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Waterwise Garden Irrigator Program - Australia
 

Waterwise Garden Irrigator Program - Australia

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    Waterwise Garden Irrigator Program - Australia Waterwise Garden Irrigator Program - Australia Document Transcript

    • Waterwise Garden Irrigator Program SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 1 – SMART APPROVED WATERMARKPRODUCTSThe Smart Approved Watermark was established by four associations, theAustralian Water Association, Irrigation Australia Ltd, the Nursery and GardenIndustry Australia and the Water Services Association of Australia. It is alabelling scheme to promote Water-Saving Products and Services to reducewater use around the home.Preference in product selection should be given to those products which havebeen granted ‘SMART APPROVED WATERMARK CERTIFICATION’ (SAWM).These products, when installed and operated to the manufacturer’sspecification, have been demonstrated to offer significant water-savings.There are more products being certified on a regular basis so periodicreference to www.smartwatermark.info will keep members up to date withproducts certified.Irrigation products certified as SAWM as at 20 February 2007 are shown on thefollowing page. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 2© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 1.1 – Smart Approved Watermark ProductsDRIP IRRIGATIONManufacturer/Licensee Product NameToro Australia Drip-EzeNetafim Australia Miniscape DriplineNetafim Australia Techline and Scapeline DriplinesRAIN SENSORSManufacturer/Licensee Product NameBetter Watering solutions AquamiserHolman Industries Holman Rain SwitchHunter Industries Hunter Mini-ClikHunter Industries Hunter Rain-ClikHunter Industries Hunter WRC-INTToro Australia Irritrol Systems RainsensorToro Australia Irritrol Systems Wireless RainsensorHR Products Orbit Rain SensorRain Bird Corporation Rain Sensing DeviceToro Australia Toro Wired Rain SensorToro Australia Toro Wireless Rain SensorToro Australia Toro Wireless Rain/Freeze SensorSOIL MOISTURE MONITORSManufacturer/Licensee Product NameAgrilink Holdings AquabluMeasurement Engineering Australia GB SwitchHR Products Irrometer WatermarkWatermatic Controls Watermatic and Watermatic TechnologyHolman Industries WaterSmart Soil Moisture Irrigation Control SystemSPRINKLER SYSTEMSManufacturer/Licensee Product NameNelson Irrigation Corporation of MP RotatorAustralia _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 3© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 2 – MAINS WATER CONNECTIONThe mains connection must be completed by either a licensed plumber or bysomeone with a qualification recognised by the Plumbers Licensing Board, asbeing capable of supplying and installing connections to the mains water supplyunder the Australian National Plumbing and Drainage Code AS 3500.4.2 1998.The mains connection must comprise (assuming connection is to be made intocopper pipe): • A brass tee is to be braised in the appropriate manner to the existing copper cold water pipe after the water meter. This tee off-take shall have a 20mm tube-bush installed horizontal to the surface 150mm below grade. • A tested approved (AS 1628) brass gate valve or lever action ball valve shall be connected to the 20mm tube-bush with Teflon thread tape or thread paste applied to prevent leakage. This enables isolation of the irrigation system without having to shut off the water supply to the home. • An approved, tested and stamped dual check backflow prevention device shall be connected to the isolation valve using a ‘stamped’ DR brass nipple. The installation of this device is mandatory whether or not the water meter to the home is already fitted with such a device. Where the irrigation system is to have any device installed to enable the injection of ANY chemical, or fertiliser, a testable Reduced Pressure Zone (RPZ) Backflow Prevention device must be installed by a person with the appropriate license to do so. • A tested approved 25mm master automatic solenoid valve shall be connected to the brass gate valve/ball valve by a 25mm BSP ‘stamped’ DR brass nipple with Teflon thread tape or thread paste to prevent leakage. • All below ground components must be housed in an appropriate sized valve box (or boxes) to allow easy future access and maintenance. A valve box (or boxes) of appropriate size to allow a minimum clearance of 50mm between the valves and the sides of the valve box or boxes is required. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 4© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 2.1 - Typical Connection to Mains Water Supply _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 5© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 3 - MAINLINEThe mainline provides water from the mains water connection to the sectionalautomatic control valves.The mainline of an automatic irrigation system must have the followingstandards: • It must be a minimum of PN9 uPVC solvent weld joint pipe manufactured to current Australia Standard AS 1477 or minimum PN8 blue-line metric polyethylene pipe to AS 4130. • Fittings must be a minimum of PN18 uPVC solvent weld fittings to current Australian Standard AS 1477 2006 or Schedule 40 US Standard ASTM D 2466 or poly fittings to AS 4129. • It must be buried with at least 150 mm of soil cover over the top of the pipe and fittings. • The fittings at changes of direction must not be installed with any stress on the pipe or fittings