1
Step by step
1. BEAM MODEL.................................................................................................
2
1. BEAM MODEL
Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the
AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in th...
3
points in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems). The origin
of the relative coordinate system is marked by a thic...
4
The following picture appears:
Geometry
Check
Click the Geometry Check Icon on the top of the desktop, to
check for geom...
5
Material
Library Import
Press the Material Library Import icon to select the material.
In the dialog window that appears...
6
New Cross
Section
Click on the New Cross Section Icon (the rightmost in the
sections line) to create a new cross-section...
7
Finish the cross-section definition by clicking on the Ok
button.
Enter a name for the newly created cross-section. Type...
8
By closing the floating window the last view remains on the
screen.
Display
Options
The local systems, the node numberin...
9
direction, and specify the stiffness values.
The first three entries are for the translational stiffness, measured
in [k...
10
Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF (Degrees of Freedom) Icon, and select
all nodes with the All command. In the Nodal Degree...
11
In the left tree view you can see the first load case, created
automatically by the program. Its name is ST1. Click on ...
12
Line Load Click the Line Load Icon and select the left beam. After
finishing the selection with Ok the following dialog...
13
Type in 20 [mm] in the ez edit box.
Load
Combination
Click the Load Combination Icon, which will open the Table
Browser...
14
Linear
Analysis
Click the Static tab, then the Linear Icon to start the analysis.
If the application prompts for saving...
15
Check the displacement diagrams of various load cases whether
they comply with the expected result. To do this, click o...
16
R.C. Design Click the R.C. Design tab to find out the area of longitudinal
reinforcement and vertical stirrups.
Beam
Re...
17
The topmost diagram is the statical layout of the beam, below it
is the My moment diagram and the Qz shear force diagra...
18
Note that alongside the original My moment diagram (thin line),
the diagram shifted according to code (thick line) is a...
19
2. FRAME MODEL
Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the
AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in ...
20
Coordinate
System
In the lower left corner of the graphics area is the global
coordinate system symbol. The positive di...
21
To enter the first line (node) of the frame model, enter the
following values:
X=0
Y=0
Z=3.5, Enter
To define the secon...
22
Close the dialog window with Ok, then click on an arbitrary
place in the graphics area and draw upward a vertical line,...
23
The following picture is obtained:
Coordinate
System
Switch to Z-Y plane.
You should see this picture:
24
Translate Select the Translate Icon so you can Copy this part of the
model geometry structure. In the Selection Icon ba...
25
Specify the first displacement vector by entering the following
values:
X=0
Y=5
Z=0, enter.
Enter the second vector:
X=...
26
Coordinate
System
Switch to perspective View. The colums should be on the
vertical Z-axis. Use the pan function as need...
27
Continue with a segment to the bottom of the middle column:
Press Esc twice to exit from the command.
Translate Click t...
28
In the dialog window you can set the maximum tolerance for
merging nodes, and you can specify whether to search or not ...
29
Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window
appears:
Material
Library
Import
Click the Browse Materia...
30
from the Cross-Section List I-400. Close the dialog window with
Ok.
The default value for the Local z Reference is Auto...
31
The following picture appears:
Nodal Support Click the Nodal Support Icon, select all 6 column’s bottom node
and finish...
32
Finish the creation of nodal supports with Ok, and the support
symbols will appear.
Loads The next step is to apply the...
33
Click on the ST1 (the first static load case) in the upper left
corner, and rename it to VARIABLE1. Close the dialog wi...
34
Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window
appears:
Type -25 in the pz1, pz2 edit boxes, then close ...
35
Close the dialog window with Ok, and the load values will
appear in the graphics area.
36
Line Load Click the Line Load Icon, and select the lower horizontal beams:
Finish the selection with Ok, then type -50 ...
37
Load Cases &
Load Groups
Click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon.
New Load
Case Static
In the New Case panel click the ...
38
Line Load Click the Line Load Icon, and define on the upper left columns
a load of intensity 6 kN/m in x direction. Fro...
