Florida Havana, FL 32333 (850) 539-5999 Landscapes Live Oak, FL 32060 (800) 226-1066 Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape™ This guide was produced by Floridas water management districts to informPrinted on recycled paper from Florida’s water management districts
  • 2. Floridas water management districts Suwannee River Water Management District St. Johns River Northwest Florida Water Management Water Management District District Southwest Florida Water Management District South Florida Water Management DistrictCreditsThis publication is provided to you by Floridas five regional water management districts.Principal staff involved in preparing this guide include Bruce Adams, Daniel Boyar,Linda Burnette, David Clayton, Sylvia Durell, Amy Ferriter, Martha Friedrich, Lisa Grant,Beth Hickenlooper, Jo Ann Hyres, Cindy Johnson, Lou Kavouras, Jan Loftin, Mat OMalley,Sandra McGee, Marc Minno, Brian Nelson, Georgann Penson, Katherine Pordeli,Carolyn Purdy, Eileen Tramontana, Daniel Thayer, John Thompson and Garrett Wallace.The districts offer special thanks to the Association of Florida Native Nurseries, Janice Broda,David Chiappini, Betsy Davis, Debbie Butts, the Florida Native Plant Society, Joel Jackson,K.A. Langeland, Charles Lippi, Maria Minno, Richard Moyroud, the Sarasota AudubonSociety and the University of Florida, IFAS Department of Environmental Horticulture.Cover photographsLeft to rightTop: Daylily (Hemerocallis hybrids); Crinum-lily (Crinum x powellii); Pentas (Pentas lanceolata)Second row: Iris, blue flag (Iris hexagona); Confederate-rose (Hibiscus mutabilis); Amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybrids)Third row: Sweet olive (Osmanthus fragrans); Ginger, peacock (Kaempferia spp.); Dotted horsemint (Monarda punctata)Bottom: Milkweed, scarlet (Asclepias curassavica); Passion flower, incense (Passiflora x ‘Incense’); Firebush (Hamelia patens)
  • 3. W A T E R W I S E Florida Landsc apes Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape™ from Florida’s water management districts Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 What Is Waterwise Landscaping? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Seven Principles of Xeriscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Plan and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Obtain a Soil Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Choose Proper Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Florida’s Plant Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Use Turf Wisely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Irrigate Efficiently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Use Mulches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Perform Proper Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A Landscape Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Plant Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Lists and Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Scientific Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Plant Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
  • 4. Introduction Florida is surrounded on three sides by water. can help conserve resources. Florida’s waterThe state’s sources of surface water are wetlands, management districts have permission to usethousands of lakes, and many rivers and streams. the concepts of Xeriscape, which is a registeredWith all this water around, many people may not trademark of Denver Water.realize there is a need to conserve water. Even Achieving a natural, healthy balance in yourthough Florida is surrounded by water and has many landscape starts by putting the right plant in theinterior water bodies, not all of that water is available right place. Matching plants to conditions that existfor drinking or other uses by humans. In addition, in your area helps them thrive, once established, withFlorida’s weather is fickle — long periods of wet little or no irrigation or chemicals. The sevenweather may be followed by long periods of dry principles of Xeriscape are explained in this guide.weather. The state’s leaders recognize the need to Scientific or other special terms appear in bold.conserve water as a means to ensure the continued These terms are listed in the glossary at the end ofavailability of this vital resource for everyone from this guide and are defined in the context in whichyear to year. they are used in this guide. A plant list is included to Preserving and protecting Florida’s water help you choose the best plants for your landscape.resources is a main focus of the state’s five water Resources and references for more information aremanagement districts. This guide is brought to you listed at the back of the guide.by the water management districts in an effort to Through this guide, we hope you’ll find thathelp you work with nature in the state’s unique when you work with nature, nature will work forenvironment to establish a landscape that conserves you. And you’ll be doing your part to ensure thatwater resources and protects water quality. Through our natural resources can be enjoyed today anduse of waterwise landscaping (based on the by future generations.principles of Xeriscape), everyone 2
  • 5. What Is Waterwise Landscaping? Waterwise is a common sense way to landscapethat conserves water and protects the environment. The main objective of waterwise landscaping is toestablish and maintain a healthy landscape bymatching the right plants with existing site conditions Inchesso that the use of additional resources, such as water, 44fertilizer, pesticides and labor, is minimized. In 48 52addition to helping conserve water resources, 56waterwise landscaping practices reduce the amount of 60 64pollutants reaching water bodies because fewer yardchemicals are used. Fertilizers and pesticides cancontaminate water bodies when they are washed out of Average Annual Rainfallthe yard with the rain, in stormwater runoff. 1961—1990 The best time to establish a drought-tolerant 1961–1990water-conserving landscape for your home orcommercial property is long before a drought. Onceestablished, the right plant in the right place will be supplies, but it also increases the occurrence ofhighly self-sufficient, needing little help to survive sinkhole formations. Because the aquifer system isnature’s extremes. Healthy, well-placed plants with connected to surface water bodies in some areas,deep, established root systems will need less help to overpumping the aquifers causes lowered watersurvive a drought. levels — or drawdowns — of our vital wetlands Conserving our water supply and reducing and lakes.water pollution have become important issues in Likewise, fresh groundwater sources can beour growing communities. Despite Florida’s humid threatened by saltwater intrusion. Saltwaterclimate and abundant surface water bodies, water intrusion occurs when too much freshwater isshortages do occur here. Demand can overtake pumped from an aquifer, allowing salt water tosupply, and regional droughts force Floridians to move into voids in the aquifer from the ocean orpractice water conservation as a way of life. the Gulf of Mexico; ancient brackish seawater In many Florida households, as much as half of below the freshwater level of the aquifer can alsohousehold water is used outdoors, mostly for lawn move into these voids.and garden irrigation. Ninety percent of all public Florida’s water management districts havewater supply in Florida comes from underground declared water resource caution areas throughoutsources, primarily the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer’s the state in areas where overpumping or saltwaterresources are limited. Each day we pump billions of intrusion has occurred. A water resource caution areagallons of water from the Floridan aquifer, but the is an area where the current source of public waterrate at which the groundwater system refills, or supply is not adequate or may not be adequate torecharges, from rain is far less. On average, Florida meet public water supply demands in 20 years.receives 54 inches of rainfall yearly. Taking too much water out of the aquifers,known as overpumping, threatens potable water 3
  • 6. The Seven Principles of Xeriscape The seven simple principles of impacted by construction. Native vegetation Xeriscape landscaping have been appropriately placed will remain healthy with used by landscape professionals for minimal supplemental irrigation and care, years. Here is an overview of the once established. seven principles; details of each principle are given in the 4. USE TURF WISELY — Grass is often a yard’s following pages. largest water user, but it can still play a role in a water-conserving landscape. Use turf where it is 1. PLAN AND DESIGN — most functional in the landscape plan, such as where Make a sketch of the landscape site. children or pets will play, or for erosion control. In Base the plan on site conditions, other areas, consider more water-thrifty alternatives existing vegetation and such as groundcovers or mulched walkways. topography — the natural features of the land. Assess the 5. IRRIGATE EFFICIENTLY — Group plants based area’s growing conditions and on their water needs. Put moisture-loving plants in think through intended uses moist areas and plants that prefer well-drained sites of the landscape. Landscapes in drier areas. Group together plants that may need are dynamic, so include irrigation so that water is only used in limited areas. elements of growth, time Only irrigate when plants need water or when rain and change in your plan. has been inadequate, and use the right irrigation system and proper sprinkler head for each area. 2. OBTAIN A SOIL ANALYSIS — Determine the soil’s composition, 6. USE MULCHES — Mulches help hold moisture from sandy to clay, and test for the in the soil, moderate temperature, slowly release pH of the soil — its level of acidity nutrients, reduce weed growth and slow erosion. or alkalinity. This information will Spread mulch around shrubs and trees and on help you decide which plants are flower beds, 2 to 4 inches thick, keeping mulch best suited to the conditions of from coming into direct contact with plant stems. your yard. 7. PERFORM PROPER MAINTENANCE —3. CHOOSE PROPER PLANTS — When choosing Keep plants healthy. Too much water and fertilizernew plants, match each spot in your landscape with promote weak growth, as well as increase pruningplants that thrive in the specific conditions of that and mowing requirements. Remove weeds by handspot. Look for plants known to be resistant to disease before they get established and crowd out the plantsand pests. Consider each plant’s mature height and you want. Watch for pests and make sure they’rewidth, its need for sun, shade, soil and water, and its truly a problem before waging war, then do ittolerance to cold or salt. Preserve as many existing organically whenever possible.trees and shrubs as possible, provided they’rehealthy and the root systems are not significantly 4
  • 7. 1. Plan and Design The south side of a building has more sun than the north side, so heat-sensitive plants can be placed on The first step of design is to identify growing the north side of a building where it’s cooler. Moreconditions and any vegetation or structures already cold-sensitive plants can be placed on the south sidein place. Next, decide how the property will be used. of a building for protection from winter’s north wind.Be sure to check city and county landscaping codesfor restrictions in your community. Also, some HOW WILL YOU USE IT?neighborhood associations have landscape The next step in the planning process is to determinespecifications in the deed restrictions. what functions you want the landscape to serve.Inventory the site, identifying Answer these questions:• Growing conditions • How will you use your yard? — Hardiness zone (for cold and heat) • What are the best places for entries, walkways, — Direction/aspect (north, south, east, west) sitting areas and play areas? — Areas that are sunny or shady throughout the • Where do you want to frame existing views or day and the seasons to establish privacy? — Areas that drain well or that collect water • Where do you want to create views or accent areas?• Existing vegetation (Is it healthy? Is it native? Is it appropriate for site conditions?) Start with the plat (map, or plan) of your• Hardscape (walkway, driveway, pool, fence) property, or draw your site to scale (e.g., 1 half inch• Views and adjacent features (Frame a pleasing view, = 1 foot). Computer software and lined/grid paper or screen an undesirable view. Watch out for are readily available at computer or office supply underground utilities and overhead power lines.) stores. Put existing plants and site conditions on the master drawing. Make multiple copies so you canKNOW HOW IT GROWS sketch in different ideas, or lay tracing paper over Understanding a site’s growing conditions is the your master drawing to try out different ideas.most important factor in choosing plants. Regional On your drawing, arrange plants to create andgrowing zones in Florida range from 8a to 11 define spaces, direct or screen views, and influence(see map on page 21). Within a regional growing zone, climaticvariations can be influenced by specific siteconditions such as shade or direct sun. These specificsite conditions are referred to as microclimates.There may be dry areas and moist or wet areas onthe same property. All of these conditions must beassessed to match them with the plants that willdo well in each. Sunny and shady areas will vary, depending onthe time of day and the season. For example, a plantmay get more sun in winter than in summer due tothe changed angle of the sun or because a deciduoustree has lost its leaves and no longer provides shade. Put your ideas on paper to plan your landscape. 5
  • 8. direction of movement. Plants can modify climate — 2. Obtain a Soil Analysisa shade tree cools and protects, creating microclimatesthat determine the kinds of plants that can live in that Florida soils have varying textures, colors, water-shade. Take out the tree and you change the micro- holding capabilities and nutrient levels for plants. Itclimate — different plants can now live in that space. is important to examine and analyze your soil at the Your plant choices can also attract and support beginning of a landscaping project. Most Floridawildlife and beneficial insects. Plants can be soils typically do a good job of supporting plant lifespecifically selected as nectar and larval food plants — just look around at the variety of plants growingfor butterflies and caterpillars or as food and naturally in Florida. When choosing plants, be awarenesting habitat for birds, or to add vibrant that some may require a lot of feeding and then maybeauty to the landscape. still have deficiency problems. It’s best to choose Take your time and learn as much as possible plants suited to existing soil conditions.about the area to be landscaped. A year of A soil’s pH level — acid, neutral or alkaline —observation is recommended to study, reflect on is one factor to analyze before selecting plants.and tune in to seasonal changes and other Most plants grow best in soil that has a pH that isvariables that exist in the area. somewhat acidic (pH 5.5–6.5). Some plants, such as beach sunflower, will tolerate alkaline soils (high pH,THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER above 7), while other plants simply can’t. Coastal When combining plants, the most important areas frequently have alkaline conditions — theconsiderations are mature size and how the presence of salt and shell fragments can be anplants look and exist together. Experiment indication of alkalinity.with how different combinations looktogether, considering color, shape, texture pH Scale Theoretical pHand mature size. Milk of magnesia of rain Most acidic rainfall recorded in U.S. Plants combined in groups of odd Average seawater Lye Alkaline Vinegarnumbers often look better than plants soil Neutral Acidic soil (above 7) (5.5–6.5)combined in groups of even numbers. Userepetitive elements — the same color indifferent shapes, for example. Other aestheticuses for plants are to complement, soften, Milk Tomato juice Battery acidframe or emphasize elements within the Ammonia Human Apples bloodlandscape or architectural features of Lemon juice Baking sodaa building. Plan for different seasons of the year to ensure Some plants can tolerate acidic soils (lower thanyear-round interest through blooms, color, foliage pH 5.5), and there are some plants that require acidicand shapes in the landscape. And, because landscapes soil to thrive, for example, camellia, blueberry,are forever changing, plan accordingly. While waiting gardenia and azalea.for that young live oak to grow into a dominant If your landscape is in a low-lying area such aslandscape element, plant sunny areas with annuals pine flatwoods, different kinds of soils may have beenor perennials that will eventually be shaded out by brought in as fill material to raise the building’sthe growing oak. foundation. Thus, soil samples will need to be taken from several areas around the yard. 6
  • 9. Getting ready for a soil test. Soil can be improvedin planting beds withamendments such as peator compost, added severalweeks before planting andthen again periodically.But because amendmentsbreak down, it is difficultto significantly changesoil over the long term.Adding organic matterdoes improve nutrientlevels and basic soilconditions, but will not drastically change Remember to take into account any fill materialextreme conditions permanently. For more that may have been brought in. Try to learn from theinformation about mulches and the rates at builder if local soils were used. It is common to digwhich they break down, contact your local retention pond areas and use that dirt for theCounty Cooperative Extension Service office. foundation fill. But remember that even then, soils that are altered through disturbances can’t necessarilyWHAT’S IN THE SOIL? be equated to undisturbed soils from the same area. The County Cooperative Extension Service can Also be aware that substances may have been spilledtest pH in soil or irrigation water for a small fee, or or buried during construction. If there’s anyou may wish to purchase a simple kit at your apparently unplantable area in the landscape, digneighborhood garden center. The address and the for debris or excavate the problem area and replacetelephone number of your local extension office are with topsoil.listed in the telephone book under county offices. Knowing the following about your soil conditions is A wealth of information about soils for each fundamental to matching the right plants to your site:county in Florida can be found in your county’s • pHsoil survey, published by the U.S. Department of • Sand, clay or rich soilAgriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service • Drainage(listed in the telephone book under federalgovernment offices). Soil surveys are frequently To determine drainability, fill a hole with waterin the reference section of local libraries. and note how quickly it drains. Knowing the water In a county soil survey, exact properties can be table level can also be important; a high water tablepinpointed on aerial photographs. Specific soil types (close to the surface) could influence growingare described as being good for certain kinds of conditions. The highest water table level of theplants, for residential development, for septic tanks, year is generally in August.etc. A survey also includes information such as depth To determine a high water table, dig a hole andof the water table throughout the year; water table see if water seeps into it.depth can be key in determining growing conditions Once you understand your soil analysis, the funfor trees and other plants. really begins — looking for plants! 7
  • 10. 3. Choose Proper Plants DO YOU NEED SALT-TOLERANT PLANTS? Many areas in Florida have salt prevalent in the Try to keep as much of the existing vegetation as air and the water; this is particularly true near thepossible. If a plant grew in an area without your help, coast and salt marshes. Salt can even find its way intothen conditions there are obviously right for it. wells. Exposure to salt may severely damage or killChoose plants that can survive on normal rainfall in some plants, so if necessary, choose plants that canyour area or that require minimal irrigation. Existing tolerate such exposure. Salt is alkaline, so a plant’snative-plant communities are an example of the tolerance for salt indicates its tolerance to alkalinity.“right plant in the right place.” There are also Where does this salt originate? Homes near thenonnative plants cultivated specifically for Florida beach experience salt spray, with stiff winds blowingconditions that are water-efficient and resistant to fine particles of salt and sand onto plants. Differentdisease and pests. However, there are also some plants can take varying degrees of this salt exposure.plants that do too well because they don’t have any Some can’t tolerate it at all. Consult the Countynatural balances in the Florida environment, and Cooperative Extension Service for a list of additionalthey become highly invasive. salt-tolerant plants. And remember, the success of your waterwise Irrigation water may also be salty, or saline.landscape depends as much on where you locate In some areas, the water taken from the groundplants as on what plants you use. Plant it smart! is naturally high in salt. Other areas suffer from saltwater intrusion, where salt water movesLearn each plant’s underground into freshwater aquifers due to• Mature size (height and width) overpumping of the aquifer. If the salinity level in• Sun and shade requirements irrigation water is too high, the water can kill plants.• Soil needs Also, be aware that some household water treatment• Water needs systems add salt to the water to remove iron or other• Salt and cold tolerances minerals. Don’t use this water for plants. Use this guide and consult a plant specialist toMatch these factors with your soil and climatic determine if a plant is salt-tolerant. If you suspectconditions. salt problems, have your water tested for salt content. Contact your County Cooperative Extension Service for more information about testing water for salt. The general vegetation map of Florida (on page 9 of this guide) indicates the original native-plant communities throughout the state. Different plant communities often converge gradually in what is called ecotones — regions where one ecosystem blends into another. Sometimes pockets of one community are surrounded by another. Observing the differences in ecotones can help determine differences in the landscape, helping to identify the best plants for the microclimates throughout the landscape.Coastal upland 8
  • 11. General Vegetation MapFLORIDA’S PLANT COMMUNITIESPine Flatwoods Coastal Uplands The most common plant community in Florida. BEACH DUNE SYSTEMS —Acidic, sandy soil that commonly has a hardpan layer Alkaline to neutral soils of coarse1–3 feet below the surface. Moisture levels vary from sand and shell; well drained, withdry to nearly saturated during the wet season. Fires some salt; low fertility; dry, hot, sunnycaused naturally by lightning occur every 2–10 years, and windy conditions. Common speciesleaving ash to fertilize new growth. In earlier include Spanish bayonet, saw palmetto,decades, the pine flatwoods floor was cleared by fire. seaside purslane, saltmeadow cordgrass,Now, without regular fires, a shrub strata beach morning glory, blanket flowerdominates. In managed conservation areas, and beach dune sunflower.controlled burns are conducted to reduce theamount of fuel plants on the forest floor and to MARITIME FORESTS — Soil pH moderately alkalineencourage growth of herbaceous species. to neutral; sandy with some shell and periodic shell The most dominant species include longleaf pine, mounds. Retains some moisture though wellslash pine or pond pine (depending on hydric drained, with humus, organic material. Plantsconditions), saw palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush and indigenous to this community will tolerate some salt,tarflower. The forest floor has herbaceous species wind, shade and drought. Some common plantssuch as wiregrass, muhly grass, blazing star, violets include southern red cedar and magnolia, redbay,and lilies — species adapted to both wet and dry sand live oak, cabbage palm, American holly,conditions. Occasionally there are dahoon holly, Hercules’-club, saltbush and coontie.persimmon, maple trees, loblolly bay and sweetbay. 9
  • 12. Hardwood forestSandhills Cabbage Palm Hammock High pinelands of open longleaf pine with Sand over marl; flat hammocks of cabbagewiregrass and shrubs and turkey oaks, over rolling palms and live oaks; rarely flooded.uplands and sand ridges, with deep, acidic sandy soilthat is very well drained. Sandhills grade into pine Rocklandsflatwoods and are often adjacent to, or interspersed The uplands of southern peninsular Florida andwith, islands of scrub throughout Florida. the Keys; highly impacted by human development. PINE ROCKLANDS — Porous limestone with sandyHardwood Forests humus and marl; good drainage. Plant species Hardwood hammocks occur in patches in include South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm andtemperate areas of Florida. The soils are acidic and saw palmetto, with ferns, sedges and more than asandy; the range is through the three moisture zones: hundred herbaceous species.xeric, hydric and mesic. TROPICAL HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS — Alkaline UPLAND MIXED FORESTS — Occur throughout limestone with moist humus. The diverse canopyFlorida’s northern panhandle region on upland clay carries many epiphytes, such as bromeliads, orchidssoils over limestone bedrock. The canopy and and ferns. The canopy includes live oak, gumbounderstory are highly diverse, dominated by limbo, black ironwood and mahogany. The understoryhardwoods, mostly oaks, with some pine species which ranges from temperate to tropical species andare more prominent in earlier successional phases. includes white, red and Spanish stoppers, spicewood, UPLAND MESIC HARDWOOD FORESTS — Oak-hickory beautyberry and wild coffee.to pine-oak-hickory; range is through central to west-central Florida on rich upland soils and clay hills. 10