meaning a 90 degree elbow must have the two pipes entering and leaving the fitting at 90 degrees. • No uPVC mainline pipe or fitting is to be exposed to direct sunlight without protection by an approved water based UV inhibiting paint. • The trench in which the mainline is installed must have a smooth sandy bottom free of rocks, building rubble or anything which may damage the pipe or fittings. • Backfill material must not contain any rocks or building rubble which may damage the pipe or fittings. • Solvent cement approved by the PVC pipe and fitting manufacturers shall be used on all PVC slip joints. There should be no evidence of ‘puddling’ of solvent on pipe or fittings as this leads to joint weakness and eventual failure of the joint. • All solvent weld joints are to be primed first using a primer approved by the pipe and fitting manufacturer. • All threaded fittings should be sealed with Teflon tape or jointing compound made expressly for this purpose. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 6© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 4 – CONTROL VALVESThe sectional automatic control valves turn sections of irrigation on and off andprovide a way of dividing the irrigation system into manageable sections to allowthem to operate from the water supply available.The control valves must comply with the following: • Control valves must be of quality manufacture and must have a minimum tested pressure rating of 1,000kPa. • They can be constructed of any approved material including PVC, brass and glass filled nylon. • They must have BSP threads of sufficient length to allow full engagement of a standard Australian manufactured uPVC class 18 valve socket of the same nominal diameter as the auto valve inlet and outlet. • Solvent weld type (commonly referred to as ‘slip’) auto solenoid valves may be used. It is important that with ‘slip’ type valves, the correct amount of solvent be used as excess solvent can cause the faulty operation of the valve. • ALL solenoid valves must be fitted with a minimum of 150 mm of straight pipe on each side of the valve. • Each control valve must be housed in a valve box of appropriate dimension to allow 50mm of clearance between any part of the valve and the side of the valve box. Each valve box should have a close fitting lid to seal it from ingress of sand and other debris but should allow easy access for maintenance purposes. The top of the valve box should be set flush with the lowest cut level of turf grass, if it is installed in a lawn area, or with the top of the mulch if installed in a garden bed. No valve box is to be installed with its top below grade. • Solenoid actuated control valves shall be installed with the solenoid in the vertical position. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 7© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 4.1 - Typical Solenoid Valve Assembly _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 8© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 5 – CONTROL WIRINGThe control wiring connects the auto control valves to the controller andfacilitates the automatic operation of the irrigation system.The requirements of the control wiring are: • All wires, active and common, must be a MINIMUM of 0.5mm2 multi- strand cable in poly or PVC sheathing. For single cable and single valve operating circuits, run lengths must not exceed controller and valve manufacturers’ recommendations for voltage drop requirements.As a rule the following guidelines apply in domestic applications: • Run lengths in excess of 120 metres should use MINIMUM cable sizing as follows; o 120 metres – 180 metres: 1.0 mm2 multi-strand cable COMMON, 0.5mm2 multi-strand cable ACTIVE. o 180 metres – 300 metres: 1.0 mm2 multi-strand cable COMMON, 1.0mm2 multi-strand cable ACTIVE. • BLACK coloured sheathed cable must only be used for COMMON cables and all common cable must have black coloured sheathing. • Master solenoid (or pump-start) ‘active’ cable shall be RED. • Spare ‘active’ wires shall be WHITE. At least one spare white sheathed cable should be run from the controller to each end of the mainline and terminated in a 300 mm loop and a gel filled joiner terminating each in the furthest valve boxes. • Active cables shall be in coloured sheath in colours other than RED, BLACK or WHITE. • There should be no cable joints of any active cables (other than to connect to multi-core cable - see below) and they should be continuous runs only. Any connections to the ‘common’ cable are to be made within valve-boxes only. • Multi-core cable may be used for controller ‘drop-out’ for connection to solenoid cables. This cable should be of no smaller gauge than the cable used in the system. Any connection of cables MUST be made within a readily accessible valve box with its lid at ‘grade’. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 9© Irrigation Australia