39
New Row Use the New Row Icon to add a new load combination. You
have to specify a factor for each load case in a load c...
40
Static By default the postprocessor will start with the ez displacement
of the first load case, which is now VARIABLE1....
41
Click the New Button, which brings up a window where you
can specify the name of the part.
Type in 1 and close this win...
42
Close the dialog window with Ok, and part 1 will be accepted.
Coordinate
System
Switch to Z-Y plane.
Result Display
Par...
43
Min/Max
Values
Click the Minimum and Maximum Values Icon to find out the
location of maximum displacement. The followin...
44
Beam Internal Forces. Click the Result Display Parameters
Icon, Change display to section line.
The Nx force diagram wi...
45
Steel Design Click the Steel Design tab to start the checking of column A1.
Design
Parameters
Click the Design Paramete...
46
The following picture appears:
Buckling Now view the N-M-Flx Buckling diagram:
47
Choose the efficiency diagram. The following picture appears:
If you click column A1 then all of its checks will appear...
48
3. PLATE MODEL
Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the
AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in ...
49
In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the
cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and...
50
Finish specifying the second corner point by pressing Enter.
(Note: If the decimal separator on the computer is set to ...
51
Material
Library Import
Click the Material Library Import Icon in the row of
Material, and the following dialog window ...
52
Zoom to Fit For a better view let’s click the Zoom to Fit Icon on the Zoom
Icon bar.
Domain
Meshing
Click the Domain Me...
53
The surface element symbol is a solid red square in the center of
the element. If you move the cursor over it, the prop...
54
Activate the Symbols tab, then on the Local System Panel
check the Surface box.
Close the dialog window with Ok.
A red ...
55
Nodal Support Let's specify the supports of the structure. Click on the Nodal
Support command then select the two nodes...
56
Rectangle
Shape
Click the Rectangular Shape Icon. The following dialog
window appears:
Type 300 [mm] in the upper two e...
57
A following picture appears:
Close the Cross Section Editor with Ok. A dialog window asks
for the name of the new cross...
58
The following picture appears:
Line Support Let's create the line supports on the contour of the domain. Click
the Line...
59
Depress both the upper and lower End Release Icons. Close
with Ok the dialog windows.
Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF Ico...
60
Loads The next step is to apply the loads. Click the Loads tab.
Load Cases &
Load Groups
It is useful to group the load...
61
New Load
Case
Click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon again, and create a
new load case with the Static Icon. Name it P...
62
New Row Create a new load combination by using the New Row
command. You can apply load factors to load cases by using a...
63
Click the Case Selector combo box, and select Co.#1 to view the
results from the load combination.
The Color Legend Win...
64
Color Legend The Color Legend Window shows the color ranges. You can
change the number of colors by dragging the handle...
65
Close the dialog window with OK, and the new ranges will be
applied.
The ranges with a displacement larger than 10 mm a...
66
The following picture appears:
Perspective
View
Let's view the results in perspective. Click the Perspective
View Icon ...
67
Click the Wireframe Icon and return to the Isoline display
mode.
Let's switch to X-Y Plane.
After studying the deformed...
68
Result Display
Parameters
For this click the Result Display Parameters Icon.
The following dialog window appears:
In th...
69
R.C. Design Let's switch to R.C. Design tab.
Here the reinforcement areas from the internal forces can be
obtained.
Rei...
70
Type in 1.5 for the depth of concrete cover in -x direction, and
2.5 for the -y direction.
When the dialog window is cl...
71
It can be seen that the area for actual reinforcement is greater
than the maximum area of calculated reinforcement, so ...
72
the edges the minimal reinforcement is enough and in the area
around the columns, the maximum reinforcement is required...
73
The following dialog window returns:
Accept it with Ok. The display should be set to the Section
Line.
Coordinate
Syste...
74
Result Display
Parameters
Click the Result Display Parameter Icon, and uncheck the
boxes in the Write Values To panel.
...