  • 13. Prairies HYDRIC HAMMOCKS — Moist sites flooded DRY PRAIRIES — Similar to pine flatwoods without occasionally, with evergreen and deciduousthe pine overstory; dry prairies occur in central and hardwoods of red maple, loblolly bay, water oak,southern Florida. Sandy, acidic soil is present, often Florida elm and cabbage palm.with hardpan and a high water table, becominginundated only after heavy rain. Dominant species Freshwater Marshare wiregrass and broomsedges. Shallow wetlands that contain a variety of grasses MARL/ROCKLAND PRAIRIES — Wet grassy areas on and sedges on peat soil which may be dry duringalkaline soils intermixed with forests on porous certain conditions. Common plants found arelimestone with an understory of palms and shrubs. grasses, saw grass, pickerelweed, arrowhead and WET PRAIRIES — Often intermingles in ecotones water lilies.with pine flatwoods, with few sparse pines, if any,allowing the sun through to stimulate a flourishing Coastal Saline Wetlandsof herbaceous flora. Wet prairies are inundated by Water levels in coastal wetlands are under thewater 50–150 days of the year. constant influence of tides, thus the degree of salinity varies from salt water to brackish.Scrub COASTAL SALT MARSHES — Mostly occur in north Consists of Florida’s rarest plants and animals. and west Florida; characterized by grasses and rushes.The land area of this endangered habitat was reduced MANGROVE SWAMPS — Occur in central and southby more than 90 percent during the 20th century, Florida coastal areas that flood, then drain, creatingleaving fragments, often in degraded condition. thick, nutritious muck.Infertile, sandy, excessively drained soils are highaquifer recharge areas, making scrub a particularlyimportant ecosystem. These forests consist of scrubsand pine, small scrub oaks, rosemary shrubs andscrub palmetto. SCRUB CYPRESS — Occurs in south Florida withthin marl soils over limestone; dwarfed pond cypresswith sedges and grasses. Adjacent to the Everglades;often flooded.Cypress Swamp Forests Inundated by water most of the year. Can borderrivers and lakes or be isolated; dominated by baldcypress in flowing systems and pond cypress instagnant systems.Wetland Forests SWAMP FORESTS — Flooded most of the year alongrivers and basins; characterized by pond cypress, baldcypress, red maple, water hickory, ashes and tupelo. Pine flatwoods 11
  • 14. Seagrapes and coonties fill this coastal landscape.WHAT TO PLANT Remember, many so-called shrub species are Plant lists should be generated for the different actually 20-foot multi-trunked trees. Select plantareas of the landscape based on growing conditions species that will mature to a height and width thatand desired characteristics. will fit the planting location. If you want a shrub that Plantings should be placed with consideration for only grows 2–4 feet tall, find a dwarf variety or usechanges which will take place over time. In natural ornamental bunch grasses or flowering perennialsplant communities, these changes are called like pentas and scarlet milkweed.succession. Succession is the orderly process Publications about Florida’s plant communitiesof community change. It is the sequence of are available through your local library.communities which replace one another ina given area. PLANTING FOR EFFICIENT WATER USE In most landscapes, succession is halted by Group plants according to their water needs anddeliberate maintenance practices. Yet plants tend to soil conditions. If plant placement is done correctly,strive toward succession. By planning for each plant’s once plants are established, little to no supplementalmature state, a dynamic landscape can be planned to irrigation will be necessary.include natural changes. When plants are first put into a landscape, the NATURAL ZONE — In this area, place plants that havearea should look unfinished, as the landscape must adapted to the wet and dry extremes of Florida’sbe given space and time to grow. Plan to replace climate so that regular watering (once plants aresun-loving plants with shade-tolerant plants as the established) won’t be necessary, except duringlarger elements in the landscape such as trees and prolonged drought.shrubs grow and create shade. 12
  • 15. DROUGHT-TOLERANT ZONE — In this area, place plants 4. Use Turf Wiselythat can survive extended periods of time withoutrain or supplemental irrigation. Grass can be a practical part of your landscape in the right place, for example, in a play area forOASIS ZONE — In this area, place plants that may children. Follow these simple tips for a healthy lawnrequire some watering. and to reduce maintenance: Plants native to Florida can play a very • GO LIGHT ON THE FERTILIZER. Fertilization stimulatesdependable role in the landscape. Many of Florida’s growth and increases water needs. If you do fertilize,plants have evolved through periods of extreme wet use a slow-release product. Water-insoluble productsand then dry weather, so they survive through won’t be washed away like liquid or fast-releasedrought and don’t get root rot standing in water. fertilizers, which can contaminate waterways throughThey have also developed defenses to the diseases, stormwater or irrigation runoff. The slow-releasefungi and insects which originate in Florida. Many products stay in the soil to supply nutrients to plantshave proven wind tolerances in areas that experience on a gradual basis, over a longer period of time.tropical storms and hurricanes. Strive to establish a yard that is largely sustained • LEAVE SHORT GRASS CLIPPINGS WHERE THEY FALL WHENby existing conditions, then if specialty plantings YOU MOW. This reduces the lawn’s need for both watersuch as vegetables or roses are desired, a more labor- and fertilizer. However, remove thick patches ofand resource-intensive planting bed can be created in clippings, which will decay and kill the grass.one or two areas. Remember, the overriding guidance should be to • RISE TO NEW HEIGHTS. That is, raise the height ofput the right plant in the right place. your lawnmower blades to the highest setting. When you mow the grass, remove no more than one-third of the leaf blade. Cutting grass shorter than this may stress the grass and may also decrease the depth to which roots will grow, increasing the need for water. Most St. Augustine grass and bahia grass varieties should not be mowed below 3 inches in height. • KEEP A SHARP CUTTING EDGE. When your lawnmower blades are sharp, they give a clean cut. Grass torn and shredded by dull blades suffers stress and requires more water. • CONSIDER ALTERNATIVES TO GRASS. Grass can be a useful plant. Use grass in areas where children or pets play, or for erosion control. In low-use areas, consider drought-tolerant-plant beds, groundcovers, mulch, walkways or other alternatives that require little or no water.Oaks and palmettos 13
  • 16. 5. Irrigate Efficiently shrubbery or on groundcovers. Bubblers are normally used on trees or large shrubs. The major oasis area in most yards is the grass. Within a zone, all the heads should have the sameIn some Florida locations, rainfall may be adequate precipitation rate — the rate at which an irrigationfor turf, but some supplemental water may head delivers water — in order to have evenbe required. distribution within the zone. If an irrigation system is needed, manual Microirrigation delivers water at rates of 60methods may be the most thrifty. If the landscape is gallons per hour (gph) or less. Usually, bubblers emitplanted with species suited to existing conditions, 1 gph and a single-drip emitter, 2 gph. For drip line,little or no irrigation will be needed once the 45 gph per foot of line is delivered and up to 60 gphlandscape is established, so an automatic system isn’t for microsprays. High volume heads are rated atnecessary. For occasional, manual irrigation of grass 60 gph or more.areas, a rain gauge is a valuable tool. It can tell youhow much rain has occurred and can be used to Irrigation System Installationmeasure the needed 1/2 to 3/4 inch recommendedfor grass areas. If installing an Inground irrigation systems are convenient, but inground automaticoften waste water. While the goal of these systems is irrigation system, follow these guidelinesto uniformly and efficiently irrigate lawns, some may to optimize thebe used to overwater. system’s efficiency: Florida law requires an automatic rain sensorshut-off device that is properly installed and 1. Properly install automatic rain sensor shut-offfunctioning on all automatic irrigation systems device and check regularly to ensure it is functioning properly.installed after May 1, 1991 (section 373.62, FS). The 2. Install a back-flow valve.rain sensor overrides the irrigation system settings 3. Separate zones for turf and non-turf areas.when there has been sufficient rain. Some local laws 4. Match precipitation rates on all heads withinalso require older systems to be retrofitted with a zone (e.g., rotors and spray heads on separate zones).shut-off switches. 5. Choose each device based on what will most In addition to having a properly functioning efficiently water each group of plants.irrigation system, the system’s efficiency will depend 6. Use pressure-regulated valve heads.on you having the correct spray-head types for the 7. Use rotors in turf areas, spaced for “head-to-head” coverage.various zones to be irrigated and how your landscape 8. Check valves on rotors and sprays inhas been planted. low-lying areas. For example, turf areas and planting beds should 9. Verify that the system design meets statebe separated into different irrigation zones because specifications for landscape irrigation installationthey have different moisture needs. as found in Florida Building Code, Appendix F. 10. Schedule appropriate irrigation that supplements Select the emitter head that will deliver water to rainfall to no more than 1.5 inches of water perthe plant roots as efficiently as possible. For planting week for turf areas, and less in planting beds, inbeds, microirrigation system emitters deliver water the spring. Water less during the other seasons.directly to the plant. Microirrigation types include 11. Conduct regular inspection and maintenance to detect leaks, clean filters and realign or replace“drip,” “trickle,” “microsprays” and “bubblers.” rotors and spray heads, as needed.Microsprays or microjets are often used in 14
  • 17. Turf areas need rotors or spray heads. Thesesprinkler heads should deliver water “head-to-head,”meaning that heads are properly placed to ensureuniform application of water, with one head’s sprayreaching the closest neighboring head. To test for distribution uniformity and todetermine how long it takes the irrigation system todeliver 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch of water — the amount Microsprayrecommended for lawns — use the “can” method.Place tuna (or similar sized) cans around the yardand measure the water collected in half an hour. If • WATER IF IT HASN’T RAINED. St. Augustine grass onlysome cans have more water than others, distribution needs rain or watering once or twice a week inis not even. If you get 1 inch of water, you know you summer and once every 8–14 days from Decemberonly need to run that zone for 15 minutes to get through February. Bahia grass needs water less often.half an inch. • HELP GRASS AND PLANTS DEVELOP DEEP ROOT SYSTEMS.• USE A RAIN GAUGE. Keep track of how much rain has It is better to water your lawn and plants well once afallen in your yard. Do not adhere to a rigid irrigation week than it is to water lightly each day, but applyschedule. When it rains, you probably don’t need to water only as quickly as the soil can absorb it.water. During periods of extended rainy weather, Thorough watering encourages roots to establishirrigation systems should be turned off. themselves deeper in the soil, which makes them more drought-tolerant. Frequent light watering causes roots• IRRIGATE ONLY WHEN PLANTS OR GRASS NEED IT. Water to stay too close to the surface, where they areplants that begin to show signs of stress. Signs of stress dependent on regularly recurring precipitation orfor grass include leaves wilting or grass blades folding irrigation and are more likely to suffer in dry times.in half, or soil from the root zone feeling dry. Your The exception to deep watering is for newly installedlawn needs watering if grass blades start turning a plants, where the roots are still closer to the surface.bluish-gray color or if footprints linger after being These plants need light, more-frequent waterings untilmade. Overwatering is often the cause of many they adjust to the new location, generally about 30 tocommon problems, such as dollar weed and 60 days. Larger plants, shrubs and trees may needfungal growth. frequent waterings longer to become established.Example of shallow • WATER EARLY IN THE DAY. To minimize loss of waterroots and deeper,healthier roots through evaporation, water early in the morning, before sunrise. When the sun rises, it will dry plants, reducing the potential for fungal growth or diseases. Leaving plants wet overnight creates conditions for fungal growth. Watering in the heat of the day is prohibited in some areas of Florida under rules established by the water management districts. In addition, watering in the middle of the day results in water loss through evaporation. 15
  • 18. • OBSERVE WATER RESTRICTIONS IN YOUR AREA. Under 6. Use MulchesFlorida law, the water management districts haveestablished water conservation rules. Where there is a If you already use mulches in your yard, you’reyear-round watering rule, it applies to everyone who ahead of the game. Placing a layer of mulch directlyuses water outdoors — homes, businesses, nurseries, around shrubs and trees and on flower beds helps togolf courses — regardless of the water source, whether conserve water. In fact, mulchprivate well, public utility or surface water. There are • Helps retain moisture in the soilsome exceptions to the water restrictions, such as • Decomposes slowly, adding nutrientswhen reclaimed or reuse water is being used. Any local to the soilwater restrictions that are more strict than the water • Provides habitat or cover for beneficialmanagement districts’ must be followed. Violating soil organismsFlorida’s water restrictions is punishable with penalties • Shades soil from the baking sun, reducingof up to $500, with additional fees as applicable. the need for water • Protects against soil erosion and• SWEEP SIDEWALKS OR DRIVEWAYS INSTEAD OF HOSING compaction caused by rainTHEM DOWN. If your chore requires water, use an • Reduces weed growthautomatic shut-off nozzle at the end of a • Reduces maintenance chores; keeps lawnhand-held hose. mowers and weed trimmers from damaging trees and other plants• INSPECT YOUR IRRIGATION SYSTEM REGULARLY. Check • Looks good in the landscapeall hoses, pipes and fittings for leaks, which can wastehundreds or thousands of gallons of water every Mulch can include bark chips, pine needles orweek. Repair broken or clogged spray heads and leaves. Using leaves for mulch eliminates having toemitters and adjust them to keep from watering the burn or bag the leaves for landfill disposal. Cypresspavement. Clean microirrigation filters regularly and mulch, although widely available, is not a goodchange as needed. Also, use a rain gauge in the yard environmental choice because cypress are slow-to make sure the rain shut-off switch is working. growing native wetland trees that are often taken as whole, mature trees and chipped into mulch just to help meet market demand. Cypress are far more valuable to us in their environment than as mulch in the landscape. Alternative sources of mulch, such as melaleuca, eucalyptus, Australian pine and recycled matter from yard cuttings, are suggested instead. Some of these environmentally friendly alternatives are obtained from nonnative pest trees and are becoming increasingly available. For best results, spread 2–4 inches of mulch on plant beds. Keep the mulch several inches away from the plant stems to protect the stems from rotting. Gradually increase the thickness of the mulch layerMulch helps hold moisture in the soil. 16
  • 19. Seagrapes and cabbage palmsgoing out from the plant. Add new mulch as needed, A diverse array of plant species will attract a varietystirring the old mulch to promote air and moisture of insects to the area, helping to create a balancedcirculation to avoid matting. food chain so that no one species can become Don’t use compost or mulch that has diseased dominant enough to become a major pest problem.material. Get mulches from a reputable dealer, as This way, nature works for you to make landscapingmulches can contain contaminants such as and maintenance easy and rewarding.undesirable seeds or insect pests. Mulching holdsmoisture and may attract termites, so should not be NATURAL PEST MANAGEMENTpiled up right next to a building’s foundation. Only a fraction of a percent of all insects known Be aware that inorganic mulch such as gravel or to humans are considered pests, and these species arecolored rocks will not hold moisture. Moreover, generally herbivores, eating plants we want forwhite rock reflects heat, which is stressful to plants. ourselves — either for food or for ornamental value. A food chain always has carnivores looking to eat herbivores. Predators — including predatory insects7. Perform Proper Maintenance — that eat our “pests” are called “beneficial” organisms. But it doesn’t stop there. Birds, bats, An environmentally balanced, low-maintenance lizards and frogs also eat insects. As a part of thelandscape starts with the previous steps of analysis, food chain, this diversity of life creates a livingplanning and selecting the plants suitable for the site. balance and will do so in the landscape if allowed. 17
  • 20. If we try to eradicate an organism that is standing water to lay eggs. During mosquito season,pestering us, we risk poisoning not only the pest, but removal of even the smallest standing pools of wateralso the beneficial organisms that would decrease the — in pots, or even in bromeliads — will helppest populations. If broad-spectrum pesticides are decrease mosquito populations in an area.applied to the landscape, many beneficial organisms When using chemicals, spot-treat the affectedcould be killed. area only, at a time when the pest is most vulnerable. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a proven Rather than routinely applying chemicals to theconcept for controlling pests. IPM is also a good way entire lawn, spot-treat pests and problem areasto protect water quality. while problem areas are small and localized. This The basic premise is to use the least toxic method will minimize pesticide use and avoid killingand to limit any treatments to affected areas, not the beneficial organisms. Contact your local Countyentire yard. Observation, or scouting, is the basis to Cooperative Extension Service for moreunderstanding what the most effective method will information on lawn pests, their life cyclesbe. First, determine if there really is a problem. and control.Consider tolerating some plant damage as part ofnature’s process. For example, caterpillars that WEEDSbecome butterflies can eat the leaves off certain Weeds are often the hardy annuals and perennialsplants before forming a chrysalis, only to have the that lead succession. Soil left bare will soon beplant come back later as healthy as before. growing something. To minimize the growth of If observation proves there is a problem, learn unwanted plants, mulch and/or keep areas planted.about the pest organism’s life cycle so you can Remove any weeds as they emerge, before theydisrupt that cycle. For example, mosquitoes need develop seed heads or extensive root systems that compete for moisture and nutrients. COMPOSTING Plant leaves manufacture sugar from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. Other nutrients and minerals are drawn from the soil where they have built up from decayed leaves and other material that falls in natural settings. Frequently, cultivated areas are stripped clean of these wastes, then petroleum- based fertilizers are applied to replace the natural food source. Compost is the cheapest and most effective fertilizer available. Leaves and pine needles piled or left as mulch to decay under plants and trees slowly return essential elements to the soil, while helping retain moisture. Mulch and compost help soil maintain a healthy balance of microorganisms and other soil builders, such as earthworms. A helper in the garden, the golden garden spider. 18
  • 21. FERTILIZING Once established, your water-conserving yardmay require only moderate amounts of supplementalfertilizer. Overfertilizing aggravates pest problems,stimulates excessive growth and requires frequentwatering. Fertilizers carried by irrigation water orrain can leach into groundwater and our waterways. When needed, the best choice for plants and theenvironment is slow-release fertilizer. The packagelabel on the fertilizer will say organic, slow-release orcontrolled release, water-insoluble nitrogen, sulfur-coated, IBDU, or resin-coated. Check the label forinclusion of trace minerals. Fertilization should be used when specific nutrientdeficiency symptoms are evident. Natural sources ofthese nutrients are available and inexpensive.Nitrogen — grass clippings, compost, cottonseed mealPhosphorus — compost, rock phosphate (manyFlorida soils are already phosphorus-rich)Potassium — compost, aged manure, fireplace woodashes (raises soil pH) Some plants can make nutrients available in the An example of “hat racking,” a pruning practice thatsoil for the benefit of other plants. Clover, for stresses a plant and increases the plant’s water needs.example, “fixes” nitrogen (takes in nitrogen from theair), making it available for grass. Thus, leaving • Trees — Prune carefully to promote strongclover mixed in with lawn grasses is actually healthier development in the trunk and main branches. Don’tthan trying to eliminate it. prune the first year after transplanting. Never cut off the top of a tree to control height.PRUNING If a plant is placed in the right location and given • Palms — Only dead and diseased fronds should beenough room to mature, pruning should be minimal. removed. If a palm frond is living and green, it isPrune to retain the natural shape, or structure, of producing energy for the plant and should not be cut.trees and shrubs and to promote or maintain strongstructure. Less pruning is usually better because • Shrubs — Shearing shrubs results in foliagepruning is stressful to a tree or shrub, which causes it forming only at the outer, sheared surface, with noto require more water. Also, pruning at the wrong internal foliage. By selectively thinning branchestime of the year can stress plants. following the natural shape of a shrub, you can open Your County Cooperative Extension Service the shrub foliage to permit light penetration whileoffice has brochures with simple graphics showing retaining some control over its size.how to make proper pruning cuts. 19
  • 22. A Landscape Example 3. More drought-tolerant groundcovers and shrubs hug the back of our practical turf area. These plants1. Our drought-tolerant zone next to the driveway give privacy to our patio and deck while providinghas mulch and low-water shrubs instead of grass. shade, and they are water-efficient.This zone continues along the length of the houseand eliminates watering, mowing and edging chores 4. Native vegetation, including drought-tolerantin low-use areas. Notice how the shrubs serve as a shrubbery, is used in the side yard. This furtherbuffer to our northern neighbor and as camouflage reduces watering and maintenance.for the storage area. 5. Our practical turf area in the front yard, like that2. Our turf area in the backyard is located in the in the back, is round in shape to reduce its perimeter,landscape’s lowest spot, which is where there is making it easier to irrigate and maintain. Long,plenty of naturally occurring moisture. Alternatives narrow strips of grass are hard to irrigate efficiently.to grass include mulched walkways, a deck or a A brick walkway, border grass and a mulched flowerscreened patio. These additions don’t need water bed further reduce watering and edging chores andand reduce landscape maintenance chores. add colorful accents. 20
  • 23. Escambia Santa Rosa 8a Holmes Jackson OkaloosaThe Plant Lists Walton Washington Nassau Gadsden Hamilton n Calhoun Leon Madison r so Bay 8b Duval f fe Baker Je Columbia Liberty Wakulla Suwannee Taylor Clay The plant lists, a common name/scientific Gulf Franklin Lafayette Union Br ad fo rd St. Johnsname plant cross-reference and an index that follow Gilchrist Alachua Putnam Dixie Flaglerwere put together with the general gardener in mind. Florida’s L e v yReaders who want more detailed or expanded Marion 9a Volusiainformation may refer to one of the references Hardiness Citrus Zones Sumter Lake Seminolelisted at the end of this guide. Hernando Orange The plants listed in this guide are recommended Pasco 9bby the water management districts because they are Pinellas Hillsborough Osceola Brevardeither Florida natives or are Florida-friendly. The P o l k Indian Riverfocus was to list plants that fit the waterwise theme Manatee Hardee Okeechobee St. Lucie Highlands— those meeting site requirements and needing little Sarasota De Soto Martinwater, fertilizer, maintenance or other special care Due to space limitations in this Charlotte Gladesonce they are established in a landscape. This list printed guide, we are unable to show Lee Hendry Palm Beachwas not intended to be all-inclusive. a photograph of every plant listed. 10a Collier Broward While some plants may be found and will survive However, as the districts continue toin areas other than those indicated in the matrixes gather photographs of these plants, they are 10b Monroe Dadethat follow, they require additional care and being added to the Web sites, www.sjrwmd.commaintenance to ensure their survival. The hardiness and http://www.state.fl.us/nwfwmd/.zones listed are the areas in which the plant is mostcommonly found. The growth rates, soil moisture 11and light requirements listed are also themost common. Passion flower, incense Passiflora x ‘Incense’ 21