    • • All solenoid cabling must be laid with the mainline and must be taped together in a bundle at 1.5 metre intervals. • The bundled low voltage cable is to be taped to the under-side of the mainline at 2 metre intervals and at every change of direction. • Where low voltage cables are to run away from the mainline, they must be housed in approved electrical conduit buried at 200mm minimum cover or securely attached to the wall or fence etc. Where cables are to run up a cavity or double brick wall they must run inside the cavity, not up the outside in conduit. • A minimum of 300mm loop of solenoid cable is required at each auto solenoid control valve box to allow removal of the coil or valve without having to cut the wires. Sufficient cable on the power supply side of the cable joints must enable a coil to be replaced by reconnecting the coil with the cable joints above ground level, out of the valve box. This loop of cable should be neatly secured by electrical tape or cable ‘tie’. • Where two valves or more are to run as one station individual ‘active’ cables from each are to run to the controller and connected to the appropriate terminal at the controller and NOT joined in the field. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 10© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 6 - CABLE CONNECTIONSConnections are required in low voltage cables to allow the controller toprovide power to the control valves in the field. Failure to ensure appropriateconnection to solenoid control cables is a major cause of system failure.Modern day solid state electronic controllers can be susceptible to shortcircuits and voltage loss means that these cable connections are important. Theinstallation of secure, quality joints is vitally important.The requirements for these joints are: • There should only be cable joints located at each auto control valve inside the valve box and at the controller drop out connection adjacent to the controller (also in a valve box). Joining of wires in the field is not permitted. • Cable joiners must be of the gel filled type with provision for screwing the wires in or securing them inside the joiner in some way. They must be gel filled with provision for the gel to seal the entrance to the joiner as it is made to ensure no ingress of moisture into the joint. • Where soldered joints are used they must be waterproofed with appropriately installed resin-filled heat-shrink material. • Twisted wires and insulation tape or crimps and tape are not allowed for joints. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 11© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 6.1 - Solenoid Cable Connection - Using Scotchlock™ Gel-Filled Ulg/Ual Waterproof Connector (Using 0.5mm2 solenoid cable to valve)The inclusion of instructions for the use of this cable connector is not a specificrecommendation or endorsement of the use of this product but is an aid forappropriate installation of it when it IS used. This particular product is suitable ONLYfor use with 0.5mm2 solenoid control cable from the controller. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 12© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 7 - GARDEN BED IRRIGATIONThis section covers the use of two irrigation techniques for the irrigation ofgarden beds: DRIP and SPRAYFor either of these two irrigation techniques the use of low density (LD)polyethylene pipe with a manufacturer’s minimum rating of 300kPa operatingpressure will be acceptable for use in LATERAL LINES*.*LATERAL LINES are the pipes from the valves/solenoid valves attached to themainline which convey water to the spray or drip emitters.The use of LD poly laterals for the installation of garden bed stations, asopposed to higher pressure rated pipe demanded for mainlines and lawnstations, is acceptable for two reasons: • Garden bed stations utilising micro irrigation products are generally operated at lower pressure than lawn stations. The use of LD poly is acceptable in garden bed watering systems with an operating pressure of 250kPa or less. Where operating pressures are higher than this the requirements for such installation will be as for turf, i.e. PVC pipe and fittings to appropriate standards. • Garden bed layouts are often less regular and frequently narrower than lawn areas. For these reasons, and also for the fact that plants can grow and ‘shadow’ output from sprays, these sections often require significantly greater numbers of lower radius-of-throw sprinklers. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 13© Irrigation Australia
    • 7.1 DRIP IRRIGATION IN GARDEN BEDSThese systems include those that use products commonly referred to as ‘drip-line’ (which have drippers at regular intervals along the tube) and those whichhave individual drippers at each plant.This document principally relates to irrigation systems attached to the mains watersupply which can always be considered as appropriate for any irrigation regime.When considering the use of bore-water for any drip irrigation system it is alwaysrecommended that an analysis is made of a water sample from the bore prior toinstallation of such a system. Bore water in many areas of the South-West of WAcontain concentrations of dissolved iron which, when oxidised, can clog drip emittersover time. Manufacturers do not recommend the use of drip irrigation where thelevels of dissolved iron exceed 0.5 parts per million. Some high output drippers,however, may be used with higher levels than this- refer to manufacturers for theirrecommendations.Many of these systems are commonly referred to as SUB-SURFACE irrigation.Reference is made herein to SUB-SURFACE and to SUB-MULCH irrigation.The distinction made between the two is that SUB-SURFACE irrigation involvesthe installation of drip-line BELOW ground level (e.g. under turf). SUB-MULCHirrigation, as the name suggests, involves the installation of drip-line ABOVEground but covered in a layer of mulch.Drip-line buried below ground has a greater likelihood that roots may growinto drippers and clog them than does such tube placed above-ground andmulched. Manufacturers of drip-line therefore recommend that any truly ‘SUB-SURFACE’ system be fitted with the means to dose a root-intrusion inhibitingchemical (such as Treflan™) into the system to prevent such from occurring.Where ANY chemical is dosed into a system connected to the mains watersupply an RPZ Backflow Prevention device has to be installed at this point ofconnection.The cost of such a device usually precludes the installation of such a system, dueto its cost, and therefore the installation of SUB-MULCH DRIP IRRIGATION ingarden beds is recommended. Sub-surface irrigation system layouts arecovered in the section on SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION IN TURF. If required,the same system layout can be used in garden beds (with the appropriate meansto prevent root-intrusion and with the appropriate backflow prevention). _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 14© Irrigation Australia
    • SUB-MULCH DRIP IN GARDEN BEDSSub-mulch drip systems in garden beds, when installed and scheduledappropriately, offer us significant water saving potential when compared to mostsprinkler systems and are recommended, in almost all situations, inpreference to spray systems.This type of system must include the following: • Mains water connection, mainline, control valves, cable connections and valve boxes as per sprinkler systems. • All lateral lines are to be buried with minimum 150mm cover. • Drippers must be located in a pattern suitable for the density of planting and soil type used to ensure an adequate, even coverage of the planted area. See recommended irrigation layout for different plantings densities and species on pages 61 to 64. • Each section of drippers must have a minimum of one 15 mm air vacuum breaker located at the highest point of the section to allow air to enter the system when water may run out of drippers at lower points which might, otherwise, result in air being drawn in at drippers higher up the line together with particulate material that could clog these drippers. o Where there is more than one easily definable high point a separate air vacuum breaker should be installed at each such point. o Each vacuum breaker is to be installed ‘vertically’ and located with its air ‘intake’ a minimum of 100mm from soil level. o Each air vacuum breaker is to be housed with its lid level with surrounding soil or mulch (if area is mulched). See Figure 7.1 Typical Air Vacuum Release Valve Assembly on page 59. • The system must be fitted with an appropriately sized 120 mesh disc or screen filter to remove any debris from the system upstream of the drippers. (Standard ‘in-line’ filters sold by micro-irrigation product manufacturers normally have a coarser filter screen than is appropriate.) o The filter may be installed either following the solenoid valve operating the drip station (where there is only one drip station) or at the beginning of the irrigation system after the master solenoid valve (where there is a more than one drip irrigation station in the system. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 15© Irrigation Australia
    • o Filters shall be installed either horizontally or ‘below’ the horizontal so that, when they are dismantled for cleaning, debris does not fall into the supply line. o Filters should have 50mm clearance from soil level and 100mm clearance from the side of valve box on the ‘opening’ side of the filter. • On ALL drip irrigation stations an approved automatic pressure regulating valve (250kPa or 35 psi maximum) shall be installed to ensure optimal pressure operation of each station. A ‘flow-control’ solenoid valve is not an ‘automatic’ pressure regulating valve and is not, on its own, appropriate for accurate pressure regulation. o An automatic pressure regulating valve may be installed after the solenoid valve controlling this station (and after the filter, if fitted here). o If ALL the stations are to be drip-irrigated and, assuming that one automatic pressure-regulating valve will offer appropriate pressure regulation to ALL stations then one such device may be installed after the master solenoid valve and after the filter required for the system. o The pressure regulating valve must be sized to suit the flow rate of the station or stations involved. • Dripper stations must be on separate valves to sprinklers at all times. • Low Density poly pipe shall be secured at all connections by ratchet clamps or other device according to manufacturer’s specifications. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 16© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.1 – Typical Air Vacuum Release Valve Assembly _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 17© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.2 – Typical Headworks for Sub-Mulch Drip System _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 18© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.3 – Sub-Mulch Shrub Dripline Watering System for High Density Plantings _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 19© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.4 – Sub-Mulch Shrub Dripline Watering System for Medium Density Plantings _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 20© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.5 – Sub-Mulch Shrub Dripline Watering System for Low Density Plantings _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 21© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.6 – Dripper Watering System for Low and Medium Density Plantings _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 22© Irrigation Australia