75
4. MEMBRANE MODEL
4.1. Preprocessing with surface elements
Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the...
76
The vertical upward direction is taken as the positive Z direction.
It has relevance for the direction of gravitational...
77
Exit from drawing quads by pressing Esc.
The following Drawing is displayed:
Quad/Triangle
Division
The pillars are cre...
78
Select with a selection window all nodes of the pillar.
The selected elements will be highlighted.
Finish the selection...
79
The following drawing is displayed:
The geometry of the wall has been successfully created.
Zoom Let's zoom to the stru...
80
Click OK and a check summary is displayed when completed.
Elements The next step is to create the finite elements. Acti...
81
The surface elements have been created.
Display
Options
To view the local coordinate system of the surface elements
cli...
82
The red line shows the x axis of the local coordinate system, the
yellow one the y axis and the green one the z axis.
L...
83
To create a pinned support use the following settings:
Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF Icon, select all nodes with the Al...
84
4.2. Preprocessing with domains
Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the
AxisVM folder, found on th...
85
In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the
cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and...
86
X=1 Y=0 Z=0, Enter
X=0 Y=0 Z=6, Enter
X=-12 Y=0 Z=0, Enter
X=0 Y=0 Z=-6, Enter
Exit from the command by clicking Esc tw...
87
Set the type of the element to Membrane (plane stress).
Material
Library Import
Click the Material Library Import Icon ...
88
The following drawing results:
It is easy to observe the symbol of the domain - a blue line on the
inner contour of the...
89
After the mesh generation is completed, the following drawing is
displayed:
If you move the cursor on the surface cente...
90
To create pinned support set the dialog window as shown
below:
Close the dialog window with Ok, and the following drawi...
91
The finite elements have now been created.
The next step is to apply the loads.
Load Click the Loads tab.
Surface Edge
...
92
Press Ok and the load is applied.
The following drawing is displayed:
Static The next step is the analysis and postproc...
93
Click the Details button to view the details of calculation:
The topmost label shows the current computation step, and ...
94
Min/Max
Value
To find the location of maximum internal force. Click the Min,
Max Value Icon. The following dialog windo...
95
The color regions are delimited by the values in the Color
Legend Window. You can change the number of colors by
draggi...
96
The regions with a normal force greater then -100 are hatched.
Isoline View the internal forces in Isoline display mode...
97
Close the dialog window with Ok and the values of support
forces is displayed on the screen:
R.C. Design The next step ...
98
Close the dialog window with OK and the axb diagram is
displayed:
The area of reinforcement in the x direction is the s...
99
5. SHELL MODEL
Start To run the program click AxisVM 8 icon in the AxisVM folder
on the Desktop.
New Create a new model...
100
Replace each value under Cursor Step by 0.2
to ensure that the mouse cursor moves in 0.2 m steps so you
avoid geometri...
101
system clicking the d button. If this button is down the relative
coordinates are displayed and coordinates have a d p...
102
Change view Select the icon on the left from the toolbar and the X-Y plane or
press [Ctrl+2]
Now specify the translati...
103
Here you can turn numbering on or off. Turn on the
check box before Node and node numbers appear
immediately.
Translat...
104
local systems of the elements.
Reference point The local system of finite elements can be set by references. In
this e...
105
Material Library
Import
Click the Material Library Import button to select a material:
Select C25/30. The list on the ...
106
8 – 9; 9 – 3; → Polygon 8 – 9 – 3 – 2 is automatically selected.
Click OK on the Selection palette. You get to the Dom...
107
Cross-section
Editor
A borda keresztmetszetének megadásához aktiváljuk a Szelvény
felirat mellett jobbra elhelyezked• ...
108
You get back to the main window. Click anywhere to place the shape.
The cross-section 1st and 2nd principal direction,...
109
Rotate view Click the Rotate view icon on the Zoom
toolbar at the bottom left corner of the
main window.
Drag the mode...
110
You get this:
Loads To define loads click the Loads tab.
Load cases and
load groups
To define load cases and load grou...