  • 24. T R E E S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet)** RateAcacia, sweet Acacia farnesiana 8b–11 – 15x20Allspice Pimenta dioica 10b–11 40Ash, green Fraxinus pennsylvanica 8a–8b – 30x75Ash, pop Fraxinus caroliniana 8a–10a – 20x40Atemoya Annona x ‘Atemoya’ 10a–10b – 30Avocado Persea americana 10a–11 20–60Banana, Cavendish Musa acuminata ‘Cavendish’ 10b–11 5–7Bangar nut Sterculia foetida 10a–11 75Basswood Tilia americana var. caroliniana 8a–9b 35x80Beech, American Fagus grandifolia 8a–8b 60x90Big leaf snowbell Styrax grandifolia 8a–9a – 18x10Birch, river Betula nigra 8a–9a – 25x50Bird-of-paradise tree Strelitzia nicolai 9a–11 20Black olive Bucida buceras 10a–11 30x45Black sapote or Diospyros digyna 10a–11 25chocolate pudding fruitBlackgum or swamp tupelo Nyssa biflora 8a–9a – 80Blolly Guapira discolor 9b–11 30x40Bradford pear Pyrus calleryana 8a–9a – 20x30Buckthorn, Carolina Rhamnus caroliniana 8a–9b 20x25Bulnesia Bulnesia arborea 10b–11 – 20x30Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus 9b–11 – – 15–25Carambola Averrhoa carambola 10b–11 25Catalpa or Indian cigar Catalpa bignonioides 8b–9b 35x40Cedar, red or southern red Juniperus virginiana (= J. silicicola) 8a–9b – 25x60Cherry laurel Prunus caroliniana 8a–9b 35Chinquapin Castanea pumila 8a–9a – 15x40Colville’s glory Colvillea racemosa 10a–11 45Copperpod Peltophorum pterocarpum 10a–11 – 25x50Crabapple, southern Malus angustifolia 8a–8b – 20–30Crabwood Gymnanthes lucida 10a–11 – 20Crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica 8a–11 – 15x25Cuban tamarind Lysiloma sabicu 10b–11 – 25x50Custard apple Annona reticulata 10a 40x15Cypress, bald Taxodium distichum 8a–11 – 25x80 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 22
  • 25. CommentsSmall thorny, bushy tree; fragrant flowers; subject to wind damage, will suffer frost damage; likes sandy to clay soil; evergreen; salt-tolerant; nativeBeautiful small tree with exfoliating bark; source of allspice; evergreen; low saltDeciduous; medium salt; nativeCrooked, multi-trunked tree; deciduous; low salt; usually subcanopy or understory; nativeHybrid; likes well-drained, alkaline soil; evergreen; medium saltEasily cold-damaged; Brogdon is a hardier variety; many varieties available; evergreen; medium saltNeeds heavy mulching; spectacularly large flowers; will die back with freeze; low saltStinky flowers; deciduous; low saltLeaves similar to mulberry without lobes; likes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeSmooth bark; large, full tree; likes acidic soil; deciduous; wildlife value; nativeDeciduous; multi-stemmed shrub or small tree; alternate obovate leaves; showy fragrant white flowers borne in spring; medium salt tolerance; nativeAttractive peeling bark; likes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeBanana-like leaves easily tattered by wind; purple or white flowers; suckers will form large clump; likes acidic soil; low saltDrops leaves and seeds that can stain surfaces; subject to freeze damage; evergreen; high saltCan’t tolerate drought; evergreen; low saltDark blue fruit in pairs on stalk; likes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; wildlife food; nativeDrought-tolerant; smooth gray bark, attractive leaves, purple fruit; wildlife food; evergreen; high salt; nativeWhite spring flowers, colorful fall foliage; lives about 30 years; evergreen; high saltFleshy red fruit; nativeBeautiful flowering tropical tree; pot-bound plants produce weak-rooted trees; evergreen; high saltGood seaside plant; silver- and green-leaved varieties widely grown; high salt; evergreen; nativeEdible orange star-shaped fruits produced year-round; can’t tolerate flooding; evergreen; low saltLarge, velvet, heart-shaped leaves; abundant clusters of slightly fragrant bell-shaped flowers, white with orange stripes and purple spots;fruit, 6- to 12-inch capsules; deciduous; low salt; nativeAdaptable; long-lived; planting near hawthorns may cause cedar apple rust disease; dense evergreen foliage; high salt; wildlife value; nativeMessy tree, suckers from root; does better in moist, well-drained soil; poisonous to livestock; hardy to 10°F; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeSpiny fruit with sweet edible nut; white spiked blooms on males; likes dry, alkaline soil; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeBeautiful orange-red late fall flowers; deciduous; low saltShallow-rooted large tree, easily blown over; likes well-drained soil; deciduous; high saltShrub or small thorny tree; fragrant pink spring flowers; sour fruit; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeSmall, densely branched; not readily available; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeAttractive bark, showy summer flowers; don’t prune branches larger than 1/2-inch diameter; deciduous; moderate saltDeciduous; high saltSelected varieties available; deciduous; low saltBranchlets turn brown in fall and winter; knees can emerge aboveground in root zone; deciduous; high salt; native * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast ** Mature size = width x height 23
  • 26. T R E E S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet)** RateCypress, pond Taxodium ascendens 8a–11 – 15x75Dawn redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides 8a – 20x90Dogwood, flowering Cornus florida 8a–9a – 20–25Dogwood, Japanese Cornus kousa 8a 20x25Dragon tree Dracaena draco 10a – 45Eggfruit, Canistel Pouteria campechiana 10b–11 20Elm, American Ulmus americana 8a–9b – 50x90Elm, Chinese Ulmus parvifolia 8a–10a – 35x65Elm, winged Ulmus alata 8a–9a – 5x40Fiddlewood Citharexylum spinosum (= C. fruticosum) 9b–11 – 10x35Fig, edible Ficus carica 8a–10b 12Firewheel tree Stenocarpus sinuatus 10a–11 – 25x60Florida soapberry Sapindus marginatus 8a–9b 25x50Floss-silk tree Chorisia speciosa 10a–11 – 45Frangipani Plumeria spp. 10b–11 15x25Fringe tree Chionanthus virginicus 8a–9a – 10x25or granny graybeardGeiger tree Cordia sebestena 10b–11 – 15x25Golden shower Cassia fistula 10a–11 25x50Grapefruit Citrus x paradisi 9a–11 20Gumbo limbo Bursera simaruba 10a–11 – 35x60Hercules’-club Zanthoxylum clava-herculis 8a–10b – 15x45or toothache treeHickory, mockernut Carya alba (= C. tomentosa) 8a–9b – 35x60Hickory, pignut Carya glabra 8a–9a – 25x75Hickory, scrub Carya floridana 9a–10a 25Holly, American Ilex opaca 8a–9b – 15x45Holly, Carolina or sand Ilex ambigua 8a–9b – 15Holly, dahoon Ilex cassine 8a–10b – 10x50Holly, East Palatka Ilex x attenuata ‘East Palatka’ 8a–9b – 10x30Holly, myrtle-leaved Ilex myrtifolia 8a–9a – 10x25Holly, weeping yaupon Ilex vomitoria ‘Pendula’ 8a–10b – 20x8Holly, yaupon Ilex vomitoria 8a–9b – 15x20Hong Kong orchid tree Bauhinia x blakeana 9b–11 – 15x40Hop hornbeam Ostrya virginiana 8a–9a – 40 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 24
  • 27. CommentsBranchlets turn brown in fall and winter; knees can emerge aboveground in root zone; deciduous; high salt; nativeEvergreen; low saltBest in rich soils, likes acidic to neutral soils; deciduous; low salt; nativeDeciduous; moderate saltTree-like agave; lance-shaped foliage, red sap; evergreen; high saltSweet-tasting yellow fruit; requires minimal care; evergreen; high saltVase-shaped; semi-evergreen; low salt; nativeWeeping growth habit; cold-hardy, but foliage drops at 25°F; likes fertile, moist conditions; semi-evergreen; low saltSmall with oval crown; interesting corky, winged bark; deciduous; low salt; nativeSmall fragrant flowers, spring through autumn; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeTolerant of widely varying soils; deciduous; wildlife value; low saltAttractive glossy leaves; columnar growth habit; evergreen; low saltSmall tree or shrub; tolerates alkalinity; deciduous; high salt; nativeSpiny green trunk, spectacular flowers; deciduous; high saltWhite, yellow or orange sweet-smelling flowers in spring, summer and fall; evergreen; moderate saltShowy white, wispy flowers; drought-tolerant; likes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; wildlife food; nativeRound crown, showy orange blossoms; attracts caterpillars; likes sandy soil; evergreen; high saltVery attractive, showy flower; deciduous; moderate saltEdible fruit; likes acidic soil; needs good mulching; swallowtail butterfly host plant; evergreen; low saltLarge branches will root directly; attractive copper and green peeling bark; easily freeze-damaged; deciduous; high salt; nativeRound crown, interesting compound leaves, tall clusters of greenish flowers; thorny; deciduous; wildlife value; high salt; nativeYellow autumn leaves; deciduous; low salt; nativeLikes sandy and clay soils; deciduous; low salt; nativeRarely cultivated; likes sandy soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeVery spiny, stiff leaves; gray to white bark; prefers acidic soil; male and female plants; wildlife value, evergreen; moderate saltShrubby; bright-red 1/3-inch fruits; male and female plants; tolerant of varying conditions and sites; evergreen; nativeRed berries; male and female plants; grows in boggy sites; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeRed berries; cross between American and dahoon hollies; male and female plants; prefers acidic soil; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeShrubby; small narrow leaves, 1/4-inch fruits; male and female plants; evergreen; wildlife food; moderate salt; nativeSmall tree, weeping form; white spring flowers; dark red-black or yellow berries in fall; male and female plants; low salt; nativeSmall, bushy, with many branches; red fruits, small leaves; male and female plants; evergreen; high salt; nativeLarge attractive flowers; semi-evergreen; moderate saltCommon to woodlands with good drainage; shreddy bark; deciduous; low salt; wildlife value; native * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast ** Mature size = width x height 25
  • 28. T R E E S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet)** RateHornbeam, American, Carpinus caroliniana 8a–9a – 15x50or ironwood or bluebeachor musclewoodJaboticaba Myrciaria cauliflora 10b–11 15x25Jacaranda Jacaranda acutifolia 9b–11 – 40x50Jamaican dogwood Piscidia piscipula 10b–11 – 25x45Jerusalem thorn Parkinsonia aculeata 8b–11 15x25Joewood Jacquinia keyensis 10a–11 6x15Key lime Citrus aurantifolia 10b–11 10–15Lancewood Ocotea coriacea 10a–11 – 25Lemon Citrus limon 9a–11 15Lignum vitae Guajacum sanctum 10b–11 – 20x30Loblolly bay Gordonia lasianthus 8a–9b – 15x75Loquat Eriobotrya japonica 8b–11 – 25–30Lychee Litchi chinensis 10a–11 35Madagascar olive Noronhia emarginata 10b–11 15x25Magnolia, southern Magnolia grandiflora 8a–10a – 35x80or bullbayMahogany Swietenia mahagoni 10a–11 – 35x50Mango Mangifera indica 10b–11 – 60Mangrove, black Avicennia germinans 9b–11 25Mangrove, red Rhizophora mangle 9b–11 15x40Mangrove, white Laguncularia racemosa 9b–11 30Maple, Florida sugar Acer saccharum subsp. floridanum 8a–9a – 15x30Maple, red Acer rubrum 8a–10a – 30x60Mastic Sideroxylon foetidissimum 9b–11 – 25x60 (= Mastichodendron foetidissimum)May haw Crataegus aestivalis 8a–9a – 15x15Mimusops Manilkara roxburghiana 10a–11 – 30x20Mulberry, red Morus rubra 8a–10a 30x70Oak, bluejack Quercus incana 8a–9b 20x40Oak, Chapman Quercus chapmanii 9a–10a 20Oak, diamond leaf Quercus laurifolia 8a–10b – 45x80Oak, laurel Quercus hemisphaerica 8a–10a – 40x80Oak, live Quercus virginiana 8a–11 – 40x60Oak, myrtle Quercus myrtifolia 8a–10a 15x35 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 26
  • 29. CommentsYellow to red fall color; smooth, slate-gray bark; deciduous; low salt; nativeLarge shrub size; attractive bark, delicious fruit; likes moist but well-drained soil; evergreen; low saltFragrant lavender flowers in spring and summer; young trees damaged at 25°F, older trees slightly more tolerant of cold; prefers loose, sandy soil; deciduous; low saltBluish-purple flowers; deciduous; high salt; nativeOpen-growth habit; small, spiny; young trees damaged at 18°F, older trees slightly more cold-tolerant; gets root rot on wet soil; prefers sandy soil; deciduous; high saltRound, compact; wonderfully fragrant flowers; blue-gray bark; tolerant of dry soil; evergreen; high salt; nativeEdible but very acidic fruit; swallowtail butterfly host plant; evergreen; medium salt; wildlife valueSmall; evergreen; low salt; nativeEdible but very acidic fruit; swallowtail butterfly host plant; don’t mulch around base; evergreen; medium salt; wildlife valueDrought-tolerant, but responds well to moist conditions; blue flowers, attractive foliage; gnarled, white bark; evergreen; high salt; nativeAttractive white flower; good for wet areas; evergreen; low salt; nativeEdible orange fruit may become infested with Caribbean fruit fly; evergreen; high saltBeautiful shade tree with delicious fruit; prefers somewhat acidic soil; evergreen; low saltExcellent small tree for coastal areas; evergreen; high saltHardy; large glossy leaves, often with fuzzy brown undersides; large showy white flowers, red 4-inch seed cones; drought-tolerant; evergreen;wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeMahogany webworm often defoliates tree briefly; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeMany varieties available; excellent fruit; butterfly host plant; touching or eating fruit may case allergic reaction; prefers sandy soil; evergreen; medium saltGrows in warm brackish water; legal restrictions on pruning; evergreen; salt-tolerant; nativeUnusual fruit; grows in warm brackish water; stilt-like roots; legal restrictions on pruning; evergreen; salt tolerant; nativeGrows in warm brackish water; legal restrictions on pruning; evergreen; salt-tolerant; nativeSquarish lobed leaves turn gold in fall; bell-shaped flowers; deciduous; low salt; nativeExcellent fall color; red to brown male flowers, red to green to brown winged fruit on female; likes moist to wet soil, tolerates acidic soil;deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeFemale trees have messy fruit; wildlife food; evergreen; high salt; nativeEdible fruit; highly disease-resistant; spreading, dense symmetrical crown; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeGood for coastal landscapes; evergreen; high saltEdible berries stain; large showy leaves; may be damaged by freezes; deciduous; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeGrayish leaves; likes sandy soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeShrubby; likes sandy soil; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeFast-growing, well-shaped; messy; semi-evergreen; low salt; nativeRound crown; dislikes alkaline soil; small and short-lived; semi-evergreen; low salt; nativeWind-resistant; long-lived; when mature, often wider than tall; hardy to 0°F; evergreen; wildlife value; high salt; nativeGood for dry, sandy sites; shrubby; evergreen; moderate salt; native * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast ** Mature size = width x height 27
  • 30. T R E E S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet)** RateOak, overcup Quercus lyrata 8a–8b – 35x70Oak, sand live Quercus geminata 8a–10b 20x40Oak, Shumard Quercus shumardii 8a–9a – 25x80Oak, swamp chestnut Quercus michauxii 8a–9a 35x80Oak, turkey Quercus laevis 8a–9b – 20x50Oak, water Quercus nigra 8a–9a – 50x80Oak, white Quercus alba 8a–8b 50x70Oak, willow Quercus phellos 8a–8b – 35x75Orange, sweet Citrus sinensis 9b–11 15Osage orange Maclura pomifera 8a–9a 25x50Paradise tree Simarouba glauca 9b–11 35Peach Prunus persica 8a–8b 12–20Pear, Hood Pyrus communis ‘Hood’ 8a–9a – 20Pecan Carya illinoinensis 8a–9b 50Persimmon, common Diospyros virginiana 8a–10 – 15x50Persimmon, Japanese Diospyros kaki 8a–10b 25Pigeon plum Coccoloba diversifolia 10a–11 – 15x30Pine, loblolly Pinus taeda 8a–9b – 25x100Pine, long-leaf Pinus palustris 8a–10a – 35x90Pine, sand Pinus clausa 8a–10a 25x30Pine, slash Pinus elliottii 8a–10a – 25x120Pine, South Florida slash Pinus elliottii var. densa 8b–9b – 25x100Pine, spruce Pinus glabra 8a–8b – 25x75Pink-and-white shower Cassia javanica 10a–11 25x40Pitch apple Clusia rosea 10a–11 – 15x25Plum, Chickasaw Prunus angustifolia 8a–9a 15x25Plum, flatwoods Prunus umbellata 9a–9b 10x25Pond-apple Annona glabra 10a–11 – 15x30Red buckeye Aesculus pavia 8a–9a – 15–25Red stopper Eugenia rhombea 9b–11 – 10x20Redbay Persea borbonia 8a–11 – 35x50Redberry stopper Eugenia confusa 10a–11 – 10x30Redbud Cercis canadensis 8a–9b – 15x25Royal poinciana Delonix regia 10a–11 50x50Sassafras Sassafras albidum 8a–9a 20x45 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 28
  • 31. CommentsLikes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeLikes sandy soil; evergreen; wildlife value; high salt; nativeHandsome lobed leaves turn bright red in fall; does well in sandy or acidic soil; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeCan grow to 100 feet; large acorns, 1–1.5 inches; tolerates brief floods; prefers moist woodland soil; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeBrilliant scarlet leaves in fall; does well in dry, sandy soil; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeSmooth, slightly furrowed bark; straight trunk; prefers moist sites, but can survive dry periods; semi-evergreen; low salt; nativeWell-drained acidic soil; bird food; deciduous; low salt; nativeWillow-like linear leaves; wildlife food; deciduous; high salt; nativeNeeds to be grafted for best fruit; swallowtail butterfly host plant; needs fertile soil; evergreen; low saltNice ornamental with edible fruit; deciduous; moderate saltNew red foliage, attractive compound leaves, yellow spring flowers; wildlife food; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeSome varieties available for central and north Florida; needs cold; poisonous parts; vulnerable to pests; prefers well-drained soil; deciduous; low saltNeeds rich, well-drained soil; prefers pH 5.0 to 7.0; deciduous; low saltPrefers well-drained soil; deciduous; low saltEdible fruit; grows best in central and north Florida; male and female plants; deciduous; low salt; nativeMany varieties available; only female produces fruit; deciduous; medium saltAttractive bark, variable leaf shape and size, edible purple fruit, white spring flowers; evergreen; high salt; nativePrefers moist areas; evergreen; low salt; nativeSlow-growing; long needles, very large cones; prefers sandy, dry sites; evergreen; low salt; nativeSmaller pine; short needles, small cones; prefers well-drained, sandy sites; evergreen; high salt; nativeIntolerant of root compaction or grade changes; needs little fertilizing; prefers acidic sandy soil; tolerant of flooding; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeIntolerant of grade changes, traffic above root system; needs little or no fertilizing; prefers acidic, sandy soil; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeLong, narrow crown; tiny cones, dark gray bark; does poorly in south Florida; evergreen; low salt; nativeVery showy blooms; deciduous; moderate saltLeathery, tough leaves, showy pink and white spring flowers; evergreen; high salt; nativeVery early bloomer with fragrant white flowers; edible sweet yellow fruit; suckering or thicket-forming; deciduous; high salt; nativeDense showy clusters of white flowers bloom before leaves appear; crooked trunk; edible sour purple fruit; deciduous; low salt; nativeDense, upturned branches, apple-shaped fall fruits; prefers wet or swampy sites; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeSeeds poisonous; red flowers attract hummingbirds; wildlife value; deciduous; low salt; nativeEndangered; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeFragrant leaves, good in cooking; lower leaf surface grayish white; prefers sandy, acidic sites; evergreen; wildlife value; high salt; nativeEvergreen; high salt; nativePurple spring flowers, heart-shaped leaves; deciduous; low salt; nativeLarge spreading tree, brilliant flowers; messy; subject to freeze damage; deciduous; moderate saltDifferent-shaped leaves; bark smells like root beer; popular tea made from leaves; deciduous; low salt; native * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast ** Mature size = width x height 29
  • 32. T R E E S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet)** RateSatinleaf Chrysophyllum oliviforme 10b–11 – 15x40Seagrape Coccoloba uvifera 9b–11 – 25x30Silkbay Persea humilis 9a–9b 30Sourgum Nyssa sylvatica 8a–9a – 80Soursop or guanabana Annona muricata 10b–11 15x25Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum 8a–8b – 15x50Spanish stopper Eugenia foetida 9b–11 – 10x15Spiny black olive Bucida spinosa 10b–11 – 15x25Star-apple Chrysophyllum cainito 10a–11 50Sugarberry or hackberry Celtis laevigata 8a–10b 35x70Summer haw Crataegus flava 9a–9b 15Swampbay Persea palustris 8a–10b – 50Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana 8a–9b – 60x90Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua 8a–9b – – 80Sycamore Platanus occidentalis 8a–9a 70x100Tamarind Tamarindus indica 10a–11 50x65Tangelo Citrus x tangelo 9a–11 15Tangerine Citrus reticulata 9b–11 15Trumpet tree, Caribbean Tabebuia spp. 10a–11 10x25Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera 8a–9a 35x90Tulip tree, African Spathodea campanulata 10b–11 – 50Tupelo, water Nyssa aquatica 8a–8b – 25x100Velvet-apple, Mabolo Diospyros discolor 10a–11 40Viburnum, blackhaw Viburnum rufidulum 8a–9a – 15x20or rusty blackhawWhite sapote Casimiroa edulis 10a–11 40Wild dilly Manilkara bahamensis 10a–11 – 25Wild lime Zanthoxylum fagara 9b–11 – 15x25Wild tamarind Lysiloma latisiliqua 10b–11 – 25x50Willow, weeping Salix babylonica 8a–9b – 40x50Ylang-ylang Cananga odorata 10a–11 25x40 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana 30
  • 33. CommentsDark, glossy green leaves with bronzy fuzz on bottom side; subject to freeze damage; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeEdible fruits used for jelly; broad, spreading seaside plant; dinner plate-sized leaves; subject to freeze damage; evergreen; wildlife value; high salt; nativeBlack bark; leaves rusty and shiny underneath; likes sandy soil; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeLikes acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeGrows in warmest parts of Florida; spiny edible fruit; evergreen; moderate saltFragrant white bell-shaped flowers in spring and summer; gray bark has touch of red; good fall color; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeMildly fragrant flowers; evergreen; high salt; nativeA small, spiny cousin of the black olive; evergreen; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeNo serious pests; leaves golden underneath; star-shaped edible fruit; evergreen; low saltBest for central and north Florida; fruits; wildlife value; deciduous; low salt; nativeFragrant flowers; fruits used for jams and jellies; deciduous; wildlife value; nativeHairy underleaf; leaves frequently have insect galls which cause no harm; likes moist areas; evergreen; high salt; nativeTall cylinder shape; white summer flowers; evergreen; low salt; nativePyramidal shape; attractive fall color; spiny brown seeds, star-shaped leaves; fast-growing; does well in sandy or acidic soil; wildlife value; deciduous; low salt; nativeLarge leaves can be a problem in fall; exfoliating bark; tolerates wet and dry conditions; deciduous; moderate salt; nativeEdible fruit; extremely wind-resistant; evergreen; moderate saltEdible fruit; swallowtail butterfly host plant; evergreen; low salt; nativeEdible fruit; swallowtail butterfly host plant; evergreen; low saltAsymmetrical growth habit; corky bark, spectacular yellow spring flowers; deciduous; moderate saltFragrant yellow flowers; oval crown; needs rich soil; long-lived; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeLow-maintenance, messy tree; orange and yellow flowers during winter and spring; evergreen; medium saltBlue to purple fruit on long stalks; likes moist to wet sites; deciduous; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeBrown, fleshy, edible fruit; no serious pests; evergreen; low saltShrub or small tree with irregular crown; white flowers in flat-topped clusters; purple fruits; reddish underleaf and buds; semi-evergreen; low salt; wildlife value; nativeFive palmately arranged leaflets; large edible fruit; prefers acidic soil; evergreen; medium saltSmall tree or shrub; drooping clusters of yellow flowers; evergreen; high salt; nativeRecurved thorns, lime-scented foliage; larval food plant for giant swallowtail butterfly; suffers from freeze damage; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeSmall weeping tree; deciduous; high salt; nativeAggressive roots — avoid sewer and water lines; drooping branches; deciduous; low saltVery fragrant flowers used in perfume; open-growth habit; evergreen; low salt * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast ** Mature size = width x height Maple, Florida sugar Acer saccharum subsp. floridanum Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides 31
  • 34. T R E E SDogwood, floweringCornus florida Plum, flatwoods Prunus umbellata Jerusalem thorn Parkinsonia aculeata Fiddlewood Citharexylum spinosum Cypress, pond Taxodium ascendens Oak, live Quercus virginiana 32
  • 35. Cypress, bald Taxodium distichum Elm, winged Ulmus alata Paradise tree Simarouba glaucaSweetgumLiquidambar styraciflua 33