    • 7.2 SPRAY IRRIGATION IN GARDEN BEDSThe sprinklers are the outlet points of the system emitting water to theirrigated area and providing even and efficient irrigation to the landscape.Sprinklers must comply with the following: • All sprinklers must be installed at a spacing of no more than the published radius of the nozzle at the recommended operating pressure of the sprinkler. • Part-circle sprinklers are to be used where possible to minimise wasteful overspray. • All sprinkler nozzles must have matched precipitation rate with halves using half the flow of fulls, quarters a quarter of fulls etc. • All sprinklers in garden areas must have pop up heights suitable for the planting in which they are installed or shrub adapters installed on fixed poly risers above the planting such that there should be minimal ‘shadowing’ of plants at their expected mature height (see Figure 7.7 Garden Bed Spray Systems – Sprinkler Height page 66). Where this is impractical a drip system is usually a more water-efficient means of delivering water where it is required and in precise quantity. • In narrow garden beds less than 3 metres wide irrigation may be carried out from one side of the garden bed. This may be done only with sprinklers with a radius of throw of between 1/4 and 1/3 greater than the width of the bed providing that any overspray is against a solid object such as a fence or on to a turfed area. Sprinkler spacing shall be no more than the radius of throw of each sprinkler (see Figure 7.8 Garden Beds Spray Systems – Narrow Strip Beds page 67). • Microsprays and shrub sprays may be installed on the same station where the pressure requirements and the precipitation rates are similar. • Where microsprays are installed on 4mm rigid poly risers each riser shall be staked with a stake made for this purpose and of a length and type appropriate to maintain the riser in a vertical position in the soil type in which they are installed. Alternatively, microsprays can be installed on fixed poly stakes with 4mm feed tube attached to the poly lateral. • All lateral lines shall be installed with a minimum of 150mm cover. • Sprays and drippers shall not be used on the same station. • Garden bed stations shall be watered independently of lawn stations. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 23© Irrigation Australia
    • • All pop-up sprinklers are to be installed on either fixed or articulated ‘swing-joint’ risers. See Figure 8.4 Articulated (or ‘swing joint’) Riser, page 75. Swing joint risers enable sprinklers to be adjusted to the correct height following system installation and at any time in the future (such as following top-dressing of the lawn). Risers that are made of polyethylene do not require sealing with Teflon tape as they are made of a soft enough compound to be self-sealing when appropriately tightened. • Sprinklers must pop up to a height to allow unobstructed irrigation of plants within the bed. Each pop-up sprinkler should be placed with its top at, or above, ground level (or mulch level, if mulched) as, if placed too low, the pop-up riser scrapes against the soil thus causing unnecessary wear and possible sticking. • Low Density poly pipe shall be secured at all connections by ratchet clamps or other device according to manufacturer’s specifications. FIGURE 7.7 – Garden Beds Spray Systems – Sprinkler Height _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 24© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 7.8 – Garden Beds Spray Systems – Narrow Strip Beds _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 25© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 8 - TURF IRRIGATIONThis specification considers Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation and Sprinkler Irrigationof turf.8.1 SUB-SURFACE DRIP IN TURFThe design and installation of sub-surface irrigation systems for the irrigation oflawn areas is an unforgiving science and must be carried out correctly to ensurea water-efficient and durable outcome.As these systems operate under turf grass species, root intrusion has beenidentified by manufacturers as a prime cause of drip blockage, so root-intrusionherbicide impregnated drippers or root-intrusion chemical injection systems toprevent root-intrusion are required to be installed. As soon as ANY chemical(including fertiliser) is injected into a system operated from mains water supplyit is then categorized as HIGH HAZARD with regards to the possiblecontamination of the mains water supply, so extra precautions are mandatory inlaw.The essentials are: • Means to protect the system from root-intrusion as detailed above. • An approved, correctly designed, specified and installed RPZ (reduced pressure zone) backflow prevention device must be installed on these systems. This device must be installed by a specialist qualified to install these valves and must be tested annually by a qualified service contractor in compliance with the current Plumbing Code. • The other requirements as detailed under sub-mulch drip system also apply to these systems including requirement for the installation of; o Air Vacuum Breaker o 120 mesh filtration o Auto Pressure Regulator o The use of a collector main as well as a distributor main is recommended in all dripline systems but is definitely required in all true SUB-SURFACE systems. These collector and distributor mains can be poly pipe or PVC pipe (the latter with dripline _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 26© Irrigation Australia