111
Click on the selected load case to rename it to ’Self Weight’.
Click OK to close the dialog.
Self weight To define sel...
112
You get this:
Load
combinations
To create laod combinations click the Load combinations icon.
You get to the load comb...
113
Click the Domain
meshing icon. On the
Selection palette click
the Select all (asterisk)
icon or press gray * on
the ke...
114
Now we entered all properties necessary to analyse the model.
Static To run the analysis and display the results click...
115
Click OK to close the dialog. You get to the Static tab,
displaying the Self Weight load case and eZ (i.e. vertical
di...
116
Change view Select the X-Y view from the flyout
toolbar or press [Ctrl+2].
On the Selection palette click the
Select a...
117
Min, max To determine the extreme values of the
horizontal displacements click the Min,
max icon. You get to a dialog ...
118
Change view
Color Legend
Select the X-Z view from the flyout
toolbar or press [Ctrl+1].
In the Display Parameters dial...
119
A section plane can be defined by two points in side, front of top
view. Being in front view click the rib at 6.000 m ...
120
Speed buttons Turn off Sections clicking its speed button at the bottom.
Change view Select the perspective view from ...
121
Also check components in other directions and positions: axt, ayb, ayt.
Reinforced
Beam Design
To determine the requir...
122
Beam
Parameters
Click Beam Parameters to specify the design properties. Click the icon
of the rectangular cross-sectio...
123
124
Notes
125
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Axis vm stepbystep

  1. 1. 1 Step by step 1. BEAM MODEL..........................................................................................................................2 2. FRAME MODEL...................................................................................................................19 3. PLATE MODEL....................................................................................................................48 4. MEMBRANE MODEL..........................................................................................................75 4.1. Preprocessing with surface elements................................................................................75 4.2. Preprocessing with domains............................................................................................84 5. SHELL MODEL....................................................................................................................99
  2. 2. 2 1. BEAM MODEL Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in the Start, Programs Menu. New Create a new model with the New Icon. In the dialogue window that pops up, replace the Model Filename with “Beam”. Select the Design Code. Click OK to close the dialog window. Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the internal forces, longitudinal reinforcement and vertical stirrups in the three way supported, reinforced concrete beams illustrated below. The loads on the beams will be presented subsequently. The analysis will be done according to the Eurocode. The cross- section of the beam is will be a 400mm x 600mm rectangle. The left beam is 12m in length and the right beam is 10m. Coordinate System In the lower left corner of the graphics area is the global coordinate system symbol. The positive direction is marked by the corresponding capital letter (X, Y, Z). The default coordinate system of a new model is the X-Z coordinate system. It is important to note that unless changed the gravity acts along the – Z direction. In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and is set to X=0, Y=0, Z=0. You can change to the relative coordinate values by pressing the ‘d’ labeled button on the left of the Coordinate Window. ( Hint : In the right column of the coordinate window you can specify
  3. 3. 3 points in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems). The origin of the relative coordinate system is marked by a thick blue X. Geometry The first step is to create the geometry of structure. Select the Geometry tab to bring up the Geometry Toolbar. Line Hold down the left mouse button while the cursor is on Line Tool Icon brings up the Line Icons Selection Menu: Polygon Lets click on the Polygon icon, which is the second from left to specify the axis of the two beams. When the Polygon is chosen, the Relative coordinate system automatically changes to the local system (‘d’ prefix) The polygon coordinates can be drawn with the mouse, or by typing in their numerical values. Set the first point ( node) of the line by typing in these entries: X=0 Y=0 Z=0 Finish specifying the first line point by pressing Enter. The first node of the beam model is now also the global coordinates origin point. Relative Coordinate System To enter the next two nodes for our beam model type in the following sequence: X=12 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=10 Y=0 Z=0, Enter Press ESC twice to exit from polygon drawing function. Zoom To bring up the Zoom Icon Bar, move the mouse on the Zoom Icon in the left side of the desktop window. It contains six icons. Lets choose the third icon (Zoom to fit) from the Zoom Icon Bar, or press Ctrl-W, which has the same effect. An alternative way of zooming is to press the + or – keys on your numerical keypad.