  • 36. PA L M - L I K E Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateAlexandra palm Archontophoenix alexandrae 10b–11 40Bamboo palm Chamadorea microspadix 8a–10b – 4x3Bismarck palm Bismarckia nobilis 10a–11 – 60Bluestem palmetto Sabal minor 8a–10b – 6Buccaneer palm Pseudophoenix sargentii 10b–11 – 10Cabbage palm or sabal palm Sabal palmetto 8a–11 – 40Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis 9a–11 – 40Cardboard palm Zamia furfuracea 10a–11 – 4Cat palm Chamaedorea cataractarum 10b–11 5Chinese fan palm Livistona chinensis 9a–11 – 25Cliff date palm Phoenix rupicola 10a–11 – 25Clustering fishtail palm Caryota mitis 10a–11 – 18Coconut palm Cocos nucifera 10b–11 – 60Cycad, Dioon or Mexican sago Dioon edule 8b–11 10European fan palm Chamaerops humilis 8a–11 – 10Florida royal palm Roystonea regia 10a–11 80Hurricane palm Dictyosperma album 10b–11 30Lady palm or rhapis Rhapis excelsa 9a 10Licuala palm Licuala grandis 10b–11 8Macarthur palm Ptychosperma macarthurii 10b–11 25Needle palm Rhapidophyllum hystrix 8a–10b – 10Paurotis palm Acoelorrhaphe wrightii 9b–11 – 20Pindo palm or jelly palm Butia capitata 8a–10b – 15Ponytail palm Nolina recurvata 10a–11 – 10Queen palm Syagrus romanzoffiana 9a–11 40Sago, king, or sago-palm Cycas revoluta 8b–11 – 10Sago, queen Cycas rumphii 9b–11 – 15Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 8a–11 – 20Scrub palmetto Sabal etonia 8a–10b 10Silver palm Coccothrinax argentata 10b–11 – 10Spanish bayonet Yucca aloifolia 8a–11 15Thatch palm, Florida Thrinax radiata 10a–11 20Thatch palm, Key Thrinax morrisii 10a–11 20Triangle palm Neodypsis decaryi 10b–11 – 25 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 34
  • 37. CommentsAlso called king palm; new leaves may be bronze; doesn’t transplant well; low saltCold-hardy throughout Florida; best grown in shade; clump-forming similar to other bamboo palms; low saltMassive fan palm with large silver-blue leaves; slow to form trunk, moderate growth after trunk development; likes sandy soil; moderate saltShade-tolerant; widely adaptable to most soils; underground stem; moderate salt; nativeAlso called cherry palm; bright red fruit; very slow-growing; endangered; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeState tree; very wind-resistant; fronds removed when transplanted; wildlife value; high salt; nativeSharp spines; large; overwatering causes fungal disease; if stressed, invaded by palmetto weevil; susceptible to lethal yellowing;magnesium deficiencies common; heavily damaged at 20°F; moderate saltSturdy, slightly fuzzy stiff leaves; red seeds in female plants are poisonous; suffers heavy freeze damageModerate drought tolerance in shade; virtually trunkless; clumping palm; likes sandy soil; low saltLong leaftip segments droop gracefully; spiny; slightly susceptible to lethal yellowing; potassium deficiencies; survives 20°F with some leaf damage;other Livistona species availableGraceful, moderately sized palm; bright-green arching pinnate leaves; spiny; moderate saltStems die after fruiting, are replaced by suckers; fruit contains irritating crystals; susceptible to lethal yellowing; spider mites are a problem; low salt“Malayan” and “Maypan” are only lethal-yellowing-resistant varieties; high saltSharp, stiff, shiny dark-green leaflets; long-lived; very slow-growing; trunk forms after many years; needs good drainage; low saltCold-tolerant to 12°F; spiny; much variation in leaf color; moderate saltGrows tall; has uniform trunk diameter; tolerant of wet conditions; moderate salt; nativeAlso called princess palm; moderately susceptible to lethal yellowing; drying winds can burn foliage; likes sandy soil; moderate saltPalmate leaves yellow in sun; forms dense clusters; manganese deficiency on alkaline soil; moderate saltSmall; unique corrugated, circular leaves need protection from drying winds; likes wet, sandy soils; low saltA slender, multiple-trunked palm; small leaves and thin trunk; lethal-yellowing-resistant; low saltShort trunk; fiber-matted crown with sharp needle-like fibers; moderate saltSpiny, multi-trunked; manganese deficiency in alkaline soil; moderate salt; nativeStiff, blue-green pinnate leaves; cold-hardy to 15°F; does best in central and north Florida; moderate saltTree-like agave; large swollen base; branching with age; micro-nutrient deficiencies are common; evergreen; low saltFreezes back but returns in north regions; large, messy fruits; weak-rooted; poor wind resistance; prefers acidic soil or manganese deficiency develops; low saltStiff, dark-green foliage; prone to magnesium deficiency; cold-tolerant to 10°F; small, confined root system; needs good drainage; low saltUpright soft, fern-like leaves; forms visible trunk; cold-tolerant to 28°F; susceptible to scale; needs good drainage; moderate saltVery adaptable; striking silver-blue form available; berries; excellent drought tolerance; difficult to transplant; wildlife value; high salt; nativeOccurs only on Florida peninsula, on dry sandy soil; moderate salt; nativeDark fruit, palmate leaves with striking silver undersides; endangered; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; high salt; nativeOften planted to deter unwanted foot traffic; sharp-tipped leaves, edible flowers; good drought tolerance; needs good drainage; likes sandy soil; high saltTolerant of high alkalinity; does best in full sun; high salt; nativeTolerant of high alkalinity and coastal conditions; slow-growing; leaves silvery underneath; endangered in Florida; high salt; nativeBlue-green leaves uniquely arranged in three planes; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 35
  • 38. PA L M - L I K E Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateWashington palm Washingtonia robusta 8b–11 – 80Wild date palm Phoenix sylvestris 9a–11 40Windmill palm Trachycarpus fortunei 9a–10b 40Yucca, spineless Yucca elephantipes 9b–11 – 20 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade European fan palm Chamaerops humilis Cardboard palm Zamia furfuracea Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 36
  • 39. CommentsVery tall, slender; spiny leaves damaged at 20°F; overwatering causes root rot; moderate saltAlso called toddy palm or India date palm; variable blue-green cast to leaves; moderate saltVery cold-hardy palm; does not thrive in hot, tropical conditions; soft, disorganized brown fiber on trunk; moderate saltHarmless, soft leaftips, variegated forms available; moderate salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference Cabbage palm Sabal palmetto Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensisSago, kingCycas revoluta Thatch palm, Florida Thrinax radiata 37
  • 40. S H RU B S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateAdam’s needle Yucca filamentosa 8a–9b 6American beautyberry Callicarpa americana 8a–11 – 6–9Angel’s-trumpet Brugmansia x candida 8b–11 14Anise, Florida Illicium floridanum 8a–10a – 15Anise, yellow Illicium parviflorum 8a–9b 15Anise-tree Illicium anisatum 8a–10b 20Apple, seven-year Genipa clusiifolia (= Casasia clusiifolia) 10a–11 – 10Aralia, lacy-lady Evodia suaveolens var. ridleyi 10b–11 6Arbor-vitae, Oriental Platycladus orientalis 8a–10b – 30Arrow-wood Viburnum dentatum 8a–8b 10Azalea, Florida flame Rhododendron austrinum 8a–9b 10Azalea hybrids Rhododendron spp. 8a–10a 10Azalea, wild or Pinxter Rhododendron canescens 8a–10a 10or PiedmontBahama coffee Psychotria ligustrifolia 10b–11 4Barberry, ‘crimson pygmy’ Berberis thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ 8a–9b 4Barberry, wintergreen Berberis julianae 8a–9b 5Bay cedar Suriana maritima 10b–11 10Beach elder Iva imbricata 9a–10b 7Black torch Erithalis fruticosa 10a–11 8Blackberry Rubus cultivar Brazos 8a–9a 4Blueberry Vaccinium cultivars 8a–10b 8Blueberry, Darrow’s Vaccinium darrowii 8a–11 2Blueberry, highbush Vaccinium cormybosum 8a–11 – 10Blueberry, shiny Vaccinium myrsinites 8a–11 – 2Bottlebrush, lemon Callistemon citrinus 9a–11 20Bottlebrush, stiff Callistemon rigidus 9a–11 15Bougainvillea, paper flower Bougainvillea glabra 9a–11 8Boxthorn Severinia buxifolia 9a–10b 6Buckthorn, tough Sideroxylon tenax (= Bumelia tenax) 8b–9b 20Bush clock vine Thunbergia erecta 8b–11 5or king’s mantleButterfly bush or Buddleja Buddleja spp. 9b–11 10Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis 8a–10a – 15Buttonwood, silver Conocarpus erectus var. sericeus 10b–11 – 35Calamondin orange x Citrofortunella microcarpa 10b–11 10–25 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 38
  • 41. CommentsSpine-tipped leaves with filamentous edges, white spring flowers; prefers sandy soil; evergreen; low salt; wildlife value; nativePink spring flowers, stunning purple berries; one variety has white berries; wildlife value; deciduous; low salt; nativeShowy fragrant flowers; poisonous; perennial throughout state; shrub in south Florida; evergreen; low saltDistinctive red or purple flowers in spring, fragrant foliage; grows on seepage slopes; threatened; evergreen; low salt; nativeDistinctive yellow spring flowers; fragrant foliage; rare and endangered; evergreen; low salt; nativeNeeds good, moist soil; yellow spring flowers; evergreen; low saltFragrant white flowers, large glossy leaves; fruit edible but poor taste; good seaside plant; prefers sandy soil; evergreen; high salt; nativeGood hedge material; yellow summer flowers; evergreen; low saltCan be small tree; evergreen; low saltGood hedge material; showy white flowers in spring and summer, blue-black fruit; tolerates a wide range of soil; deciduous; low salt; wildlife value; nativeShowy yellow or orange flowers appear in spring before leaves; prefers acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; endangered; nativeShowy spring and fall flowers, wide variety of colors; dwarf variety less than 3 feet tall; needs acidic soil; evergreen; low saltShowy fragrant spring flowers appear before leaves in spring; needs acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeWhite flowers in spring and summer; wildlife value; evergreen; moderate salt; endangered; nativeShowy yellow spring flowers, spiny leaves, green and red foliage; deciduous; moderate saltSpiny; yellow spring flowers; evergreen; moderate saltGood coastal plant; evergreen; high salt; nativePerennial; fleshy leaves; both male and female flowers on plant; prefers sandy, alkaline soil; high salt; nativeBlack fruit, white flowers; prefers sandy soil; rounded shape becomes dense in sun; evergreen; high salt; nativeSprawling, vining, thorny; white summer flowers; wildlife value; low saltEdible fruit; likes acidic soil; wildlife value; low salt; nativeEdible fruit, white spring flowers; spreads by runners; needs acidic soil; wildlife value; evergreen; low salt; nativeEdible fruit in early summer, white spring flowers; likes acidic soil; wildlife value; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeEdible fruit, white or pink spring flowers; spreads by runners; needs acidic soil; wildlife value; evergreen; low salt; nativeShowy red flowers in spring; can become small tree; evergreen; moderate saltShowy red flowers in spring; can become small tree; evergreen; moderate saltVery drought-tolerant; showy flowers in variety of colors; grows well in sandy soil; needs protection in northern zones;overwatering and overfertilizing will reduce blooms; evergreen; high saltSpiny; good hedge material; white spring flowers; evergreen; moderate saltThorny; white spring flowers; leaves with shiny, rusty hairs beneath; prefers sandy soil; evergreen; high salt; nativeCan be hedge with pruning; purple or white flowers; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltShowy fragrant flower clusters, variety of colors; spring and winter blooms; leaves white underneath; wildlife value; evergreen; low saltSurvives in standing water; white spring flowers; deciduous; low salt; nativeGood coastal plant; silver-blue foliage, purple or white flowers; good hedge plant; evergreen; high salt; nativeNeeds well-drained soil; edible sour fruit; evergreen; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 39
  • 42. S H RU B S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateCamellia, sasanqua Camellia sasanqua 8a–9b – 15Caper, Jamaican Capparis cynophallophora 10b–11 – 9Caricature plant Graptophyllum pictum 10b–11 5Carolina silverbell Halesia carolina 8a–9b 25Cassia, Bahama Senna mexicana var. chapmanii 10a – 8Century plant or maguey Agave americana 9a–11 6+Chaste-tree Vitex agnus-castus 8a–10b 12Chenille plant or red-hot cattail Acalypha hispida 9b–11 10Christmas berry Lycium carolinianum 8a–11 7Cleyera Ternstroemia gymnanthera 10a–11 15Cocoplum Chrysobalanus icaco 10b–11 20Confederate-rose Hibiscus mutabilis 8a–10a – 5–15Coontie Zamia floridana (Z. pumila) 8b–11 – 2Copperleaf Acalypha wilkesiana 10b–11 8Coral bean or Cherokee bean Erythrina herbacea 8a–11 – 15Crape jasmine Tabernaemontana divaricata 10b–11 7Croton Codiaeum variegatum 10a–11 8Dracaena Dracaena spp. 9a–11 – 2–15 –Elderberry Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis 8a–11 15Fetterbush or Leucothoe racemosa 8a–9b 6swamp doghobbleFiddlewood Citharexylum spinosum (= C. fruticosum) 10b–11 – 25Firebush Hamelia patens 8a–11 3–10Firecracker plant Russelia equisetiformis 9a–11 – 4Firespike Odontonema cuspidata 8b–11 6Firethorn, red Pyracantha coccinea 8a–10a 10–15Florida boxwood Schaefferia frutescens 10b–11 25Gallberry Ilex glabra 8a–10a 8Gama grass, Eastern, or Tripsacum dactyloides 8a–11 – 8Fakahatchee grassGama grass, Florida, or Tripsacum floridanum 10a–11 – 6dwarf Fakahatchee grassGarberia Garberia heterophylla 9a–10a 6Gardenia, Cape jasmine Gardenia augusta 8a–10a 6Glorybush or tibouchina Tibouchina spp. 8b–10b 10or princess flowerGlossy abelia Abelia x grandiflora 8a–9b 6 (A. chinensis x A. uniflora) SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 40
  • 43. CommentsNot finicky about drainage; showy fragrant flowers in fall; likes acidic soil; evergreen; low saltRusty leaf undersides; showy pink or white flowers in spring; grows on shellrock; evergreen; high salt; nativeShowy red flowers in spring, variety of leaf colors and shapes; vulnerable to nematodes; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; low saltFlowering shrub for partial shade; yellow winter flowers; grows on lime areas; deciduous; low salt; nativeShowy yellow flowers in fall and winter; evergreen; low salt; wildlife value; nativeSpiny succulent; takes years to mature; yellow flower; blooms sporadically; very drought-tolerant; likes sandy soil; evergreen; high saltNeeds mulching and pruning; showy blue flowers in spring; deciduous; moderate saltLong pendulous spikes, white or red flowers in summer and fall; evergreen; needs protection in northern zones; low saltGrows in salt marshes; bright red berries, unusual foliage, lavender or white flowers in summer and fall; evergreen; high salt; nativeFlowering shrub, small tree, or hedge; evergreen; low saltGood hedge material; coastal plant; “red tip” inland variety not salt-tolerant; dark fruit, small white flowers; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeSmall tree-like hibiscus relative; 6-inch flowers open pink and fade to white; dies to ground in north Florida, retains size in south FloridaGrows on shell areas; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeGood coastal plant; white flowers in spring and fall, edible purple fruit; evergreen; moderate salt; needs protection in northern zonesColorful fruits, poisonous beans, red spring flowers; thorny; wildlife value; evergreen; freezes back in northern zones; moderate salt; native; tree in south FloridaShowy fragrant white flowers in spring and fall; evergreen; moderate saltShowy multicolored leaves; sap is an irritant and stains clothes; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltCan be tree, shrub or herbaceous perennial; white, yellow and green flowers in spring; evergreen; low saltFlowers and fruit edible; white spring flowers; wildlife value; evergreen; low salt; nativeLikes wet; evergreen; nativeSmall fragrant white flowers, orange fruit, glossy leaves; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeSmall tree in southern range; reddish tubular flowers; winter dieback in cold areas; needs protection in northern zones; grows on shell areas; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeShowy red flowers; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; high saltPerennial; large red flower spikes in fall; needs fertile soil; needs protection in northern zones; hummingbird attractor; low saltGood hedge material; white flowers in spring and summer, showy orange-red berries; thorny; subject to fire blight; evergreen; moderate saltGood hedge material; endangered; likes alkaline soil; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeWhite spring flowers, black fruit; male and female plants; high drought tolerance; likes acidic soil; evergreen; moderate salt; wildlife value; nativeLarge bunchgrass; perennial; interesting flowers and fruit; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativePerennial; threatened; moderate salt; nativeShowy pink or purple fall flowers; prefers acidic, sandy soil; evergreen; wildlife value; native; threatenedVery fragrant, showy white flowers in spring; needs rich acid soil with mulch and good drainage; evergreen; low saltShowy purple flowers in spring and fall; prefers well-drained acid soil of central Florida; needs protection in northern zones; small tree in southern range; evergreen; low saltVariety of flower colors in spring; prefers loamy, well-drained clay soil of northwestern Florida; semi-evergreen; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 41
  • 44. S H RU B S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateGolden dewdrop Duranta evecta (= Duranta repens) 8a–11 – 15Guava, pineapple Feijoa sellowiana 8b–11 – 14Hawthorn, Indian Rhaphiolepis indica 8a–11 5Hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 9b–11 7Hibiscus, red, Hibiscus coccineus 8a–10b – 6–8or swamp mallowHolly, Burford or Chinese Ilex cornuta ‘Burford’ 8a–8b 5–20Holly, dwarf yaupon Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’ and ‘Shellings’ 8a–10a – 5Holly, Japanese Ilex crenata 8a–9b 6Honeysuckle, Cape Tecoma capensis 9a–11 6Huckleberry, dwarf Gaylussacia dumosa 8a–10b – 1.5Hydrangea, French Hydrangea macrophylla 8a–9b 5Hydrangea, oakleaf Hydrangea quercifolia 8a–9b – 8Hydrangea, wild Hydrangea arborescens 8a 5Inkberry Scaevola plumieri 10a–11 4Ixora Ixora coccinea 10b–11 5Jasmine, downy Jasminum multiflorum 10b–11 5Jasmine, primrose or yellow Jasminum mesnyi 8a–10a 8or JapaneseJuniper, Chinese Juniperus chinensis 8a–10b 50Juniper, Pftizer Juniperus chinensis ‘Pftizeriana’ 8a–10b – 6Kumquat Fortunella spp. 10a–11 15Lady-of-the-night Brunfelsia americana 10b–11 10Licuala, spiny Licuala spinosa 10b–11 12Lyonia, rusty Lyonia ferruginea 8a–10b 15Lyonia, shiny Lyonia lucida 8a–9b – 6Maidenbush Savia bahamensis 10b–11 9Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides 10a–11 – 10–20Mock orange Philadelphus coronarius 8a–9b 12Myrsine Rapanea punctata 8b–11 15Natal plum Carissa macrocarpa 10b–11 10Night-blooming jessamine Cestrum nocturnum 9b–11 10Oleander Nerium oleander 8a–11 15Oregon grape-holly or Mahonia spp. 8a–9b 5Chinese Mahonia SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 42
  • 45. CommentsSmall blue or white flowers in spring and fall, showy golden fruit; poisonous; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate salt; wildlife valueCan be hedge; white or red spring flowers; petals edible, fruit delicious; evergreen; moderate saltShowy pinkish-white flowers in spring and winter; high drought tolerance; good hedge material; evergreen; moderate saltShowy flowers, many varieties; needs very fertile soil; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltPerennial; large showy red flowers in spring and summer; needs protection in northern zones; likes wet soil; low salt; nativeShiny leaves with spines; good hedge material; white spring flowers, red berries; male and female plants; evergreen; moderate saltDifferent cultivars have different heights; white flowers in spring and summer; female plants have berries; evergreen; low salt; nativeGood hedge material; prefers acidic soil; male and female plants; evergreen; low saltNeeds good drainage; needs frequent pruning to make a shrub; yellow, orange and red flowers in summer and fall; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltElliptic leaves to 1 inch; small clustered, white, bell-shaped flowers in spring; edible fleshy fruit; excellent in dry conditions; tardy deciduous; low salt; nativeNeeds pruning; hedge material; flowers change color with soil pH; needs fertile soil, likes acidic soil; deciduous; low saltLarge branched clusters of white spring flowers; fruits attractive; fall foliage; prefers acidic soil; deciduous; low salt; nativeEndangered; low salt; nativeGroundcover for dunes; can be used for low hedge; evergreen; high salt; nativeShowy flowers in yellow, red or pink; requires well-drained, fertile, acidic soil; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltShrub or vine; white flowers in spring and fall; evergreen; low saltShowy yellow flowers in spring and winter; requires chilling before flowering; sprawling shrub for central and north Florida; evergreen; low saltPrefers fertile soil; evergreen; moderate saltConifer; grows best in north Florida; looks best on fertile, well-drained soil; likes sandy soil; moderate saltEdible citrus fruit; thornless or with few spines; resistant to citrus canker; can tolerate colder temperatures than most citrusShowy white flower in spring and fall; evergreen; moderate saltSpiny palm; evergreen; low saltRusty pubescence on leaves; clusters of small urn-shaped white flowers in spring attract insects; likes acidic soil; evergreen; low salt; nativeGrows in flatwoods and swamps; can sucker; pink urn-shaped flowers in spring; likes acidic soil but tolerates alkaline soil; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeGood hedge material; evergreen; high salt; nativeFragrant white flowers in spring and fall, black fruits; tolerates alkaline soil; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeFragrant white spring flowers, exfoliating orange to red-brown bark; needs pruning; deciduous; low saltCan get leggy; small white spring flowers; small fleshy fruits occur along stem; does well in coastal counties; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeSpiny hedge plant; tolerates seasides; fragrant white flowers in spring and fall; large fruit, good for cooking; evergreen; high saltCream flowers in spring and summer, white fruits; poisonous foliage; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltAll parts highly poisonous; drought-tolerant; many flower colors; blooms in spring and fall; needs protection in northern zones; wildlife value; evergreen; high saltSpiny; good hedge material; blue-black fruit, yellow fall flowers; winter foliage turns bronze or purple; evergreen; moderate salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 43
  • 46. S H RU B S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RatePampas grass Cortaderia selloana 8a–11 – 6Pawpaw Asimina spp. 8b–10a – 3–5Peregrina Jatropha integerrima 10b–11 8Philodendron Philodendron selloum 9a – 10or tree philodendronPhotinia or red-tip Photinia glabra 8a–9b 8Pipestem Agarista populifolia 8b–9a – 10Plumbago Plumbago auriculata 8b–11 5Podocarpus, yew Podocarpus macrophyllus 8a–11 35Pomegranate Punica granatum 8a–8b 15Red powderpuff Calliandra haematocephala 10a–11 – 15Rhododendron, Chapman’s Rhododendron minus var. chapmanii 8a–9a 5Rose, Cherokee Rosa laevigata 8a–10b 10+Rose-of-Sharon or Althaea Hibiscus syriacus 8a–9b 10Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis 8a–11 3Scrub conradina Conradina canescens 8a–9b 4or wild rosemaryScrub mint, large-flowered Conradina grandiflora 9b–10a 4Sea lavender Argusia gnaphalodes 9b–11 6Seagrape Coccoloba uvifera 9b–11 – 20Shrimp plant Justicia brandegeana 8b–10b – 4Silverthorn Elaeagnus pungens 8a 18Simpson stopper Myrcianthes fragrans 10a–11 25Snail seed Cocculus laurifolius 9a–10b 13Snow bush Breynia disticha 10b–11 6Spanish bayonet Yucca aloifolia 8a–11 14Sparkleberry Vaccinium arboreum 8a–9b – 15Spicewood Calyptranthes pallens 10b–11 15Spiraea, Chinese or Reeves Spiraea cantoniensis 8a–9a 5Spiraea, Thunberg Spiraea thunbergii 8a–8b 5Sweet olive Osmanthus fragrans 8a–9b 20Sweet pepperbush Clethra alnifolia 8a–9a – 20Sweet shrub Calycanthus floridus 8a–10a 10Sweetspire or Virginia-willow Itea virginica 8a–11 – 7Tallow-wood Ximenia americana 9a–10b 8Tetrazygia Tetrazygia bicolor 10b–11 10 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 44
  • 47. CommentsBunchgrass; likes dry conditions; sharp serrations on leaves; grows in large clumps; tolerates a wide soil range; moderate saltMulti-stemmed shrub; drought-tolerant; attracts butterflies; deciduous; low salt; nativeShowy red flowers; poisonous; evergreen; moderate saltEnormous leaves; sap irritant; good in poor soils, tolerant of a wide range of soils; evergreen; moderate saltGood hedge material; white spring flowers; new red growth; prefers rich soil, chilly winters; evergreen; low saltShowy white flowers in spring; likes acidic soil; can’t be pruned without ruining shape; evergreen; nativeShowy, fragrant blue or white flowers in spring and fall; irritant; mineral deficiency on alkaline soil; good hedge plant; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltInvasive; gets scales and sooty mold; needs pruning when grown as a hedge; evergreen; moderate saltDoes better in low humidity; may sucker; needs well-drained soil, pH 5.5 to 7.0; deciduous; low saltRed or white flowers in winter; likes sandy soil; evergreen; low saltEndangered; needs acidic soil; evergreen; low salt; nativeThorny stems, large fragrant spring flowers in pink or white; climbs; requires moist, well-drained soil, likes sandy soil; evergreen; low saltMany colors; blooms in spring and fall; needs very fertile soil; deciduous; low saltAromatic; linear leathery leaves; needs protection in northern zones; high saltAromatic foliage; small lavender flowers in spring; excellent drought tolerance; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeVery drought-tolerant; blue flowers in spring and fall; needs sandy soil; evergreen; high salt; native; threatenedGood coastal plant; endangered; white flowers in winter and spring, silvery-gray foliage; evergreen; high salt; nativeGood coastal plant; edible fruit; dinner plate-sized leaves; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; high salt; wildlife value; nativeBest grown in clumps; reddish-brown drooping flower clusters resemble shrimp; attracts hummingbirds; moderate saltThorny; fragrant brown flowers, edible fruit; good hedge plant; intolerant of alkaline soil; evergreen; high saltInteresting bark; white flowers; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeHedge or shrub; tiny yellow spring flowers; poisonous leaves; evergreen; low saltWhite spring flowers; evergreen; low saltSpine-tipped leaves; white flowers in spring and fall; excellent drought tolerance; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; evergreen; high saltAttractive reddish bark; crooked trunk; seedy, blueberry-like fruit in early fall; in some areas, can be tree; likes acidic soil; semi-evergreen; wildlife value; low salt; nativeRare south Florida plant; threatened; white spring and fall flowers; good hedge material; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeShowy flowering shrub; does best in Panhandle; white spring flowers; deciduous; low saltWhite winter flowers; requires well-drained, loamy soil; evergreen; low saltIntensely fragrant small white flowers in fall and winter; cultivated for fragrance; likes sandy soil; evergreen; low saltGood hedge plant; showy white flowers in spring and summer; likes acidic soil; wildlife value; deciduous; low salt; nativeShowy fragrant flowers, aromatic leaves; can be weedy; deciduous; low salt; nativeCan sucker; fall color; tassels of tiny fragrant white flowers in spring; evergreen; low salt; nativeEdible fruit but not good tasting; prefers sandy soil; evergreen; low salt; nativeGood hedge material; white spring flowers, attractive foliage; evergreen; moderate salt; native; threatened GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 45