    • connections using grommets and ‘take-offs’). These pipes should be buried with 150mm cover. • An automatic line flushing valve is to be installed at the furthest point from the valve on the collector main to enable an amount of water (together with any sediment or other particulate material in the lines) to be flushed out at the beginning of every watering; o This valve is to be installed so that water can easily be flushed out (i.e. the discharge point in the same plane as the pipe leading to it). o Each flushing valve should be placed in a valve box with its lid flush with lowest cut-turf level. o Below each valve there should be a minimum volume of free draining material 0.3 metre cubed. o Such material may be gravel, blue metal or coarse sand. o The lowest discharge point of the valve should have a minimum of 50mm clearance from this material. • Low Density poly pipe shall be secured at all connections by ratchet clamps or other device according to manufacturer’s specifications. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 27© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 8.1 – Typical Headworks for Sub-Surface Drip System _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 28© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 8.2 – Typical Line Flushing Valve Assembly _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 29© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 8.3 – Typical Sub-Surface Drip System _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 30© Irrigation Australia
    • 8.2 SPRINKLER SYSTEMS IN TURFLateral pipework connects the automatic control valves to the sprinklers in theturf areas being irrigated.As turf sprinklers generally require higher operating pressures than gardensprays and drip systems, lateral lines in turf are defined as: • It must be a minimum of PN9 uPVC solvent weld joint pipe manufactured to current Australia Standard AS 1477 or minimum PN8 blue-line metric polyethylene pipe to AS 4130. • Fittings must be a minimum of PN12 uPVC solvent weld fittings to current Australian Standard AS 1477 or Schedule 40 US Standard ASTM D 2466 or poly fittings to AS 4129. • It must be buried with at least 150 mm of soil cover over the top of the pipe and fittings. • The fittings at changes of direction must not be installed with any stress on the pipe or fittings, meaning a 90 degree elbow must have the two pipes entering and leaving the fitting at 90 degrees. • All threaded fittings (other than those on poly risers) should be sealed with Teflon tape or Jointing compound made expressly for this purpose. • No uPVC lateral pipe or fitting is to be exposed to direct sunlight without protection by an approved water based UV inhibiting paint. • The trench in which the lateral pipework is installed must have a smooth sandy bottom free of rocks, building rubble or anything which may damage the pipe or fittings. • Backfill material must not contain any rocks or building rubble which may damage the pipe or fittings. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 31© Irrigation Australia
    • SPRINKLERS IN TURF AREASThe sprinklers are the outlet point of the system emitting water to the irrigatedarea and providing even and efficient irrigation to the landscape.Sprinklers must comply with the following: • All sprinklers must be installed at spacing no greater than the manufacturer’s published radius of throw of each nozzle and should operate at the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure. • All sprinkler nozzles must be matched precipitation rate halves using half the flow of fulls, quarters a quarter of fulls, etc. Different sprinkler types (with different precipitation rates), e.g. fixed spray pop-up sprinklers and gear-drive sprinklers, should not be operated on the same station. • Part-circle sprinklers are to be used wherever possible to minimise wasteful overspray. • All sprinklers in turf areas should be pop-ups with a suitable pop up height capable of clearing the grass in which they are installed. The minimum pop up height is 80 mm. • Turf and garden areas must always be installed on separate stations. • All pop-up sprinklers are to be installed on either fixed or articulated ‘swing-joint’ risers. See Figure 8.4 Articulated (or ‘swing joint’) Riser, page 75. Swing joint risers enable sprinklers to be adjusted to the correct height following system installation and at any time in the future (such as following top-dressing of the lawn). Risers that are made of polyethylene do not require sealing with Teflon tape as they are made of a soft enough compound to be self-sealing when appropriately tightened. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 32© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 8.4 – Articulated (or ‘swing-joint’) Riser _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 33© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 9 - CONTROL SYSTEMSThere are many different irrigation controllers on the market many of whichprovide an efficient way to automatically control a domestic irrigation system.Controllers must comply with the following: • Indoor type controllers without weather seals must be installed in a protected location away from prevailing conditions such as wind-blown rain and direct sunlight. Ideally they should be installed inside or, at the very least, well under a carport where they are not directly exposed to the weather. • Any controller exposed to weather and located on the outside wall of the house (or other exposed