  4. 4. 4 The following picture appears: Geometry Check Click the Geometry Check Icon on the top of the desktop, to check for geometric ambiguities. The program will ask for the maximum tolerance (distance) for merging points. After the geometry check a summary of actions appears. Elements The next step is to specify the finite elements. Click on the Elements tab to bring up the Finite Elements Toolbar. Line Elements Press the Line Elements Icon, then on the appearing selection icon bar use the asterisk (All) command, then click OK. The Line Elements dialog window appears. Select Define or Modify if you are correcting an earlier parameter.
  5. 5. 5 Material Library Import Press the Material Library Import icon to select the material. In the dialog window that appears select Concrete C25/30 in the Materials column, then click OK.
  6. 6. 6 New Cross Section Click on the New Cross Section Icon (the rightmost in the sections line) to create a new cross-section. Rectangle Define a rectangular cross section by clicking on the Rectangular Icon. Modify the offered height (h) to 600 [mm]. Click the Place Button to select the new cross-section. You should see something similar with the following picture.
  7. 7. 7 Finish the cross-section definition by clicking on the Ok button. Enter a name for the newly created cross-section. Type in 400x600, and then press OK. Leaving the Local x Reference on Auto, the orientation of the local x axis of the beam will be along the x axis of the element, and the local z axis will be in a vertical plane passing through the x axis. Perspective Lets check the structure in space! Click the Perspective Icon in the left side of the application. You can pan or rotate the structure using the mouse.
  8. 8. 8 By closing the floating window the last view remains on the screen. Display Options The local systems, the node numbering and other useful graphical symbols can be switched on/off by clicking the Display Options Icon in the left side of the application. (Hint: the same dialog window can be displayed by selecting the Display Options item after a right click in the Graphics Area). Check the Beam box in the Symbols/Local Systems panel, then select the Labels tab to check the Cross-Section Name box. Exit from the dialog window with OK. The local system of the beams and the name of the cross-sections will be displayed. Move the cursor on the axis of the beam to bring up an info label showing relevant information about the beam. Because the Elements tab is selected, the tag number, length, material name, cross-section name, self-weight and local reference of the beam is displayed: Finally switch from perspective view to Z-X plane. Zoom to Fit In order to have a good overview, use the Zoom To Fit command. Nodal Support Click the Nodal Support Icon and select the middle support. A dialog window appears, where you can set the translational and/or rotational stiffness of the node. Select the global
  9. 9. 9 direction, and specify the stiffness values. The first three entries are for the translational stiffness, measured in [kN/m]. The default value is 1e+10 [kN/m], meaning a full restriction of the translation, while the value 0 [kN/m] would mean a free translation. The next three entries are for the rotational stiffness, measured in [kN/rad]. The default value of 1e+10 [kN/rad] means a fully restricted rotation, while the value 0 [kN/rad] means a free rotation. Set all rotational stiffness to zero, and restrict the translation along X and Z direction. Use the settings in the following box: Finish the support definition with OK Select the two exterior supports and make them horizontally free (X, Y axis) supports in a similar way: On the screen, restricted translations are shown as yellow stripes, restricted rotations as orange stripes to their rotational axis.
  10. 10. 10 Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF (Degrees of Freedom) Icon, and select all nodes with the All command. In the Nodal Degrees of Freedom dialog window select ‘Frame in Plane X-Z’ from the predefined settings. After closing this window with OK, all the nodes will change their color to blue. This setting selects the nodes of the beams only in translation in plane X-Z with the rotation around the Y-axis. Loads The next step is to apply the loads. Click the Loads tab. Load Cases It is useful to separate the loads into load cases. Click the Load Cases Icon to create the load cases. The following dialog window appears.