  • 48. S H RU B S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateTexas sage Leucophyllum frutescens 8a–10b 5Thryallis Galphimia gracilis 8b–11 5Ti plant Cordyline terminalis 10b–11 5Titi Cyrilla racemiflora 8a–9a – 20Torchwood Amyris elemifera 9a–11 – 15Tropical snowflake Trevesia palmata 10b 15Turk’s-cap Malvaviscus arboreus 8a–11 7Two-winged silverbell Halesia diptera 8a–8b 30Varnish leaf Dodonaea viscosa 9a–11 – 6Viburnum, sandankwa Viburnum suspensum 8a–10b 6Viburnum, sweet Viburnum odoratissimum 8a–10b 8Viburnum, Walter’s Viburnum obovatum 8a–10a – 20Wax myrtle or Myrica cerifera 8a–11 – 20southern bayberryWhite indigo berry Randia aculeata 10a–11 – 8Wild coffee Psychotria nervosa 9a–11 5Wild sage, button sage, Lantana involucrata 9a–11 6or white sageYellow necklace pod Sophora tomentosa var. truncata 9b–11 8Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow Brunfelsia grandiflora 9a–11 8or morning-noon-and-night SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade Sweet olive Osmanthus fragrans American beautyberry Callicarpa americana 46
  • 49. CommentsHedge material; gray-green foliage, lavender spring flowers; will die if over-watered; evergreen; moderate saltShowy yellow flowers in summer and fall; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltShowy fragrant white flowers in fall; shrub or tree; many colorful foliage forms; needs protection in northern zones; evergreen; moderate saltPendulous white flowers in spring and summer attract insects; likes acidic soil; evergreen; nativeWhite flowers; needs protection in northern zones; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeNew leaves resemble snowflakes; white spring flowers; needs fertile, slightly acidic soil; evergreen; low saltRed flowers in spring and fall; wildlife value; evergreen; low saltShowy white spring flowers; deciduous; nativeShiny leaves, white spring flowers; showy, winged fruit; evergreen; high salt; nativeHedge material; white or pink spring flowers; vulnerable to nematodes; tolerates alkalinity; evergreen; low saltHedge material; white spring flowers; evergreen; low saltInformal hedges, may form thickets; upright and spreading forms; showy white spring flowers; red to black edible berries; tolerates drier conditions; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeGood hedge material in full sun; can root-sucker; berries; likes moisture; male and female plants; wildlife value; evergreen; high salt; nativeSpiny, dense plant; fragrant small white flowers; female has white berries; evergreen; high salt; nativeNeeds moisture; white flowers in spring and summer, small fruits; evergreen; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeWhite flowers; needs sandy soil; wildlife value; evergreen; moderate salt; nativeShowy yellow flowers; poisonous; evergreen; high salt; nativeShowy purple flowers with white centers; evergreen; moderate salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference Anise, Florida Illicium floridanum Plumbago Plumbago auriculata 47
  • 50. S H RU B S Azalea, Florida flame Rhododendron austrinum Gallberry Ilex glabra Simpson stopper Myrcianthes fragrans Firebush Hamelia patens Seagrape Coccoloba uvifera Coral bean Erythrina herbacea 48
  • 51. ButtonbushCephalanthus occidentalis Firecracker plant Russelia equisetiformis Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides Confederate-rose Hibiscus mutabilis 49
  • 52. GROU N DCOVERS Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateAdam’s needle Yucca filamentosa 8a–9b 3Ajuga or carpet bugleweed Ajuga reptans 8a–9a 6”x6’Aloe Aloe vera (= A. barbadensis) 10a–11 1.5Beach morning glory Ipomoea imperati (= I. stolonifera) 8–10b 0.5Bean, beach Canavalia maritima (= C. rosea) 10b–11 0.5Blue daze Evolvulus glomerata 8a–10b – 1–2x1Broomsedge Andropogon virginicus var. glaucus 8a–10a 3–5or chalky bluestemCast-iron plant Aspidistra elatior 9a–11 – 2False heather Cuphea hyssopifolia 8b–11 – 1.5Fern, bird’s nest Asplenium nidus 9a–11 2.5Fern, cinnamon Osmunda cinnamomea 8a–11 – 4Fern, giant leather Acrostichum danaeifolium 9a–11 – 8Fern, giant sword Nephrolepis biserrata 9b–11 – 4Fern, holly Cyrtomium falcatum 9a–11 1.5Fern, leatherleaf Rumohra adiantiformis 10a–11 2Fern, royal Osmunda regalis 8a–10b 5Fern, southern shield or woods Thelypteris kunthii 8a–10b – 2.5Fern, swamp Blechnum serrulatum 9a–11 2Fig, creeping Ficus pumila 8a–11 – NAFoxtail-fern Asparagus aethiopicus ‘Myers’ 8b–11 2Ginger, peacock Kaempferia spp. 10b–11 0.5Golden creeper Ernodea littoralis 10b–11 2Gopher apple Licania michauxii 8a–11 1Grass, Aztec Ophiopogon spp. 8a–11 – 1Grass, bahia Paspalum notatum 8a–11 – 2Grass, Bermuda Cynodon dactylon 8a–11 0.5Grass, bitter panic Panicum amarum 8a–9b 3.5Grass, broadleaf spike, or Chasmanthium latifolium 8a–9b – 2broadleaf woodoatsGrass, centipede Eremochloa ophiuroides 8a–9a – 0.5Grass, lopsided Indian Sorghastrum secundum 8a–11 – 4Grass, mondo Ophiopogon japonicus 8–10b – 0.5Grass, muhly Muhlenbergia capillaris 8a–11 – 4Grass, purple love Eragrostis spectabilis 8a–10b – 2.5 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 50
  • 53. CommentsLeaf margins fray; large showy white flower spikes every few years; depends on yucca moth for pollination; likes sandy soil; moderate salt; nativePerennial; dark green to bronze foliage; blue flower spikes in spring; moderate saltSucculent, fleshy leaves; yellow winter flowers; sap soothes burns and cuts; looks good in rock gardens; high saltShowy flowering vine; purple or white flowers; good coastal herbaceous plant; poisonous; good drought tolerance; likes sandy soil; moderate salt; nativeHerbaceous perennial; a widespread, vining dune plant; purple flowers; needs sandy soil; high salt; nativePerennial; deep-green foliage, intense blue flowers; best planted in groups; high drought, heat and salt tolerance; needs protection in northern zonesBunchgrass; good drought tolerance; grows in moist, acidic to neutral, sandy soil; moderate salt; nativeHerbaceous; requires shade; drought-tolerant; likes sandy soil; needs protection in northern zones; moderate saltWhite and pink flowers; needs protection in northern zones; winter diebacks in north Florida; low saltCan be epiphytic; likes acidic soil; needs protection in northern zones; low saltCinnamon-colored spike bloom; nativeHuge leaves; good in wet areas; high salt; nativeCan form a dense groundcover in shady, moist areas; low salt; nativePrefers moist, shady area; glossy green foliage; likes acidic soil; moderate saltDark green, leathery leaves used for cut foliage; moderate saltLarge leaves; likes acidic soil; low salt; nativeGrows on rocks and in shade; likes alkaline soil; low salt; nativeLikes shady, moist areas and acidic soil; low salt; nativeVine attaches to masonry and climbs trees; sap is irritant; moderate saltHerbaceous; red berries, spine-tipped leaves; moderate saltHerbaceous; green to purple leaves, spotted or striped; dies back November–December; white, pink and purple flowers; low saltLikes sandy soil; evergreen; high salt; nativeWoody; edible fruits, white flowers; thrives in very well drained soil; high salt; evergreen; nativeLow-growing grass-like lily; variegated leaves and white flowers; spreads by stolonsLow-maintenance turf grass; several cultivated forms, sometimes used for forageDrought-tolerant turf grass; good for sandy soil; many cultivated forms; sometimes used for forage; wildlife value; high saltBluish leaves; good for stabilizing dunes; bunchgrass; high salt; nativeBunchgrass; seedheads similar to sea oats; wildlife value; low salt; nativeTurf grass; likes acidic soil; develops iron deficiencies; wildlife value; low saltTall bunchgrass; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; moderate salt; nativeHerbaceous; damaged by foot traffic; white or purple flowers; avoid alkaline soil; moderate saltBunchgrass; mixes well with wildflowers; lovely purple plumes in fall; good in alkaline to neutral soil; wildlife value; high salt; nativeBunchgrass; purple flowers in spring and fall, purple fall plumes; likes dry areas with high pH; wildlife value; low salt; native GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 51
  • 54. GROU N DCOVERS Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateGrass, St. Augustine Stenotaphrum secundatum 8a–11 – 0.5Grass, salt Distichlis spicata 8–11 – 1.5Grass, saltmeadow cord Spartina patens 8a–9b – 2Grass, sand cord or Baker cord Spartina bakeri 8a–11 – 3–6Grass, smooth cord Spartina alterniflora 8a–11 – 6Grass, wire Aristida beyrichiana 8a–10a – 2–3Grass, zebra or eulalia Miscanthus sinensis 8a–9a – 6Grass, zoysia or Japanese Zoysia japonica 8a–11 – 0.5Groundcover rose Rosa x ‘Red Carpet’ 8a–10b – 2x2Hosta Hosta spp. 8a 1x2Ivy, Algerian Hedera canariensis 8–10b – NAJasmine, Asiatic Trachelospermum asiaticum 8a–10b 0.5Jasmine, Carolina, or Gelsemium sempervirens 8a–11 – 0.5yellow jessamineJuniper, blue rug Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Rug’ 8a–9a – 0.5Juniper, Japanese garden Juniperus procumbens 8a–10b – 2Juniper, Parson Juniperus chinensis ‘Parsonii’ 8–10b – 3Juniper, shore Juniperus conferta 8a–10a – 2Lantana, gold mound Lantana camara ‘Gold Mound’ 9b–11 3Lantana, trailing Lantana montevidensis 9a–11 2Liriope Liriope spp. 8a–10b – 1Maidencane Panicum hemitomon 8a–11 – 2Porterweed, blue Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 9a–11 – 1.5Powderpuff or Mimosa strigillosa 8a–9b 0.5mimosa-vinePurple queen Tradescantia pallida 9a–10a – 1Quailberry Crossopetalum ilicifolium 10b–11 2Railroad vine Ipomoea pes-caprae 9a–11 0.5St. John’s wort, matted Hypericum reductum 8a–9b 1.5sandweed, or sandwortSea oats Uniola paniculata 8a–11 4Sea purslane Sesuvium portulacastrum 9–10b 1–3Seashore dropseed Sporobolus virginicus 8a–11 – 1Seashore paspalum Paspalum vaginatum 8–11 2Smooth water-hyssop Bacopa monnieri 8a–11 0.5Snowberry, pineland Chiococca alba (= C. pinetorum) 9b–11 – 2.5 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 52
  • 55. CommentsTurf grass; many cultivated forms available; high saltWarm-season perennial grass; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeSpreading grass; likes sandy soil; moderate salt; nativeRobust perennial bunchgrass of salt marshes and dunes; high salt; nativeHerbaceous; coastal, salt-tolerant spreading grass; wildlife value; high salt; nativeBunchgrass; flowers following fire; ideal for mixing with wildflowers in dry areas; wildlife value; nativeVariegated leaves; gets rust but it goes away; silvery gold flowers in spring and fall; likes sandy soilGrass; high saltPerennial; glossy dark green leaves; near-continuous dark red flowers; disease-resistant; low saltPerennial; clump-forming; variety of colors and varigations in leaves; prefers fertile soil; low saltVine; can be invasive; sap is irritant; moderate saltVine; forms a thick mat; invades surrounding areas; yellow or white flowers; evergreen; moderate saltAttractive shiny green leaves; showy yellow flowers in very early spring; all parts are poisonous if ingested;can be trained to grow on trellis or fence; evergreen; low salt; nativeBlue-toned foliage; extremely low-growing; takes time to fill in; drought-tolerantConifer; ‘Nana’ is a slow-growing dwarf cultivar, ‘Variegata’ has yellow and green foliage; good in sandy soil; moderate saltLow-growing conifer; gray-green foliage; needs well-drained soil conditions; moderate saltBlue-green conifer; subject to fungal problems in wet areas; high saltPerennial; gold mound is sterile variety; too much water and fertilizer reduce blooming; foliage damaged at 25°F, freezes to ground at 20°F; does well in sandy, dry sites; high salt; evergreenPerennial; won’t tolerate foot traffic or mowing; foliage damaged at 25°F, freezes to ground around 20°F; purple flowers; does well in sandy, dry sites; high salt; evergreenHerbaceous; forms dense clumps; intolerant of foot traffic; foliage yellows in sun, tips may burn from soil salts; many cultivars available; purple, white, pink or blue flowers; moderate saltSpreading grass; excellent drought tolerance; dune stabilizer and lawn grass; high salt; nativeHerbaceous; blue flowers; wildlife value; high salt; nativeHerbaceous; fern-like leaves, sensitive to touch; similar to exotic Schrankia microphylla; pink flowers in spring and summer; nativeHerbaceous; sprawling, open growth; invasive; will tolerate poor sites; high saltShrub-like, spiny; red fruit, red flowers; evergreen; wildlife value; low salt; native; threatenedCreeping, flowering dune vine; poisonous; purple flowers in spring and fall; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeReclining, bushy-branched flowering shrub; likes sandy soil; small yellow flowers in spring and summer; evergreen; high salt; nativeProtected grass species; excellent for dunes; flower and seed heads are distinctive; high salt; wildlife value; nativeHerbaceous; succulent beach wildflower; pink flowers; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeBunchgrass; coastal plant; wildlife value; high salt; nativeCoastal turf grass; dune stabilizer; some varieties are fine-textured; high saltHerbaceous; flowering groundcover for wet areas; white or pink flowers; high salt; nativeVining shrub with attractive white flowers, showy white fruit; leans on other vegetation; grows on shell areas; evergreen; low salt; native GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 53
  • 56. GROU N DCOVERS Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateSpider plant Chlorphytum comosum 9a–10b – 1x1Sunflower, beach Helianthus debilis 8a–10b – 1.5Thyme Thymus vulgaris 8a–11 1.5Vinca Vinca spp. 8a–8b – 3x3 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade Powderpuff Mimosa strigillosa Purple queen Tradescantia pallida Ginger, peacock Kaempferia species Sea oats Uniola paniculata 54
  • 57. CommentsPerennial; number of variegated and green forms; best used in clumps; moderate saltHerbaceous annual or perennial in south Florida; showy yellow flowers; very drought-tolerant; good for dunes and sunny spots; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativePlant in fall, winter or spring and re-plant every 3 or 4 years; low saltPerennial; mat-forming, dark green foliage; lavender-blue flowers; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference Grass, Aztec Ophiopogon species Grass, saltmeadow cord Spartina patens Juniper Juniperus species False heather Cuphea hyssopifolia 55
  • 58. V I N E S Florida Soil Hardiness Moisture Light GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* RateAllamanda, yellow Allamanda cathartica 9b–11Ape-ivy Tetrastigma voinerianum 9a–11Black-eyed Susan vine Thunbergia alata 8a–11 –Bleeding heart Clerodendrum thomsoniae 8a–11 –Bower vine Pandorea jasminoides 10b–11Brazilian golden vine Stigmaphyllon littorale 9b–11Bridal bouquet Stephanotis floribunda 10b–11Confederate jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides 8a–11 –Cross vine Bignonia carpeolata 8a–11 –Grape, muscadine or wild Vitis rotundifolia 8a–11 –Grapes Vitis spp. 8a–11 –Herald’s-trumpet Beaumontia grandiflora 10a–11Honeysuckle, coral or trumpet Lonicera sempervirens 8a–10 –Mandevilla or pink allamanda Mandevilla spp. 9b–11Monstera or splitleaf Monstera deliciosa 10a–11philodendronMorning-glory Ipomoea spp. 9b–11Passion flower or maypop Passiflora incarnata 8a–10 –Passion flower, corky-stem Passiflora suberosa 9b–11 –Passion flower, incense Passiflora x ‘Incense’ 9a–11 –Passion flower, purple Passiflora edulis 9b–11 –Passion flower, scarlet Passiflora coccinea 10a–11 –Queens wreath Petrea volubilis 10a–11Sky vine Thunbergia grandiflora 8a–11 –Trumpet vine or cow itch vine Campsis radicans 8a–9 –Virginia creeper or woodbine Parthenocissus quinquefolia 8a–11 –White sky vine or Thunbergia fragrans 9b–11Bengal clock vineWisteria, American Wisteria frutescens 8a–9a SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade Mandevilla Mandevilla species Honeysuckle, coral Lonicera sempervirens 56
  • 59. CommentsRequires support; can get leggy; poisonous milky sap; large, showy flowers; susceptible to magnesium deficiency; low salt; evergreenNon-flowering; very bold texture; limited hardiness in north Florida; evergreenAnnual flowering vine; orange, yellow or white; may reseedNamed for its flowers; susceptible to nematode damage; killed to ground by freezes; low salt; evergreenWhite flowers with pink throats; needs protection from wind; prefers rich, fertile soil; medium salt; evergreenSmall flower clusters; requires support to climb; needs little care once established; low salt; evergreenFragrant, waxy flowers; low salt; evergreenIntensely fragrant spring blooms; evergreen; variegated forms available; low saltClimbs by tendrils and adhesive disks; large, long-throated, reddish flowers; cross sections of stems are cross-shaped; evergreen; low salt; nativeGrows slowly at first; many varieties; disease-resistant; self-fertile; purple fruit in August; deciduous; low salt; nativeThere are many types of grapes well suited to growing in Florida. Contact your local County Cooperative Extension ServiceLarge, heavy vine requires strong support; low salt; evergreenReddish tubular flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds; red fall berries; evergreen; wildlife value; medium salt; nativeTrumpet-shaped large, showy pink flowers with darker throats; cold-sensitive; evergreen; medium saltEdible fruit with pineapple-banana taste; large leaves, variegated varieties available; not frost-tolerant; low salt; evergreenBeach dune pioneer; can be trained over a trellis; high salt; evergreen; nativeWill sucker some distance away; dies back to ground after freeze; showy flowers; large edible fruit that pop when squashed; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeOlder vines have deeply grooved, corky stems; tiny flowers, small purple fruits; variation in leaf shape; butterfly attractor; evergreen; medium salt; nativeShowy flowers are self-sterile; butterfly attractor; evergreen; wildlife value; low saltSubtropical species; tolerates cool periods and slight frosts for short time; many varieties available; butterfly attractor; edible fruit; evergreen; low saltExotic, bright scarlet flowers; more tropical than P. edulis; heavily damaged by nematodes; vigorous vine requires strong support; butterfly attractor; evergreen; low saltWoody vine; persistent showy flower; used in south Florida as wisteria substitute; prefers rich, sandy soil; low salt; evergreenBest in hot, sunny locations; wintering flower, but some color in all Florida zones; deciduous in north Florida, evergreen in south Florida; low saltLarge orange tubular flowers; sap is a mild skin irritant; may become invasive and very weedy; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeFive leaflets distinguish it from poison ivy; purple fruit; fall foliage; climbs by adhesive pads which may cause damage; deciduous; wildlife value; low salt; nativeLarge white flowers with white throats; vigorously aggressive; evergreen; low saltSmall leaves and flowers; suited to small areas; grows best in north Florida; low salt; deciduous; native GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference Confederate jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia 57
  • 60. F LOW E R S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateAgapanthus Agapanthus africanus 8b–11 – 2Ageratum or floss flower Ageratum houstonianum 8a–11 – 1Alder, yellow, or sage rose Turnera ulmifolia 10b–11 3Amaryllis Hippeastrum hybrids 8a–9b 2Aster, bushy Aster dumosus 8a–10b – 1x3Aster, climbing Aster carolinianus 8a–11 – 8Aster, Stokes’ Stokesia laevis 8a–10a – 1Balloon flower Platycodon grandiflorus 8a–10b – 1x1Beardtongue, white, Penstemon multiflorus 8a–11 3or pineland penstemonBegonia Begonia spp. 9a–11 – 2Begonia, wax Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum 8a–11 – 1Bird-of-paradise Strelitzia reginae 9a–11 4Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta 8a–11 3Blanket flower Gaillardia pulchella 8a–11 2Blazing star Liatris spicata 8a–11 – 3or dense gayfeatherBlue curls, forked Trichostema dichotomum 8a–11 – 2Blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium 8a–11 – 0.5or narrowleaf-grassButterfly weed or pleurisy root Asclepias tuberosa 8a–9b – 2Button rattlesnake master Eryngium yuccifolium 8a–11 – 3or button snakerootCanna, garden Canna x generalis 8a–11 – 5Canna, yellow Canna flaccida 8a–11 – 4Cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis 8a–11 – 3Chrysanthemum, garden Chrysanthemum x morifolium 8a–9b 3or florist’sCigar flower Cuphea spp. 9a–11 – 3Cockscomb Celosia argentea (= C. cristata) 8a–11 – 2Coleus Coleus x hybridus 8a–11 2Common tickseed Coreopsis leavenworthii 8a–11 4Coreopsis or calliopsis Coreopsis tinctoria 8a–11 – 3Cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus 8a–11 1–5Cream narcissus Narcissus tazetta 8a–9a 1.5 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 58
  • 61. CommentsHerbaceous; showy blue and white flowers; short-lived in south Florida; needs protection in northern zones; low saltNot very heat-resistant; cold-tender; problems with aphids, red spiders and leafhoppers; varied spring and summer flowers; requires well-drained soilShowy yellow flowers; annual in north Florida, perennial in central Florida; evergreen; high saltPerennial; varied spring flowers; may require winter rest to flower well; medium saltPerennial; clump-forming; pale-blue to sky-blue flowers, late summer through winter; low salt; nativePerennial; sprawling; flower color varies; fall blooms; likes sand; low salt; wildlife value; nativeLow-growing perennial; flowers from deep to pale blue and pink in color; spreads by stolonsPerennial; medium green leaves; flower bud resembles an inflated balloon; star-like flowers, 2–3 inches, in blue, pink and white; slow to emerge in spring; low saltPerennial; basal rosette; snapdragon family; white spring, summer and fall flowers; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; needs good drainage; succulent star-shaped leaves, pink flowers, green and purple foliage; needs protection in northern zones; low saltCold-tender; sun-adapted cultivars available; leaves can be green, bronze or mahogany red; damaged by nematodes; does best during cooler months; likes acidic soil; low saltPerennial; plant in protected locations in central Florida; spreads laterally with age; old clumps may be 10 feet across; orange or blue flowers; likes acidic soil; low saltAnnual; not damaged by root-knot nematodes; yellow petals with brown centers; spring, summer and fall flowers; nativeAnnual or perennial; does well in sand; reseeds readily; bi-color rayed flowers; great color variation; few insect problems; high salt; nativePerennial; dramatic spikes of small, thread-like clusters of purple or white flowers in spring, summer and fall; low salt; nativeAnnual; blue flowers in summer and fall; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeHerbaceous; weak, short-lived perennial; lovely blue or white flowers; nativePerennial; important nectar and larval plant; orange or red spring, summer and fall flowers; likes poor, acidic, well-drained soil; wildlife value; medium salt; nativePerennial; branched stalks of white, button-like flowers from weakly spiny, yucca-like leaves; blooms in spring, summer and fall;likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; colors can be striped or splashed; dwarf cultivars available; problems with canna leaf roller; frost-sensitive; low saltPerennial; good all-around groundcover; comes back from freezes; yellow spring and summer flowers; prefers wet sites and sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; stalks of intensely red flowers in spring, summer and fall; wildlife value; low salt; native; threatenedPerennial; hardiness varies with cultivar; divide in spring; pinching increases bushiness and flowering; problems with nematodes, mites, thrips and aphids;not recommended for south Florida; fall blooms; low saltWeak, short-lived perennial; long, tubular, varied-colored flower tipped with black and white; spring and summer blooms; needs protection innorthern zones; wildlife value; low saltAnnual; bright spring flowers; many cultivars available; damaged by root-knot nematodes; cold-tender; likes sandy soil; low saltHerbaceous; short-lived perennial; multicolored leaves; not drought-tolerant; likes fertile, well-drained soil; low saltPerennial; found on disturbed sites; yellow petals with brown centers; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; also called tick-seed; not damaged by root-knot nematode; remove faded flowers to prolong bloom; reseeds; yellow spring and summer flowers;tolerant of well-drained, poor soil; low saltAnnual; mutliple colors, spring and summer blooms; cold-tender; may need staking; reseeds; prefers dry, infertile soil; low saltPerennial; cold-hardy; amaryllis family; white or yellow flowers in winter and spring; prefers clay or alkaline soil; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 59