location) should be a controller recommended by its manufacturer as appropriate for such installation and fitted with a weatherproof, lockable cover and fitted with an internal transformer. No controller should be installed where it is exposed to direct sunlight in the hottest part of the day. • Where a controller is to be ‘hard-wired’ (i.e. direct mains power connection to the transformer) it must be installed by a licensed tradesman qualified to make such installation. • Control cable drop outs from controllers must be installed inside the cavity of double brick walls and terminate in a valve box at ground level outside the controller location. Conduits running down the wall are not acceptable unless the wall is single brick where the conduit should be installed on the inside of the wall. • All controllers must have at least three fully independent programs to enable independent programming of turf areas, garden sprays, drippers and hanging baskets or other areas requiring different applications of water. • Controllers must have the means to be programmed to any possible water restrictions’ regime. This means that they can be restricted to a watering cycle on a specific day or days in the week rather than just on a periodic interval. • Controllers will have a dedicated sensor input for connection to a rain or soil moisture sensor. • A ‘Smart Approved Watermark’ automatic rain shut-off switch OR automatic soil moisture sensing control system shall be fitted to EVERY _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 34© Irrigation Australia
    • automatically controlled system and in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions; o Rain sensors can be either the hard-wired type or wireless depending on the location of the controller. The rain switch must be installed in a location where a representative sample of rainfall on the property will fall. They can be installed on a gutter but not in a location where they will be shielded from rainfall or have excess water drip into the switch. A rain switch should be set to shut off the system following rain of no more than 8mm, this amount being a ‘significant’ rainfall event. • The controller will have a ‘water budgeting’ feature which will enable ‘global’ percentage variation of programmed run times according to changing water requirements with prevailing climatic conditions. • Many controllers require the installation of an alkaline or rechargeable battery for the controller to retain programmed information in the event of power outage. Where required the installer shall install such a battery before the system is handed over to the client. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 35© Irrigation Australia
    • SECTION 10 - SYSTEM HANDOVEROnce the installation is deemed to be complete the installer shall conduct ahandover with the client by demonstrating the operation of the system andinstructing the client on the programming of the irrigation controller.10.1 CONTROLLER CARDAs part of the handover process the installer will complete the WGIPController Card (refer to the Program Administrator for stock) and programthe controller as per the following illustrations on pages 81 and 82.Once completed the controller card shall be affixed to the inside of thecontroller door or in a position adjacent to the controller.10.2 IRRIGATION PLANWithin one month of the system handover the client must be given an accurate‘as constructed’ plan of the irrigation system as installed. This plan mustinclude: • It must be to scale. • Pipe routes and sizes used. • Sprinkler and valve locations. • Sprinkler and nozzle performance data for all heads. • Flow test results. • Details of all symbols used on the plan.10.3 WARRANTYThe installer shall warrant the system for a twelve (12) month period from thedate of handover against faulty workmanship and parts. This warranty shall bepresented to the client on submission of written quotation. _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 36© Irrigation Australia
    • FIGURE 10.1 – Controller Card _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 37© Irrigation Australia
    • _________WaterwiseGarden Irrigator Program – Design Principles, Specifications and Guidelines 38© Irrigation Australia
    • STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC IRRIGATION INSTALLATIONIRRIGATION AUSTRALIA LTD (WA REGION)1 ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO COMMENCEMENTPrior to commencement of a domestic irrigation installation, the Irrigation Contractor shall:1.1 Conduct a flow test, using a ‘Flow and Pressure Testing device’ and record the flow/s at the appropriate pressure/s recommended by the manufacturers of the components of the irrigation system.1.2 Present to the Client a written quotation detailing all works and activities that will be conducted.1.3 Present the client with a design of the proposed irrigation system.2 SYSTEM DESIGN AND COMPONENTSIrrigation system design and product selection shall comply with appropriate AustralianCodes and standards and conform to the manufacturer’s recommendations for the productsused. These include:2.1 System design to be according to the flow test results in 1.1 (above) with individual station demand (at the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure) no greater than the tested flow. Where station demand is less than the tested flow a pressure regulating device/s must be installed where such is required to ensure operation to manufacturers’ recommended operating pressure.2.2 Pipe will be sized to ensure water velocity does not exceed 1.5 metres per second at design flow.2.3 Sprinklers shall be spaced at no more than the radius of throw specified by the manufacturer’s recommendations.2.4 Sprinklers shall operate at the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure.2.5 Mainlines shall be minimum PN9 PVC, PN8 polyethylene or other appropriate material of no lesser pressure rating; pipe under live mains pressure should be minimum PN12 rating or as otherwise specified by Water Corporation regulations.2.6 Valves under live mains pressure shall be Water Corporation approved ‘tested’ valves.2.7 Sprinklers on any station shall be fitted with matched precipitation nozzles.© Irrigation Australia