  11. 11. 11 In the left tree view you can see the first load case, created automatically by the program. Its name is ST1. Click on the ST1 to change the name of the load case, and overwrite it with SELF-WEIGHT. Click OK to return to the graphics area. The active load case will be SELF-WEIGHT. You can see it on the Info Window. Display Options In the Display Options window select the cross-section name under the Labels tab, and the cross-section shape and local system under the Symbols tab, leaving the rest of the default settings. Self Weight Click the Self-Weight Icon, and select all elements with the All command. When the selection is finished by pressing Ok, two blue dotted lines will show near the beams axis that their dead load is placed on them (It will act by default along the –Z direction, with the gravitational acceleration taken as g=9.81 m/s2). Load Cases/Groups Click the Load Cases Icon again, and create three more load cases by clicking repeatedly the Static Button in the New Case panel. Name them VARIABLE1, VARIABLE2 and SUPPORT DISPLACEMENT. Make VARIABLE1 the active load case by clicking on it, and press OK.
  12. 12. 12 Line Load Click the Line Load Icon and select the left beam. After finishing the selection with Ok the following dialog window appears: As the load intensity type -17.5 in the pz1, pz2 edit boxes, then press Ok. Load Cases/Groups Click on the downward pointing triangle on the right of the Load Cases Icon and the following menu will pop up. It shows all load cases, a black dot marking the active one. Click on VARIABLE2 to make it the active load case. Apply on both beams a -17.5 kN/m uniform linear load acting in Z direction in the same way as before. Forced Support Displacement Finally select the SUPPORT DISPLACEMENT load case. Click the Forced Support Displacement Icon, select the middle support and press Ok. This brings up the following dialog window.
  13. 13. 13 Type in 20 [mm] in the ez edit box. Load Combination Click the Load Combination Icon, which will open the Table Browser. New Load Case Click the New Icon to create an empty load combination. You must specify a combination factor for each load case. For now type in the following factors (press enter after input into each cell) Selfweight- 1.2 Variable1- 1.4 Variable2- 0 Support displacements- 1.0 Make another load combination, this time with the following factors: Selfweight – 1.2 Variable1- 0 Variable2- 1.40 Support Displacement- 1.0 Finish the creation of load combinations by pressing Ok. Static The next step is the analysis and post processing.
  14. 14. 14 Linear Analysis Click the Static tab, then the Linear Icon to start the analysis. If the application prompts for saving, save the model on a local hard disk. After saving, the analysis will start. Analysis Click the Details button to view the details of calculation. Static When the analysis has finished, press Ok. By default the postprocessor will start with the ez displacement of the first load case, which is now SELF-WEIGHT. The display mode will be iso surfaces. You will see the displacements from the dead load in global Z direction. Result Display Parameters Click the Result Display Parameters Icon and set the parameters according to the picture below. In the Case Selector combo box select the SELF-WEIGHT load case. If you leave the Undeformed radio button checked in the Display Shape panel, then the various results will be drawn on the undeformed shape of the structure. In the Component combo box select ez from displacements. Set the Display Mode to diagram. In the Write Values To Panel check Nodes and Lines. Close the dialog window with Ok. You should see the following picture:
  15. 15. 15 Check the displacement diagrams of various load cases whether they comply with the expected result. To do this, click on the combo box next to the Result Display Parameters Icon, and select desired load case. This time select the first load combination (Co. #1). Min, Max Value Click on the Min-Max Value Icon to obtain the location and value of the maximum and minimum displacements. The following dialog window appears: Select the eZ displacement component, and press OK. The location and value of the negative maximum displacement pops up in a window. Pressing OK closes it, and the positive maximum displacement window pops up. Press OK to close it too. The various internal force and stress results can be selected through the second combo box. First view the My bending moment in the first and second load case (Co#1, Co#2), which is accessible by clicking on the Beam Internal Forces.
  16. 16. 16 R.C. Design Click the R.C. Design tab to find out the area of longitudinal reinforcement and vertical stirrups. Beam Reinforcement Design Click the Beam Reinforcement Design Icon, then select all beams with the All command (the asterisk), then press Ok. The following window appears.