  • 62. F LOW E R S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateCrinum-lily Crinum spp. 8a–10b – 4Daisy, African bush Euryops chrysanthemoides 9b–11 3Daisy, sea oxeye Borrichia frutescens 8b–11 – 3Daylily Hemerocallis hybrids 8a–10b – 2Dicerandra Dicerandra linearifolia 8a–9a 1.5x1Dotted horsemint Monarda punctata 8a–11 – 4or spotted bee balmDusty-miller Senecio cineraria 8a–11 – 1Fancy-leaved caladium Caladium x hortulanum 8a–11 1.5Florida green eyes Berlandiera subacaulis 8a–11 1.5Four-o’clock or Mirabilis jalapa 8a–11 – 2marvel-of-PeruGaura or whirling butterflies Guara lindheimeri 8a–9b 2x4Gerbera daisy Gerbera jamesonii 8b–11 1.5Ginger, butterfly Hedychium coronarium 8a–11 – 5Ginger, shell Alpinia zerumbet 9a–11 8Globe amaranth Gomphrena globosa 8a–11 – 2Goldenrod, seaside Solidago sempervirens 8a–11 – 5Heliotrope Heliotropium spp. 9b–11 – 2Impatiens Impatiens spp. 9a–11 2Indian paint brush Carphephorus corymbosus 8a–11 4Iris, African Dietes spp. 9b–10b – 3Iris, blue flag, anglepod, Iris hexagona 8a–11 3Dixie or prairieIris, walking Neomarica spp. 8b–11 – 1–2Ironweed Veronia spp. 8a–9b – 6Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema triphyllum 8a–10b 1x1Jacobinia Justicia spp. 9a–10b 2x4Kalanchoe Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 9b–11 1.5Lantana, Florida, or Lantana depressa 9a–11 – 2shrub verbenaLantana, gold mound Lantana camara ‘Gold Mound’ 9b–11 3Lantana, trailing Lantana montevidensis 9a–11 2Lizard’s tail Saururus cernuus 8b–11 – 3Lupine, sky-blue Lupinus diffusus 8a–10b 1.5x1.5Marigold Tagetes spp. 8a–11 2 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 60
  • 63. CommentsNot a true lily; white, pink and red forms, some striped or multi-colored; blooms in spring and summer; problem with chewing insects and caterpillars;prone to leaf spot in south Florida; likes sandy soil; medium saltShowy yellow flowers; evergreen; low saltPerennial; forms extensive colonies; silvery foliage, yellow flowers; in southeast Florida, Borrichia arborescens—has dark green leaves; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeHerbaceous; showy yellow, pink or orange flowers in spring, summer and fall; high saltPerennial; attractive purple flowers in spring, fall or early winter; low salt; nativePerennial; aromatic foliage; likes sandy soil; high salt; wildlife value; nativeAnnual; tolerates heat; versatile border plant; silver/gray woolly foliage, yellow spring blooms; must re-plant every few years; does well in dry or sandy soil; low saltHerbaceous; arrowhead-shaped multicolored leaves, green spring flower; needs protection in northern zones; low saltPerennial; greenish-yellow flower; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; tunnel-shaped flowers open overnight; often reseeds; blooms in spring, summer and fall; can be weedy; low saltPerennial; open form; dark green small linear leaves; best if grown in masses; red, pink or white flowers occur on long spikes; drought-tolerant; moderate saltPerennial; daisy-type flowers; single and double flowers available; can’t be planted too deep—sand in crown rots plant; low saltPerennial herb; large white spring flowers; needs protection in northern zones; moderate saltHerbaceous; dark green foliage, white and yellow flowers on canes; blooms in spring and winter; doesn’t bloom when frozen; moderate saltAnnual; showy, clover-like flower heads; cold-tender; blooms in spring and summer; likes sandy soil; low saltPerennial; doesn’t cause allergies; yellow spring and fall blooms; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativePerennial; many colors of flowers; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativeAnnual; reseeds in moist areas; not frost-hardy; may require watering during hottest months; likes sandy soil; low saltPerennial; aster family; flattish heads of tubular rose-colored flowers; fall blooms; prefers acidic soil; low salt; nativePerennial; spreads by rhizomes; flowers in many colors; likes sandy soil; low saltPerennial; found in swamps and wet prairies in north and central Florida; blue spring flowers; likes acidic or sandy soil; low salt; nativeWhite, blue or yellow iris-like flowers on a grass-like mass of leaves; spreads by plantlets; low saltPerennial; intense purple-pink flowers in flat-topped clusters in summer and fall; low salt; nativePerennial; palmately compound leaf; bright red berries; colony-forming; prefers alkaline soils; low salt; nativePerennial; used as a background in masses; showy inflorescence in shades of pink, white and yellow; low saltPerennial; succulent, often invasive; spring and summer scarlet blooms; prefers sandy soil; medium saltPerennial; excellent drought tolerance; yellow flowers; prefers sandy soil; high salt; nativePerennial; gold mound is sterile variety; too much water and fertilizer reduce blooming; foliage damaged at 25°F, freezes to ground at 20°F; does well in sandy, dry sites; high salt; evergreenPerennial; won’t tolerate foot traffic or mowing; foliage damaged at 25°F, freezes to ground around 20°F; purple flowers; does well in sandy, dry sites; high salt; evergreenAnnual; nodding spikes of white flowers; rhizomatous; forms extensive colonies; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; leaves covered with silvery silky hairs; sky-blue flowers mid-winter to spring; low salt; nativeAnnual; summer heat causes temporary decline in flowering; not damaged by nematodes; yellow or orange flowers in spring, summer and fall; tolerates dry soil; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 61
  • 64. F LOW E R S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateMexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia 9b–11 – 6Mexican zinnia Tithonia rotundifolia 8a–11 – 3–5Milkweed, scarlet or Asclepias curassavica 9b–11 – 4blood flower or tropicalMistflower Conoclinium coelestinum 8a–11 – 2Moss-rose or portulaca Portulaca grandiflora 8a–11 – 0.5Pentas Pentas lanceolata 8a–11 – 4Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus 8a–11 – 1.5Petunia Petunia x hybrida 8a–11 1.5Phlox, garden Phlox drummondii 8a–11 – 0.5Phlox, moss Phlox subulata 8a–9b – 3Phlox, woodland Phlox divaricata 8a–9a – 1Poppy mallow Callirhoe papaver 8a–9a – 1.5x1Porterweed Stachytarpheta spp. 9a–11 – 1.5Purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea 8a–11 – 2Rain-lily Zephyranthes spp. 8a–11 – 1Sage, lyre-leaved Salvia lyrata 8a–11 – 1.5Sage, scarlet Salvia splendens 8a–11 2Sage, tropical Salvia coccinea 8a–11 – 2Scrub mints Conradina spp. 8a–9a 3x3Sedum or ice plant Sedum spp. 8a–10b – 2x2Shrub rose Rosa x ‘Knock Out’ 8a–10b – 3x3.5Silkgrass Pityopsis graminifolia 8a–11 – 3Snapdragon Antirrhinum majus 8a–11 2Society garlic Tulbaghia violacea 8a–11 2Spider-lily or beach-lily Hymenocallis spp. 9a–11 – 3Spiderwort, blue Tradescantia ohiensis 8a–11 – 3Spiral ginger Costus barbatus 8a–11 – 5String-lily Crinum americanum 8a–11 – 1.5Sunflower, narrow-leaved Helianthus angustifolius 8a–9b – 6Sweet William Dianthus barbatus 8a–9b – 1.5Twinflower Dyschoriste oblongifolia 8b–11 0.5Verbena, Florida native Glandularia spp. 8a–11 – 1.5or coastal mockVerbena, moss Glandularia pulchella (Verbena tenusecta) 8a–11 – 0.5 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade 62
  • 65. CommentsPerennial; can be invasive; roots easily; heat- and drought-resistant; yellow spring and summer flowers smell like honey; likes sandy soil; medium salt; wildlife valueAnnual flowering; large orange-to-gold daisy; may reseed; usually dies back in summer; butterfly attractorPerennial; orange, red or yellow flowers in spring, summer and fall; can become leggy; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; low saltPerennial; fluffy blue flowers on stalks; hardy, adaptable; plant in north Florida April–May, in central Florida March–April and September–October, in south FloridaNovember–February; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativeAnnual; excellent groundcover; low-growing, fleshy succulent, often with reddish stems; flowers in many colors, short-lived but prolific; cold-tender; likes sandy soil; medium saltPerennial; magenta, pink, lilac or white showy flower clusters; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; low saltHerbaceous; can be invasive; needs protection in northern zones; variety of flower colors; good in dry sandy or coastal sites; high saltPopular annual; many forms and colors available; fall, winter and spring flowers; cold-hardy to 20°F, can’t tolerate heat; problems with crown rot, aphids and nematodes; low saltAnnual; clusters of 1-inch flowers of varied colors; used along roadways and large open areas for effect; reseeds; cold-hardy; low saltPerennial; spreading and mat-forming; blue, purple or lavender spring flowers; cold-hardy; likes sandy soil; low saltPerennial; rich purple-pink flowers in spring; prefers some protection from midday sunPerennial; slender herb; flowers, 2–3 inches wide, bright purple-pink and poppy-like; low salt; nativePerennial; many different-colored flowers available; needs protection in northern zones; likes sandy soil; attracts butterflies; high salt; S. jamaicensis is nativePerennial; clumping; long-lasting cut flowers; purple flowers in spring and summer; prefers well-drained soil; medium salt; nativePerennial; herbaceous; grass-like foliage; purple, white and pink flowers; blooms after rains during warm weather; high salt; nativePerennial; lyre-shaped red markings on leaves; slender stalks, purple spring flowers; mint family; many species available; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativeAnnual or perennial; red spring and summer blooms; cut back for multiple flowering; attracts hummingbirds; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; low saltPerennial; reseeds profusely; likes sandy soil but tolerates alkalinity; wildlife value; medium salt; nativeSmall evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves; attractive white-to-pink flowers from spring to fall; moderate salt; nativePerennial; clump-forming; dark green 5-inch leaves; in early autumn, dense clusters of flowers turn deep pink, then copper-red; moderate saltOne of the “care-free” roses; disease- and black spot-resistant; near constant flowering; single, cherry red flowers; low saltPerennial; grass-like, narrow linear leaves with silvery pubescence; yellow spring, summer and fall flowers; likes acidic soil; low salt; nativeAnnual; many cultivars available; remove spent flowers for re-bloom; damaged by root-knot nematodes; winter and spring flowersHerbaceous; garlic-scented purple flowers in spring, summer and fall; doesn’t bloom well in shade; moderate saltPerennial; showy white fragrant flowers that attract hawkmoths; stalks grow from strap-like leaves; nativePerennial; rhizomatous; forms clumps; blue flowers; nativePerennial; also called red torch ginger; showy, waxy red flowers atop tall stalks in spring, summer and fall; large spiral-arranged leaves; sprawling, spreading clump; likes sandy soil; medium saltHerbaceous; forms solid cover in wet areas; fragrant white spring and summer flowers; poisonous; likes sandy soil; needs protection in northern zones; high salt; nativePerennial; bright-yellow rayed flowers in summer and fall; prefers acidic and sandy soil; low salt; nativeAnnual; hardy, grows in north Florida winter; lightly damaged by root-knot nematodes; purple or red flowers in spring, fall and winter; likes sandy soil; low saltPerennial; also called oblongleaf twinflower; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativeAnnual or perennial; reseeding; doesn’t like mulch; variety of flower colors; prefers sandy soil; G. maritima good for beach areas; nativeAnnual; finely divided leaves; prostrate growth habit; drought-tolerant; can sustain itself with infrequent mowing; purple spring, summer and fall flowers; likes sandy soil; low salt GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference 63
  • 66. F LOW E R S Florida Soil Mature Hardiness Moisture Light Size GrowthCommon Name Scientific Name Range Range* Range* (feet) RateVerbena, purpletop or roadside Verbena bonariensis 8a–9b 4Verbena, Tampa Glandularia tampensis (Verbena tampensis) 9b–11 – 2Violet, Florida or common blue Viola spp. 8a–11 0.5Wild columbine Aquilegia canadensis 8a–9a – 3Wild-petunia Ruellia caroliniensis 8a–11 – 1.5Wishbone flower or bluewing Torenia fournieri 9a–11 1Woodland pinkroot Spigelia marilandica 8a–9a 2or Indian pinkYarrow Achillea millefolium 8a–9b – 1.5Yellow buttons Balduina angustifolia 8a–10b – 2x3Yellowtop Flaveria linearis 8b–11 – 4Yucca Yucca spp. 8a–11 4–5 SOIL MOISTURE Dry Moist Wet LIGHT Full Sun Partial Sun Shade Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia Daylily Hemerocallis hybrids Silkgrass Pityopsis graminifolia Cigar flower Cuphea species 64
  • 67. CommentsPerennial; upright; attracts butterflies; purple flowers in spring and summer; low salt; wildlife valuePerennial; purple flower clusters atop long stalks; blooms in spring, summer and fall; likes sandy soil; wildlife value; high salt; native; endangeredPerennial; also known as common blue violet; blue spring blooms; likes sandy soil; low salt; nativePerennial; dainty plant with nodding blooms; red or yellow spring flowers; endangered; prefers alkaline soil; low salt; wildlife value; nativePerennial; showy pale-blue spring and summer flowers; good for shady areas; freezes to ground in north Florida; low salt; nativeAnnual; escaped cultivation is found on disturbed sites; blooms in spring, fall and winterPerennial; red and yellow blooms in spring and summer; prefers acidic and sandy soil; wildlife value; low salt; nativeWeak, short-lived perennial; white or pink spring flowers; clumping growth habit; cold-hardy; low salt; nativeAnnual; rounded growth form; yellow aster-like flowers appear in fall and winter; well adapted to sandy soil; moderate salt; nativePerennial; goldenrod relative with showy flat-topped clusters of small yellow flowers; likes sandy soil; high salt; nativeErect succulent plant; many cultivars and species; leaves often have spines at tips GROWTH RATE Slow Medium Fast * Soil moisture and light listed in order of plant preference Amaryllis Hippeastrum hybrids 65
  • 68. F LOW E R S Crinum-lily Verbena, moss Crinum species Glandularia pulchella Purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea Iris, walking Neomarica species 66
  • 69. Dotted horsemint Monarda punctata Porterweed Stachytarpheta speciesPentasPentas lanceolata 67
  • 70. F LOW E R S Iris, blue flag Iris hexagona Mistflower Conoclinium coelestinum Blanket flower Gaillardia pulchella Sage, tropical Salvia coccinea 68
  • 71. Wild-petuniaRuellia caroliniensis Rain-lily Zephyranthes speciesButterfly weedAsclepias tuberosa Milkweed, scarlet Asclepias curassavicaWild columbineAquilegia canadensis 69
  • 72. Glossaryacid — A condition which is derived by partial microclimate — A small-scale site of specialexchange of replaceable hydrogen; an element that is conditions within a larger climate.sour; on the pH scale, acid conditions are any pHbelow 7.0, which is neutral. plat — A plan or map of a piece of land.alkaline — The condition of water or soil that potable — Water suitable for human consumption.contains an amount of alkali substances (varioussoluble salts) to raise the pH above 7.0; when practical turf area — A place where grass serves aextreme, alkalinity is caustic. function, such as a child’s or pet’s play area.aquifer — A layer of underground rock or sand recharge area — A place where water is able to seepwhich stores and carries water. into the ground and replenish an aquifer because no confining layer is present.brackish — Somewhat salty. saline — Containing salt.conserve — To use only what is needed. saltwater intrusion — When salt water moves intodeciduous — Losing foliage in autumn or winter. the freshwater zone of an aquifer, making the water unfit for drinking.drawdown — Lowered water level. shrub strata — The shrub layer of a forest community,ecotones — Regions where one ecosystem blends under the canopy and understory tree species.into another. sinkhole — A hole in the ground caused by erosionepiphyte — A plant that gets its moisture and of underground limestone.nutrients from the air and rain. stormwater runoff — Rainwater that runs offgroundcover — Small plants that live close to the surfaces into water bodies.ground. succession — A series of ecosystem changes wheregroundwater — Water below the earth’s surface. plants compete, succeeding and displacing each other as they respond to, and so modify, their environment.hammock — Forest of broad-leafed trees andcabbage palms. topography — Natural features of land.herbaceous — Having the texture, color or understory — The vegetative layer under a forestappearance of a leaf, with little or no woody tissue. canopy, but above the shrub and groundcover layers.humus — Decomposed plant or animal matter; the water resource caution areas — Areas identified byorganic portion of soil. the water management districts where existing sources of water may not be adequate to supplyhydric — Characterized by abundant moisture. water for future human needs while maintaining water resources and related natural systems.inorganic — Composed of matter other than plantor animal. water table — The upper limit of where groundwater permeates the ground.leach — To pass through by percolation. wetlands — Areas containing much soil moisture.marl — A loose earthy deposit containing asubstantial amount of calcium carbonate; used for xeric — Characterized by dry conditions; requiringsoils deficient in lime. only a small amount of moisture.mesic — Moist conditions; characterized by amoderate amount of moisture. 70
  • 73. BibliographyBailey, Liberty Hyde. Manual of Cultivated Plants. New Maxwell, Lewis S. Florida Fruit. Tampa, Fla.: Lewis S. York: Macmillan, 1949. Maxwell, 1967.Bell, C. Ritchie, and Bryan J. Taylor. Florida Wild McGeachy, Beth. Handbook of Florida Palms. Flowers and Roadside Plants. Chapel Hill, N.C.: St. Petersburg, Fla.: Great Outdoors Publishing Laurel Hill Press, 1982. Company, 1977.Black, Robert J., and Edward F. Gilman. Your Florida Meerow, Alan W. Betrock’s Guide to Landscape Palms. Guide to Bedding Plants: Selection, Establishment Hollywood, Fla.: Betrock Information Systems, 1992. and Maintenance. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Morton, Julia F. Fruits of Warm Climates. Winterville, N.C.: Creative Resource Systems, 1987.Brandies, Monica Moran. Herbs and Spices for Florida Gardens. Wayne, Pa.: B.B. Mackay Books, 1996. Myers, Ronald L., and John J. Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, Fla.: University of Central FloridaBroschat, Timothy K., and Alan W. Meerow. Betrock’s Press, 1991. Reference Guide to Florida Landscape Plants. Hollywood, Fla.: Betrock Information Systems, 1996. Nelson, Gil. The Trees of Florida. Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press, 1994.Dehgan, Bijan. Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. ———. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida. Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press, 1996.Gilman, Edward F. Betrock’s Florida Plant Guide. Hollywood, Fla.: Betrock Information Systems, 1996. Ruppert, Kathleen C., and Robert J. Black. Florida Lawn Handbook. Gainesville: University Press of Florida,———. Horticopia: Trees, Shrubs and Groundcovers. 1998. 2d ed. CD-ROM. Purcellville, Va.: Horticopia, 1998. Stresau, Frederic. Florida, My Eden. Port Salerno, Fla.:———. Horticopia: Perennials and Annuals. 2d ed. Florida Classics Library, 1986. CD-ROM. Purcellville, Va.: Horticopia, 1998. Suncoast Native Plant Society. The Right Plants for DryGilman, Edward F., and Robert J. Black. Your Florida Places: Native Plant Landscaping in Central Florida. Guide to Shrubs. Gainesville: University Press of St. Petersburg, Fla.: Great Outdoors Publishing Florida, 1999. Company, 1997.Haehle, Robert G., and Joan Brookwell. Native Florida Taylor, Walter Kingsley. The Guide to Florida Plants. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company, Wildflowers. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing 1999. Company, 1992.Jameson, Michael, and Richard Moyroud, eds. Xeric ———. Florida Wildflowers in Their Natural Landscaping With Florida Native Plants. N.p. Communities. Gainesville: University Press of Association of Florida Native Nurseries, 1991. Florida, 1998.Langeland, K.A., and K. Craddock Burks, eds. Wasowski, Sally. Gardening With Native Plants of the Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in South. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company, Florida’s Natural Areas. Gainesville: Institute of Food 1994. and Agricultural Sciences Publications, University of Watkins, John, and Thomas J. Sheehan. Florida Florida, 1999. Landscape Plants. Revised edition. Gainesville:Little, Elbert L. National Audubon Society Field Guide to University Press of Florida, 1975. North American Trees, Eastern Region. New York: Wunderlin, Richard. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Alfred A. Knopf, 1980. Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998.Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge, Mass.: University Yarlett, Lewis L. Common Grasses of Florida and the Press, 1987. Southeast. Spring Hill, Fla.: Florida Native Plant Society, 1996.MacCubbin, Tom, and Georgia Tasker. Florida Gardener’s Guide. Franklin, Tenn.: Cool Springs Press, 1997. 71
  • 74. Scientific Cross-ReferenceAbelia x grandiflora Bougainvillea glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bougainvillea, (A. chinensis x A. uniflora) . . . . . . . . . . . .Glossy abelia paper flowerAcacia farnesiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Acacia, sweet Breynia disticha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Snow bushAcalypha hispida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chenille plant Brugmansia x candida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Angel’s-trumpetAcalypha wilkesiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Copperleaf Brunfelsia americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lady-of-the-nightAcer rubrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Maple, red Brunfelsia grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yesterday-today-Acer saccharum subsp. floridanum . . . . .Maple, Florida sugar and-tomorrowAchillea millefolium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yarrow Bucida buceras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black oliveAcoelorrhaphe wrightii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paurotis palm Bucida spinosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spiny black oliveAcrostichum danaeifolium . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, giant leather Buddleja spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Butterfly bushAesculus pavia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Red buckeye Bulnesia arborea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BulnesiaAgapanthus africanus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Agapanthus Bursera simaruba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gumbo limboAgarista populifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pipestem Butia capitata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pindo palmAgave americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Century plant Caladium x hortulanum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fancy-leaved caladiumAgeratum houstonianum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ageratum Calliandra haematocephala . . . . . . . . . . .Red powderpuffAjuga reptans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ajuga Callicarpa americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .American beautyberryAllamanda cathartica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Allamanda, yellow Callirhoe papaver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Poppy mallowAloe vera (= A. barbadensis) . . . . . . . . . . .Aloe Callistemon citrinus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bottlebrush, lemonAlpinia zerumbet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ginger, shell Callistemon rigidus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bottlebrush, stiffAmyris elemifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Torchwood Calycanthus floridus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sweet shrubAndropogon virginicus var. glaucus . . . . . .Broomsedge Calyptranthes pallens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SpicewoodAnnona glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pond-apple Camellia sasanqua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Camellia, sasanquaAnnona muricata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soursop Campsis radicans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Trumpet vineAnnona reticulata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Custard apple Cananga odorata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ylang-ylangAnnona x ‘Atemoya’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Atemoya Canavalia maritima (= C. rosea) . . . . . . .Bean, beachAntirrhinum majus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Snapdragon Canna flaccida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Canna, yellowAquilegia canadensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild columbine Canna x generalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Canna, gardenArchontophoenix alexandrae . . . . . . . . . .Alexandra palm Capparis cynophallophora . . . . . . . . . . . .Caper, JamaicanArdisia escallonioides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marlberry Carissa macrocarpa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Natal plumArgusia gnaphalodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea lavender Carphephorus corymbosus . . . . . . . . . . . .Indian paint brushArisaema triphyllum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jack-in-the-pulpit Carpinus caroliniana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hornbeam, AmericanAristida beyrichiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, wire Carya alba (= C. tomentosa) . . . . . . . . . .Hickory, mockernutAsclepias curassavica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Milkweed, scarlet Carya floridana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hickory, scrubAsclepias tuberosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Butterfly weed Carya glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hickory, pignutAsimina spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pawpaw Carya illinoinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PecanAsparagus aethiopicus ‘Myers’ . . . . . . . . .Foxtail-fern Caryota mitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Clustering fishtail palmAspidistra elatior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cast-iron plant Casimiroa edulis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .White sapoteAsplenium nidus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, bird’s nest Cassia fistula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Golden showerAster carolinianus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Aster, climbing Cassia javanica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pink-and-white showerAster dumosus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Aster, bushy Castanea pumila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ChinquapinAverrhoa carambola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Carambola Catalpa bignonioides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CatalpaAvicennia germinans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mangrove, black Catharanthus roseus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PeriwinkleBacopa monnieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Smooth water-hyssop Celosia argentea (= C. cristata) . . . . . . . .CockscombBalduina angustifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yellow buttons Celtis laevigata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SugarberryBauhinia x blakeana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hong Kong orchid tree Cephalanthus occidentalis . . . . . . . . . . . .ButtonbushBeaumontia grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Herald’s-trumpet Cercis canadensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RedbudBegonia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Begonia Cestrum nocturnum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Night-blooming jessamineBegonia x semperflorens-cultorum . . . . . .Begonia, wax Chamadorea microspadix . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bamboo palmBerberis julianae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Barberry, wintergreen Chamaedorea cataractarum . . . . . . . . . . .Cat palmBerberis thunbergii Chamaerops humilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .European fan palm ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Barberry, ‘crimson Chasmanthium latifolium . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, broadleaf spike pygmy’ Chiococca alba (= C. pinetorum) . . . . . . .Snowberry, pinelandBerlandiera subacaulis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Florida green eyes Chionanthus virginicus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fringe treeBetula nigra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Birch, river Chlorphytum comosum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spider plantBignonia carpeolata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cross vine Chorisia speciosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Floss-silk treeBismarckia nobilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bismarck palm Chrysanthemum x morifolium . . . . . . . . .Chrysanthemum, gardenBlechnum serrulatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, swamp Chrysobalanus icaco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CocoplumBorrichia frutescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Daisy, sea oxeye Chrysophyllum cainito . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Star-apple 72
  • 75. Scientific Cross-ReferenceChrysophyllum oliviforme . . . . . . . . . . . . .Satinleaf Dodonaea viscosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Varnish leafCitharexylum spinosum Dracaena draco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dragon tree (= C. fruticosum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fiddlewood Dracaena spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DracaenaCitrus aurantifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Key lime Duranta evecta (= Duranta repens) . . . . .Golden dewdropCitrus limon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lemon Dyschoriste oblongifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TwinflowerCitrus reticulata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tangerine Echinacea purpurea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Purple coneflowerCitrus sinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Orange, sweet Elaeagnus pungens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SilverthornCitrus x paradisi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grapefruit Eragrostis spectabilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, purple loveCitrus x tangelo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tangelo Eremochloa ophiuroides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, centipedeClerodendrum thomsoniae . . . . . . . . . . . .Bleeding heart Eriobotrya japonica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LoquatClethra alnifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sweet pepperbush Erithalis fruticosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black torchClusia rosea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pitch apple Ernodea littoralis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Golden creeperCoccoloba diversifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pigeon plum Eryngium yuccifolium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Button rattlesnake masterCoccoloba uvifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seagrape Erythrina herbacea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coral beanCoccothrinax argentata . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Silver palm Eugenia confusa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Redberry stopperCocculus laurifolius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Snail seed Eugenia foetida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spanish stopperCocos nucifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coconut palm Eugenia rhombea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Red stopperCodiaeum variegatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Croton Euryops chrysanthemoides . . . . . . . . . . . .Daisy, African bushColeus x hybridus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coleus Evodia suaveolens var. ridleyi . . . . . . . . . .Aralia, lacy-ladyColvillea racemosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Colville’s glory Evolvulus glomerata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blue dazeConocarpus erectus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Buttonwood Fagus grandifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Beech, AmericanConocarpus erectus var. sericeus . . . . . . .Buttonwood, silver Feijoa sellowiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Guava, pineappleConoclinium coelestinum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mistflower Ficus carica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fig, edibleConradina canescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scrub conradina Ficus pumila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fig, creepingConradina grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scrub mint, Flaveria linearis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yellowtop large-flowered Fortunella spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .KumquatConradina spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scrub mints Fraxinus caroliniana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ash, popCordia sebestena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geiger tree Fraxinus pennsylvanica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ash, greenCordyline terminalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ti plant Gaillardia pulchella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blanket flowerCoreopsis leavenworthii . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Common tickseed Galphimia gracilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ThryallisCoreopsis tinctoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coreopsis Garberia heterophylla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GarberiaCornus florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dogwood, flowering Gardenia augusta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gardenia, Cape jasmineCornus kousa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dogwood, Japanese Gaylussacia dumosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Huckleberry, dwarfCortaderia selloana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pampas grass Gelsemium sempervirens . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jasmine, CarolinaCosmos bipinnatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cosmos Genipa clusiifolia (= Casasia clusiifolia) . . .Apple, seven-yearCostus barbatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spiral ginger Gerbera jamesonii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gerbera daisyCrataegus aestivalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .May haw Glandularia pulchellaCrataegus flava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Summer haw (Verbena tenusecta) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Verbena, mossCrinum spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Crinum-lily Glandularia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Verbena, Florida nativeCrinum americanum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .String-lily Glandularia tampensisCrossopetalum ilicifolium . . . . . . . . . . . . .Quailberry (Verbena tampensis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Verbena, TampaCuphea hyssopifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .False heather Gomphrena globosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Globe amaranthCuphea spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cigar flower Gordonia lasianthus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Loblolly bayCycas revoluta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sago, king Graptophyllum pictum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Caricature plantCycas rumphii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sago, queen Guajacum sanctum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lignum vitaeCynodon dactylon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, Bermuda Guapira discolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BlollyCyrilla racemiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Titi Guara lindheimeri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GauraCyrtomium falcatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, holly Gymnanthes lucida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CrabwoodDelonix regia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Royal poinciana Halesia carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Carolina silverbellDianthus barbatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sweet William Halesia diptera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Two-winged silverbellDicerandra linearifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dicerandra Hamelia patens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FirebushDictyosperma album . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hurricane palm Hedera canariensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ivy, AlgerianDietes spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Iris, African Hedychium coronarium . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ginger, butterflyDioon edule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cycad, Dioon Helianthus angustifolius . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sunflower, narrow-leavedDiospyros digyna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black sapote Helianthus debilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sunflower, beachDiospyros discolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Velvet-apple, Mabolo Heliotropium spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HeliotropeDiospyros kaki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Persimmon, Japanese Hemerocallis hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DaylilyDiospyros virginiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Persimmon, common Hibiscus coccineus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hibiscus, redDistichlis spicata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, salt Hibiscus mutabilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Confederate-rose 73
  • 76. Scientific Cross-ReferenceHibiscus rosa-sinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hibiscus Licuala spinosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licuala, spinyHibiscus syriacus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rose-of-Sharon Liquidambar styraciflua . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SweetgumHippeastrum hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amaryllis Liriodendron tulipifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tulip treeHosta spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hosta Liriope spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LiriopeHydrangea arborescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hydrangea, wild Litchi chinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LycheeHydrangea macrophylla . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hydrangea, French Livistona chinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chinese fan palmHydrangea quercifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hydrangea, oakleaf Lobelia cardinalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cardinal flowerHymenocallis spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spider-lily Lonicera sempervirens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Honeysuckle, coralHypericum reductum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .St. John’s wort Lupinus diffusus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lupine, sky-blueIlex ambigua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, Carolina Lycium carolinianum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Christmas berryIlex cassine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, dahoon Lyonia ferruginea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lyonia, rustyIlex cornuta ‘Burford’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, Burford Lyonia lucida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lyonia, shinyIlex crenata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, Japanese Lysiloma latisiliqua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild tamarindIlex glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gallberry Lysiloma sabicu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cuban tamarindIlex myrtifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, myrtle-leaved Maclura pomifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Osage orangeIlex opaca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, American Magnolia grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Magnolia, southernIlex vomitoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, yaupon Magnolia virginiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SweetbayIlex vomitoria ‘Nana’ and ‘Shellings’ . . . .Holly, dwarf yaupon Mahonia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oregon grape-hollyIlex vomitoria ‘Pendula’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holly, weeping yaupon Malus angustifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Crabapple, southernIlex x attenuata ‘East Palatka’ . . . . . . . . .Holly, East Palatka Malvaviscus arboreus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Turk’s-capIllicium anisatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Anise-tree Mandevilla spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MandevillaIllicium floridanum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Anise, Florida Mangifera indica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MangoIllicium parviflorum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Anise, yellow Manilkara bahamensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild dillyImpatiens spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Impatiens Manilkara roxburghiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MimusopsIpomoea imperati (= I. stolonifera) . . . . . .Beach morning glory Metasequoia glyptostroboides . . . . . . . . . .Dawn redwoodIpomoea pes-caprae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Railroad vine Mimosa strigillosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PowderpuffIpomoea spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Morning-glory Mirabilis jalapa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Four-o’clockIris hexagona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Iris, blue flag Miscanthus sinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, zebraItea virginica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sweetspire Monarda punctata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dotted horsemintIva imbricata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Beach elder Monstera deliciosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MonsteraIxora coccinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ixora Morus rubra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mulberry, redJacaranda acutifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jacaranda Muhlenbergia capillaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, muhlyJacquinia keyensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joewood Musa acuminata ‘Cavendish’ . . . . . . . . .Banana, CavendishJasminum mesnyi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jasmine, primrose Myrcianthes fragrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Simpson stopperJasminum multiflorum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jasmine, downy Myrciaria cauliflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JaboticabaJatropha integerrima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peregrina Myrica cerifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wax myrtleJuniperus chinensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Juniper, Chinese Narcissus tazetta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cream narcissusJuniperus chinensis ‘Parsonii’ . . . . . . . . . .Juniper, Parson Neodypsis decaryi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Triangle palmJuniperus chinensis ‘Pftizeriana’ . . . . . . . .Juniper, Pftizer Neomarica spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Iris, walkingJuniperus conferta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Juniper, shore Nephrolepis biserrata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, giant swordJuniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Rug’ . . . . . . .Juniper, blue rug Nerium oleander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OleanderJuniperus procumbens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Juniper, Japanese garden Nolina recurvata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ponytail palmJuniperus virginiana (= J. silicicola) . . . . . .Cedar, red Noronhia emarginata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Madagascar oliveJusticia brandegeana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Shrimp plant Nyssa aquatica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tupelo, waterJusticia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jacobinia Nyssa biflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BlackgumKaempferia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ginger, peacock Nyssa sylvatica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SourgumKalanchoe blossfeldiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kalanchoe Ocotea coriacea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LancewoodLagerstroemia indica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Crape myrtle Odontonema cuspidata . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FirespikeLaguncularia racemosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mangrove, white Ophiopogon japonicus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, mondoLantana camara ‘Gold Mound’ . . . . . . .Lantana, gold mound Ophiopogon spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, AztecLantana depressa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lantana, Florida Osmanthus fragrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sweet oliveLantana involucrata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild sage Osmunda cinnamomea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, cinnamonLantana montevidensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lantana, trailing Osmunda regalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, royalLantana montevidensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lantana, trailing Ostrya virginiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hop hornbeamLeucophyllum frutescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Texas sage Oxydendrum arboreum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SourwoodLeucothoe racemosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fetterbush Pandorea jasminoides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bower vineLiatris spicata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blazing star Panicum amarum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, bitter panicLicania michauxii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gopher apple Panicum hemitomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MaidencaneLicuala grandis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licuala palm Parkinsonia aculeata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jerusalem thorn 74