    • 2.8 Part-Circle Sprinklers shall be used in locations where they will prevent wasteful overspray.2.9 Where an irrigation controller is installed to operate stations of different water requirements it shall be a minimum three-program controller and must be programmable to comply with Water Corporation and Department of Water guidelines or restrictions.3 INSTALLATION OF THE SYSTEMThe installation of the irrigation system shall be conducted to meet the requirements ofapplicable statutory regulations, including backflow prevention.3.1 The Client shall be advised of all installation work that, as a requirement of law, will be completed by a licensed tradesperson.3.2 Master solenoid valves shall be used when connecting to scheme water supply and when installing more than two station valves.3.3 Solenoid wires shall be buried under pipework. Where wires do not run with such pipework they should be placed in electrical conduit.3.4 A colour code for solenoid wires shall be used, black for “Common” wires, red for ‘Master Valve’ control wires and white for ‘spare’ wires. Spare wires shall be taped (or otherwise waterproofed) at their field termination point. Station valves shall be installed with cable colours other than those listed. Wire from each valve to the controller shall be one single colour.3.5 Solenoid wire connections shall be made only at valve boxes and a minimum 300mm loop of wire left at each valve for ease of service.3.6 Solenoid wire connections shall be either crimped or soldered and covered with heatshrink material or made with gel-filled or silicone grease type electrical cable connectors made for this purpose.3.7 All pipework shall be buried other than where expressly stated.3.8 Mainline and lateral piping shall be buried to the minimum recommended cover of 150 mm.3.9 Low Density poly pipe shall be secured at all connections by ratchet clamps or other device according to manufacturer’s specifications.3.10 All valves shall be located in valve boxes designed for this purpose, the lid thereof to be no higher than surrounding material.© Irrigation Australia
    • 3.11 All systems shall have a minimum of 150 mm of pipe either side of valve to enable service removal of valve and replacement without major disruption.3.12 All irrigation stations should be established to water areas of similar demand (hydrozones).4 COMPLETION AND HANDOVER4.1 At the completion of the work the site is to be left in neat and tidy state.4.2 The Irrigation Contractor shall perform a system “hand-over”, including a working demonstration of all functions of the irrigation controller. The installer is to install a program (compliant with current Water Corporation and Department of Water regulations and recommendations) and explain same to the client.4.3 The Client shall be given a recommended watering schedule for peak demand, with recommended seasonal reduction (as a percentage of maximum) detailing all stations (with description of each) plus an estimated P.R. (Precipitation Rate) for each station.4.4 If the installed controller requires a battery, a battery of the type recommended by the manufacturer is to be supplied and installed by the Irrigation Contractor prior to hand-over.5 WARRANTY5.1 The Irrigation Contractor to specify a minimum one-year warranty on all parts and labour.6 GENERAL6.1 Where any variations from these standards have occurred the Irrigation Contractor will provide detail of these, and the requirements for the changes, to the client as well as a clear indication that such changes do not comply with the “Standards for Domestic Irrigation Installation” of Irrigation Australia Ltd (WA Region).© Irrigation Australia
    • Disclaimer:The Standards for Domestic Irrigation Installation have been developed by members of IrrigationAustralia Ltd’s Western Australian region. These Standards have been designed for use inWestern Australia and are based on current knowledge and practice at the time of thepreparation of this material (October 2002, Revised 2007).These Standards are issued as a guide only. Their use is of a voluntary nature and the IAL is notliable for any loss, injury, damages, costs or other consequences of any kind that result from theiruse. All persons conducting or procuring domestic irrigation installation should comply strictlywith the manufacturer’s recommendations for the use and installation of equipment. The IAreserves the right to modify, add to or delete Standards prescribed herein at any time.Copyright:Irrigation Australia Ltd 2002, Revised 2007. This work is copyright. Apart from any usepermitted under Acts of Parliament, no part of these Standards may be reproduced without theexpressed written permission from Irrigation Australia Ltd.Irrigation Australia LtdPO Box 1804Hornsby Westfield NSW 1635© Irrigation Australia