  17. 17. 17 The topmost diagram is the statical layout of the beam, below it is the My moment diagram and the Qz shear force diagram. Beam Parameters In the Beam Reinforcement Window, Click the Beam parameters Icon to set the properties of the beam. It brings up the following dialog window: Set the longitudinal rebar and stirrup material property to B500A. Close the dialog window with Ok and the following window will appear:
  18. 18. 18 Note that alongside the original My moment diagram (thin line), the diagram shifted according to code (thick line) is also present. Below the My moment diagram is the As diagram, below the Qz diagram is the s diagram. ‘As’ is the area of the necessary longitudinal reinforcement of the beam, while ‘s’ is the required maximal distance of the stirrups. The longitudinal reinforcement in tension is shown in blue, the compressed in red. The area 342 mm2 on the ‘As’ diagram is the minimum area of the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement, while the value 228 mm on the ‘s’ diagram is the maximum stirrup distance. Click Ok to close this reinforcement window.
  19. 19. 19 2. FRAME MODEL Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in the Start, Programs Menu. New Create a new model with the New Icon. In the dialog window that pops up, replace the Model Filename with “Frame”, and in the Design Code panel select Eurocode. Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the internal forces of the following frame, and to verify column A1. Lets use for cross-section of horizontal elements I360, for vertical ones I400, and for inclined ones O 190.0x5.0 SV. The material of the structure is Steel FE 360, and the design verification will be according to Eurocode-3. By default the Z-axis of the global coordinate system points upward. It has relevance for the direction of gravity, this will be detailed later.
  20. 20. 20 Coordinate System In the lower left corner of the graphics area is the global coordinate system symbol. The positive direction is marked by the corresponding capital letter (X, Y, Z). The default coordinate system of a new model is the X-Z coordinate system. It is important to note that unless changed the gravity acts along the – Z direction. In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and is set to X=0, Y=0, Z=0. You can change to the relative coordinate values by pressing the ‘d’ labeled button on the left of the Coordinate Window. (Hint: In the right column of the coordinate window you can specify points in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems). The origin of the relative coordinate system is marked by a thick blue X. The first step is to create the geometry of the structure. Geometry Click the Geometry tab, below the menu bar. The Geometry Toolbar appears below the tabs. The geometry of the structure will be created with the Line Tool. Line Hold down the left mouse button while the cursor is on the Line Tool Icon will bring up the following Line Type icon bar: Polygon Lets click on the Polygon icon, which is the second from left. When the Polygon is chosen, the Relative coordinate system automatically changes to the local system (‘d’ prefix) The polygon coordinates for the frame model can be drawn with the mouse, or by typing in their numerical values. Set the first point (node) of the line by typing in these entries: X=0 Y=0 Z=0 Finish specifying the first line point by pressing Enter. The first node of the frame model is now also the global coordinates origin point.
  21. 21. 21 To enter the first line (node) of the frame model, enter the following values: X=0 Y=0 Z=3.5, Enter To define the second line of the frame model, enter the following values: X=6 Y=0 Z=0, Enter To define the third line of the frame model, enter the following values: X=0 Y=0 Z=-3.5, Enter (Note: Negative value) Exit from the Polygon command by pressing Esc twice. The following picture is obtained: Translate Copy the structure vertically upward with the Translate Icon. For this click the Translate Icon, select the horizontal line and finish the selection with Enter. In the Translate dialog window select Spread by Distance, in the ‘d [m]=’ edit box type 3.5, and in the Nodes To Connect panel select All.
  22. 22. 22 Close the dialog window with Ok, then click on an arbitrary place in the graphics area and draw upward a vertical line, which is longer than 3.5 m.