  • 77. Scientific Cross-ReferenceParthenocissus quinquefolia . . . . . . . . . . .Virginia creeper Quercus hemisphaerica . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, laurelPaspalum notatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, bahia Quercus incana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, bluejackPaspalum vaginatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seashore paspalum Quercus laevis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, turkeyPassiflora coccinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Passion flower, scarlet Quercus laurifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, diamond leafPassiflora edulis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Passion flower, purple Quercus lyrata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, overcupPassiflora incarnata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Passion flower Quercus michauxii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, swamp chestnutPassiflora suberosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Passion flower, Quercus myrtifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, myrtle corky-stem Quercus nigra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, waterPassiflora x ‘Incense’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Passion flower, incense Quercus phellos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, willowPeltophorum pterocarpum . . . . . . . . . . . .Copperpod Quercus shumardii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, ShumardPenstemon multiflorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Beardtongue, white Quercus virginiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, livePentas lanceolata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pentas Randia aculeata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .White indigo berryPersea americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Avocado Rapanea punctata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MyrsinePersea borbonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Redbay Rhamnus caroliniana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Buckthorn, CarolinaPersea humilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Silkbay Rhaphiolepis indica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hawthorn, IndianPersea palustris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Swampbay Rhapidophyllum hystrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Needle palmPetrea volubilis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Queens wreath Rhapis excelsa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lady palm or rhapisPetunia x hybrida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Petunia Rhizophora mangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mangrove, redPhiladelphus coronarius . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mock orange Rhododendron austrinum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Azalea, Florida flamePhilodendron selloum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Philodendron Rhododendron canescens . . . . . . . . . . . . .Azalea, wildPhlox divaricata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phlox, woodland Rhododendron minus var. chapmanii . . . .Rhododendron,Phlox drummondii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phlox, garden Chapman’sPhlox subulata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phlox, moss Rhododendron spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Azalea hybridsPhoenix canariensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Canary Island date palm Rosa laevigata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rose, CherokeePhoenix rupicola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cliff date palm Rosa x ‘Knock Out’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Shrub rosePhoenix sylvestris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild date palm Rosa x ‘Red Carpet’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Groundcover rosePhotinia glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Photinia or red-tip Rosmarinus officinalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RosemaryPimenta dioica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Allspice Roystonea regia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Florida royal palmPinus clausa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, sand Rubus cultivar Brazos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BlackberryPinus elliottii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, slash Rudbeckia hirta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black-eyed SusanPinus elliottii var. densa . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, South Florida slash Ruellia caroliniensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild-petuniaPinus glabra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, spruce Rumohra adiantiformis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, leatherleafPinus palustris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, long-leaf Russelia equisetiformis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Firecracker plantPinus taeda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pine, loblolly Sabal etonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scrub palmettoPiscidia piscipula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jamaican dogwood Sabal minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bluestem palmettoPityopsis graminifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Silkgrass Sabal palmetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cabbage palmPlatanus occidentalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sycamore Salix babylonica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Willow, weepingPlatycladus orientalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arbor-vitae, Oriental Salvia coccinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sage, tropicalPlatycodon grandiflorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Balloon flower Salvia lyrata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sage, lyre-leavedPlumbago auriculata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Plumbago Salvia splendens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sage, scarletPlumeria spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Frangipani Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis . . . . .ElderberryPodocarpus macrophyllus . . . . . . . . . . . . .Podocarpus, yew Sapindus marginatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Florida soapberryPortulaca grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Moss-rose Sassafras albidum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SassafrasPouteria campechiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Eggfruit, Canistel Saururus cernuus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lizard’s tailPrunus angustifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Plum, Chickasaw Savia bahamensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MaidenbushPrunus caroliniana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cherry laurel Scaevola plumieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .InkberryPrunus persica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peach Schaefferia frutescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Florida boxwoodPrunus umbellata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Plum, flatwoods Sedum spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SedumPseudophoenix sargentii . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Buccaneer palm Senecio cineraria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dusty-millerPsychotria ligustrifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bahama coffee Senna mexicana var. chapmanii . . . . . . . .Cassia, BahamaPsychotria nervosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild coffee Serenoa repens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Saw palmettoPtychosperma macarthurii . . . . . . . . . . . .Macarthur palm Sesuvium portulacastrum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea purslanePunica granatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pomegranate Severinia buxifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BoxthornPyracantha coccinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Firethorn, red Sideroxylon foetidissimumPyrus calleryana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bradford pear (= Mastichodendron foetidissimum) . . . .MasticPyrus communis ‘Hood’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pear, Hood Sideroxylon tenax (= Bumelia tenax) . . . .Buckthorn, toughQuercus alba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, white Simarouba glauca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paradise treeQuercus chapmanii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, Chapman Sisyrinchium angustifolium . . . . . . . . . . . .Blue-eyed grassQuercus geminata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oak, sand live Solidago sempervirens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Goldenrod, seaside 75
  • 78. Scientific Cross-ReferenceSophora tomentosa var. truncata . . . . . . .Yellow necklace pod Ulmus americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elm, AmericanSorghastrum secundum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, lopsided Indian Ulmus parvifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elm, ChineseSpartina alterniflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, smooth cord Uniola paniculata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea oatsSpartina bakeri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, sand cord Vaccinium arboreum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SparkleberrySpartina patens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, saltmeadow cord Vaccinium cormybosum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blueberry, highbushSpathodea campanulata . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tulip tree, African Vaccinium cultivars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BlueberrySpigelia marilandica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Woodland pinkroot Vaccinium darrowii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blueberry, Darrow’sSpiraea cantoniensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spiraea, Chinese Vaccinium myrsinites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blueberry, shinySpiraea thunbergii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spiraea, Thunberg Verbena bonariensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Verbena, purpletopSporobolus virginicus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seashore dropseed Veronia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IronweedStachytarpheta jamaicensis . . . . . . . . . . .Porterweed, blue Viburnum dentatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arrow-woodStachytarpheta spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Porterweed Viburnum obovatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Viburnum, Walter’sStenocarpus sinuatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Firewheel tree Viburnum odoratissimum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Viburnum, sweetStenotaphrum secundatum . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, St. Augustine Viburnum rufidulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Viburnum, blackhawStephanotis floribunda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bridal bouquet Viburnum suspensum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Viburnum, sandankwaSterculia foetida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bangar nut Vinca spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VincaStigmaphyllon littorale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Brazilian golden vine Viola spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Violet, FloridaStokesia laevis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Aster, Stokes’ Vitex agnus-castus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chaste-treeStrelitzia nicolai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bird-of-paradise tree Vitis rotundifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grape, muscadineStrelitzia reginae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bird-of-paradise Vitis spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GrapesStyrax grandifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Big leaf snowbell Washingtonia robusta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Washington palmSuriana maritima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bay cedar Wisteria frutescens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wisteria, AmericanSwietenia mahagoni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mahogany x Citrofortunella microcarpa . . . . . . . . . . .Calamondin orangeSyagrus romanzoffiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Queen palm Ximenia americana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tallow-woodTabebuia spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Trumpet tree, Caribbean Yucca aloifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spanish bayonetTabernaemontana divaricata . . . . . . . . . .Crape jasmine Yucca elephantipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yucca, spinelessTagetes spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marigold Yucca filamentosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adam’s needleTamarindus indica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tamarind Yucca spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .YuccaTaxodium ascendens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cypress, pond Zamia floridana (Z. pumila) . . . . . . . . . . .CoontieTaxodium distichum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cypress, bald Zamia furfuracea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cardboard palmTecoma capensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Honeysuckle, Cape Zanthoxylum clava-herculis . . . . . . . . . . .Hercules’-clubTernstroemia gymnanthera . . . . . . . . . . . .Cleyera Zanthoxylum fagara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wild limeTetrastigma voinerianum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ape-ivy Zephyranthes spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rain-lilyTetrazygia bicolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tetrazygia Zoysia japonica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grass, zoysiaThelypteris kunthii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fern, southern shieldThrinax morrisii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thatch palm, KeyThrinax radiata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thatch palm, FloridaThunbergia alata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black-eyed Susan vineThunbergia erecta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bush clock vineThunbergia fragrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .White sky vineThunbergia grandiflora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sky vineThymus vulgaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ThymeTibouchina spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GlorybushTilia americana var. caroliniana . . . . . . . .BasswoodTithonia diversifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mexican sunflowerTithonia rotundifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mexican zinniaTorenia fournieri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wishbone flowerTrachelospermum asiaticum . . . . . . . . . . .Jasmine, AsiaticTrachelospermum jasminoides . . . . . . . . .Confederate jasmineTrachycarpus fortunei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Windmill palmTradescantia ohiensis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Spiderwort, blueTradescantia pallida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Purple queenTrevesia palmata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tropical snowflakeTrichostema dichotomum . . . . . . . . . . . . .Blue curls, forkedTripsacum dactyloides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gama grass, EasternTripsacum floridanum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gama grass, FloridaTulbaghia violacea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Society garlicTurnera ulmifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alder, yellowUlmus alata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elm, winged 76
  • 79. Plant IndexAcacia, sweet 22 Black sapote 22 Cardboard palm 34Adam’s needle 38, 50 Black torch 38 Cardinal flower 58Agapanthus 58 Blackberry 38 Caricature plant 40Ageratum 58 Black-eyed Susan 58 Carolina silverbell 40Ajuga 50 Black-eyed Susan vine 56 Carpet bugleweed. See under AjugaAlder, yellow 58 Blackgum 22 Cassia, Bahama 40Alexandra palm 34 Blanket flower 58 Cast-iron plant 50Allamanda, yellow 56 Blazing star 58 Cat palm 34Allspice 22 Bleeding heart 56 Catalpa 22Aloe 50 Blolly 22 Cedar, red 22Althaea. See under Rose-of-Sharon Blood flower milkweed. See under Century plant 40Amaryllis 58 Milkweed, scarlet Chalky bluestem. See under BroomsedgeAmerican beautyberry 38 Blue curls, forked 58 Chaste-tree 40Angel’s-trumpet 38 Blue daze 50 Chenille plant 40Anise, Florida 38 Bluebeach. See under Hornbeam, Cherokee bean. See under Coral bean yellow 38 American Cherry laurel 22Anise-tree 38 Blueberry 38 Chinese fan palm 34Ape-ivy 56 Darrow’s 38 Chinese Mahonia. See underApple, seven-year 38 highbush 38 Oregon grape-hollyAralia, lacy-lady 38 shiny 38 Chinquapin 22Arbor-vitae, Oriental 38 Blue-eyed grass 58 Chocolate pudding fruit. See underArrow-wood 38 Bluestem palmetto 4 Black sapoteAsh, green 22 Bluewing. See under Wishbone flower Christmas berry 40 pop 22 Bottlebrush, lemon 38 Chrysanthemum, florist’s. See underAster, bushy 58 stiff 38 Chrysanthemum, garden climbing 58 Bougainvillea, paper flower 38 garden 58 Stokes’ 58 Bower vine 56 Cigar flower 58Atemoya 22 Boxthorn 38 Cleyera 40Avocado 22 Bradford pear 22 Cliff date palm 34Azalea hybrids 38 Brazilian golden vine 56 Clustering fishtail palm 34 Florida flame 38 Bridal bouquet 56 Cockscomb 58 Piedmont. See under Azalea, wild Broadleaf woodoats. See under Coconut palm 34 Pinxter. See under Azalea, wild Grass, broadleaf spike Cocoplum 40 wild 38 Broomsedge 50 Coleus 58Bahama coffee 38 Buccaneer palm 34 Colville’s glory 22Balloon flower 58 Buckthorn, Carolina 22 Common tickseed 58Bamboo palm 34 tough 38 Confederate jasmine 56Banana, Cavendish 22 Buddleja. See under Butterfly bush Confederate-rose 40Bangar nut 22 Bulnesia 22 Coontie 40Barberry, ‘crimson pygmy’ 38 Bush clock vine 38 Copperleaf 40 wintergreen 38 Butterfly bush 38 Copperpod 22Basswood 22 Butterfly weed 58 Coral bean 40Bay cedar 38 Button rattlesnake master 58 Coreopsis 58Beach elder 38 Button sage. See under Wild sage Cosmos 58Beach morning glory 50 Button snakeroot. See under Button Cow itch vine. See under Trumpet vineBeach-lily. See under Spider-lily rattlesnake master Crabapple, southern 22Bean, beach 50 Buttonbush 38 Crabwood 22Beardtongue, white 58 Buttonwood 22 Crape jasmine 40Beech, American 22 silver 38 Crape myrtle 22Begonia 58 Cabbage palm 34 Cream narcissus 58 wax 58 Calamondin orange 38 Crinum-lily 60Bengal clock vine. See under Calliopsis. See under Coreopsis Cross vine 56 White sky vine Camellia, sasanqua 40 Croton 40Big leaf snowbell 22 Canary Island date palm 34 Cuban tamarind 22Birch, river 22 Canistel. See under Eggfruit Custard apple 22Bird-of-paradise 58 Canna, garden 58 Cycad, Dioon 34Bird-of-paradise tree 22 yellow 58 Cypress, bald 22Bismarck palm 34 Caper, Jamaican 40 pond 24Black olive 22 Carambola 22 77
  • 80. Plant IndexDaisy, African bush 60 Geiger tree 24 East Palatka 24 sea oxeye 60 Gerbera daisy 60 Japanese 42Dawn redwood 24 Ginger, butterfly 60 myrtle-leaved 24Daylily 60 peacock 50 weeping yaupon 24Dense gayfeather. See under Blazing star shell 60 yaupon 24Dicerandra 60 Globe amaranth 60 Honeysuckle, Cape 42Dogwood, flowering 24 Glorybush 40 coral 56 Japanese 24 Glossy abelia 40 trumpet. See under Honeysuckle, coralDotted horsemint 60 Golden creeper 50 Hong Kong orchid tree 24Dracaena 40 Golden dewdrop 42 Hop hornbeam 24Dragon tree 24 Golden shower 24 Hornbeam, American 26Dusty-miller 60 Goldenrod, seaside 60 Hosta 52Dwarf Fakahatchee grass. See under Gopher apple 50 Huckleberry, dwarf 42 Gama grass, Florida Granny graybeard. See under Fringe tree Hurricane palm 34Eggfruit, Canistel 24 Grape, muscadine 56 Hydrangea, French 42Elderberry 40 wild. See under Grape, muscadine oakleaf 42Elm, American 24 Grapefruit 24 wild 42 Chinese 24 Grapes 56 Ice plant. See under Sedum winged 24 Grass, Aztec 50 Indian cigar. See under CatalpaEuropean fan palm 34 bahia 50 Indian paint brush 60Fakahatchee grass. See under Baker cord. See under Grass, sand cord Indian pink. See under Woodland pinkroot Gama grass, Eastern Bermuda 50 Inkberry 42False heather 50 bitter panic 50 Iris, African 60Fancy-leaved caladium 60 broadleaf spike 50 anglepod. See under Iris, blue flagFern, bird’s nest 50 centipede 50 blue flag 60 cinnamon 50 eulalia. See under Grass, zebra Dixie. See under Iris, blue flag giant leather 50 Japanese. See under zoysia prairie. See under Iris, blue flag giant sword 50 lopsided Indian 50 walking 60 holly 50 mondo 50 Ironweed 60 leatherleaf 50 muhly 50 Ironwood. See under royal 50 purple love 50 Hornbeam, American southern shield 50 salt 52 Ivy, Algerian 52 swamp 50 saltmeadow cord 52 Ixora 42 woods. See under Fern, southern shield sand cord 52 Jaboticaba 26Fetterbush 40 smooth cord 52 Jacaranda 26Fiddlewood 24, 40 St. Augustine 52 Jack-in-the-pulpit 60Fig, creeping 50 wire 52 Jacobinia 60 edible 24 zebra 52 Jamaican dogwood 26Firebush 40 zoysia 52 Jasmine, Asiatic 52Firecracker plant 40 Groundcover rose 52 Carolina 52Firespike 40 Guanabana. See under Soursop downy 42Firethorn, red 40 Guava, pineapple 42 Japanese. See under Jasmine, primroseFirewheel tree 24 Gumbo limbo 24 primrose 42Florida boxwood 40 Hackberry. See under Sugarberry yellow. See under Jasmine, primroseFlorida green eyes 60 Hawthorn, Indian 42 Jelly palm. See under Pindo palmFlorida royal palm 34 Heliotrope 60 Jerusalem thorn 26Florida soapberry 24 Herald’s-trumpet 56 Joewood 26Floss flower. See under Ageratum Hercules’-club 24 Juniper, blue rug 52Floss-silk tree 24 Hibiscus 42 Chinese 42Four-o’clock 60 red 42 Japanese garden 52Foxtail-fern 50 Hickory, mockernut 24 Parson 52Frangipani 24 pignut 24 Pftizer 42Fringe tree 24 scrub 24 shore 52Gallberry 40 Holly, American 24 Kalanchoe 60Gama grass, Eastern 40 Burford 42 Key lime 26 Florida 40 Carolina 24 King’s mantle. See under Bush clock vineGarberia 40 Chinese. See under Holly, Burford Kumquat 42 Cape jasmine 40 dahoon 24 Lady palm 34Gaura 60 dwarf yaupon 42 Lady-of-the-night 42 78
  • 81. Plant IndexLancewood 26 Natal plum 42 Plum, Chickasaw 28Lantana, Florida 60 Needle palm 34 flatwoods 28 gold mound 52, 60 Night-blooming jessamine 42 Plumbago 44 trailing 52, 60 Oak, bluejack 26 Podocarpus, yew 44Lemon 26 Chapman 26 Pomegranate 44Licuala palm 34 diamond leaf 26 Pond-apple 28 spiny 42 laurel 26 Ponytail palm 34Lignum vitae 26 live 26 Poppy mallow 62Liriope 52 myrtle 26 Porterweed 62Lizard’s tail 60 overcup 28 blue 52Loblolly bay 26 sand live 28 Portulaca. See under Moss-roseLoquat 26 Shumard 28 Powderpuff 52Lupine, sky-blue 60 swamp chestnut 28 Princess flower. See under GlorybushLychee 26 turkey 28 Purple coneflower 62Lyonia, rusty 42 water 28 Purple queen 52 shiny 42 white 28 Quailberry 52Macarthur palm 34 willow 28 Queen palm 34Madagascar olive 26 Oleander 42 Queens wreath 56Magnolia, bullbay. See under Orange, sweet 28 Railroad vine 52 Magnolia, southern Oregon grape-holly 42 Rain-lily 62 southern 26 Osage orange 28 Red buckeye 28Maguey. See under Century plant Pampas grass 44 Red powderpuff 44Mahogany 26 Paradise tree 28 Red stopper 28Maidenbush 42 Passion flower 56 Redbay 28Maidencane 52 corky-stem 56 Redberry stopper 28Mandevilla 56 incense 56 Redbud 28Mango 26 purple 56 Red-hot cattail. See under Chenille plantMangrove, black 26 scarlet 56 Red-tip. See under Photinia red 26 Paurotis palm 34 Rhapis. See under Lady palm white 26 Pawpaw 44 Rhododendron, Chapman’s 44Maple, Florida sugar 26 Peach 28 Rose, Cherokee 44 red 26 Pear, Hood 28 Rosemary 44Marigold 60 Pecan 28 Rose-of-Sharon 44Marlberry 42 Pentas 62 Royal poinciana 28Marvel-of-Peru. See under Four-o’clock Peregrina 44 Rusty blackhaw. See under Viburnum,Mastic 26 Periwinkle 62 blackhawMatted sandweed. See under Persimmon, common 28 Sabal palm. See under Cabbage palm St. John’s wort Japanese 28 Sage rose. See under Alder, yellowMay haw 26 Petunia 62 Sage, lyre-leaved 62Maypop. See under Passion flower Philodendron 44 scarlet 62Mexican sago. See under Cycad, Dioon Phlox, garden 62 tropical 62Mexican sunflower 62 moss 62 Sago, king 34Mexican zinnia 62 woodland 62 queen 34Milkweed, scarlet 62 Photinia 44 Sago-palm. See under Sago, kingMimosa-vine. See under Powderpuff-vine Pigeon plum 28 Sand holly. See under Holly, CarolinaMimusops 26 Pindo palm 34 Sandwort. See under St. John’s wortMistflower 62 Pine, loblolly 28 Sassafras 28Mock orange 42 long-leaf 28 Satinleaf 30Monstera 56 sand 28 Saw palmetto 34Morning-glory 56 slash 28 Scrub conradina 44Morning-noon-and-night. See under South Florida slash 28 Scrub mint, large-flowered 44 Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow spruce 28 Scrub mints 62Moss-rose 62 Pineland penstemon. See under Scrub palmetto 34Mulberry, red 26 Beardtongue, white Sea lavender 44Musclewood. See under Hornbeam, Pink allamanda. See under Mandevilla Sea oats 52 American Pink-and-white shower 28 Sea purslane 52Myrsine 42 Pipestem 44 Seagrape 30, 44Narrowleaf-grass. See under Pitch apple 28 Seashore dropseed 52 Blue-eyed grass Pleurisy root. See under Butterfly weed Seashore paspalum 52 79
  • 82. Plant IndexSedum 62 Tangelo 30 Wild sage 46Shrimp plant 44 Tangerine 30 Wild tamarind 30Shrub rose 62 Tetrazygia 44 Wild-petunia 64Shrub verbena. See under Texas sage 46 Willow, weeping 30 Lantana, Florida Thatch palm, Florida 34 Windmill palm 36Silkbay 30 Key 34 Wishbone flower 64Silkgrass 62 Thryallis 46 Wisteria, American 56Silver palm 34 Thyme 54 Woodbine. See under Virginia creeperSilverthorn 44 Ti plant 46 Woodland pinkroot 64Simpson stopper 44 Tibouchina. See under Glorybush Yarrow 64Sky vine 56 Titi 46 Yellow buttons 64Smooth water-hyssop 52 Toothache tree. See under Hercules’-club Yellow jessamine. See underSnail seed 44 Torchwood 46 Jasmine, CarolinaSnapdragon 62 Tree philodendron. See under Yellow necklace pod 46Snow bush 44 Philodendron Yellowtop 64Snowberry, pineland 52 Triangle palm 34 Yesterday-today-and-tomorrow 46Society garlic 62 Tropical milkweed. See under Ylang-ylang 30Sourgum 30 Milkweed, scarlet Yucca 64Soursop 30 Tropical snowflake 46 spineless 35Sourwood 30 Trumpet tree, Caribbean 30Southern bayberry. See under Wax myrtle Trumpet vine 56Southern red cedar. See under Cedar, red Tulip tree 30Spanish bayonet 34, 44 African 30Spanish stopper 30 Tupelo, water 30Sparkleberry 44 Turk’s-cap 46Spicewood 44 Twinflower 62Spider plant 54 Two-winged silverbell 46Spider-lily 62 Varnish leaf 46Spiderwort, blue 62 Velvet-apple, Mabolo 30Spiny black olive 30 Verbena, coastal mock. See underSpiraea, Chinese 44 Verbena, Florida native Reeves. See under Spiraea, Chinese Florida native 62 Thunberg 44 moss 62Spiral ginger 62 purpletop 64Splitleaf philodendron. See under roadside. See under Verbena, purpletop Monstera Tampa 64Spotted bee balm. See under Viburnum, blackhaw 30 Dotted horsemint sandankwa 46St. John’s wort 52 sweet 46Star-apple 30 Walter’s 46String-lily 62 Vinca 54Sugarberry 30 Violet, common blue. See underSummer haw 30 Violet, FloridaSunflower, beach 54 Florida 64 narrow-leaved 62 Virginia creeper 56Swamp doghobble. See under Fetterbush Virginia-willow. See under SweetspireSwamp mallow. See under Hibiscus, red Washington palm 36Swamp tupelo. See under Blackgum Wax myrtle 46Swampbay 30 Whirling butterflies. See under GauraSweet olive 44 White indigo berry 46Sweet pepperbush 44 White sage. See under Wild sageSweet shrub 44 White sapote 30Sweet William 62 White sky vine 56Sweetbay 30 Wild coffee 46Sweetgum 30 Wild columbine 64Sweetspire 44 Wild date palm 36Sycamore 30 Wild dilly 30Tallow-wood 44 Wild lime 30Tamarind 30 Wild rosemary. See under Scrub conradina 80
  • 83. Floridas water management districts St. Johns River Water South Florida Water Southwest Florida Water Management District Management District Management District 4049 Reid Street P.O. Box 24680 2379 Broad Street P.O. Box 1429 West Palm Beach, FL Brooksville, FL 34604 Palatka, FL 32178-1429 33416-4680 (800) 423-1476 (800) RALLY-22 (800) 432-2045 Northwest Florida Water Suwannee River Water Management District Management District 81 Water Management Drive 9225 County Road 49 Havana, FL 32333 Live Oak, FL 32060 (850) 539-5999 (800) 226-1066 This guide was produced by Floridas water management districts to inform the public of landscape methods that support water conservation. First printing, February 2001. Second printing, December 2001. Second edition, February 2003. Second Printing, April 2004.Printed on recycled paper