  23. 23. 23 The following picture is obtained: Coordinate System Switch to Z-Y plane. You should see this picture:
  24. 24. 24 Translate Select the Translate Icon so you can Copy this part of the model geometry structure. In the Selection Icon bar use the All command (the asterisk). The selected elements color will change: Finishing the selection with Ok, in the dialog window select the Consecutive method, then in the Nodes to Connect panel select the Double Selected option. Close this dialog window with Ok. Now you must select the nodes to connect. Use a selection window according to the picture below on the left. The picture on the right shows the result of your selection:
  25. 25. 25 Specify the first displacement vector by entering the following values: X=0 Y=5 Z=0, enter. Enter the second vector: X=0 Y=5 Z=0, enter. Enter the third vector: X=0 Y=5 Z=0, enter. Esc twice to exit from the command. The following picture will be seen:
  26. 26. 26 Coordinate System Switch to perspective View. The colums should be on the vertical Z-axis. Use the pan function as needed to bring the model to this perspective. When you close the dialog bar this settings will remain active. Polygon Click the Polygon Icon. Draw a segment from the bottom of A1 column to the middle of the beam in Y direction:
  27. 27. 27 Continue with a segment to the bottom of the middle column: Press Esc twice to exit from the command. Translate Click the Translate Icon, select the two inclined bars then finish the selection with Ok. In the dialog window select the Consecutive method, and set the Nodes to Connect to None. After closing the dialog window with Ok, click on the bottom node of the A1 column, then on the middle node of the A1 column. This will copy the two inclined bars to the upper story. Copy the bars on the other side of the structure as well. To exit from translate press Esc. The following picture appears: Geometry Check Check the geometry of the structure with the Geometry Check Icon, which is toward the end of Geometry Toolbar:
  28. 28. 28 In the dialog window you can set the maximum tolerance for merging nodes, and you can specify whether to search or not for unattached nodes or lines. When the check is finished a summary will appear. Elements The next step is to create the finite elements. For this click on the Elements tab. Line Elements To create the finite elements for beams or columns use the Line Elements Icon. To define the materials for the Columns, Click the icon, then select the the vertical lines ( all columns) by clicking them or by selection windows as in the picture.
  29. 29. 29 Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window appears: Material Library Import Click the Browse Material Library Icon in the row labeled Material. The following dialog window appears: Select Steel Fe360 as the active material. Cross-Section Library Import Click Cross-Section Library Import Icon. The following dialog window appears : Select from the Cross-Section Tables I Hungarian Beams, then
  30. 30. 30 from the Cross-Section List I-400. Close the dialog window with Ok. The default value for the Local z Reference is Auto. This means that local x reference of the beam will be along the axis of the element, while local z reference will be parallel with global Z. Finish the creation of column (beam) elements with Ok. Define the material for the horizontal beams in a similar way, but use I-360 for their cross-section. Next, define the material for the diagonal braces and use Hungarian Pipes O194.0 x 5.0 SV as cross-section. Zoom to Fit For a better overlook let’s click the Zoom to Fit Icon on the Zoom Icon bar.
  31. 31. 31 The following picture appears: Nodal Support Click the Nodal Support Icon, select all 6 column’s bottom node and finish the selection with Ok. The following dialog window appears: In this dialog window you can set the node support conditions. Let’s assume pinned supports in all these nodes, so set the rotational stiffness Rxx, Ryy, Rzz to 0.
  32. 32. 32 Finish the creation of nodal supports with Ok, and the support symbols will appear. Loads The next step is to apply the loads. Click the Loads tab. Load Cases & Load Groups It is useful to separate the loads into load cases. Click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon to create the load cases. The following dialog window appears:
  33. 33. 33 Click on the ST1 (the first static load case) in the upper left corner, and rename it to VARIABLE1. Close the dialog window with Ok, and VARIABLE1 will be the current load case. You can see in the Info Window the name of the current load case: Line Load Let’s apply loads on the horizontal beams. Apply on the lower beams 50 kN/m, on the upper beams 25 kN/m. For this click the Line Load Icon, then select the upper beams with a selection window.
  34. 34. 34 Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window appears: Type -25 in the pz1, pz2 edit boxes, then close the dialog window with Ok. The following picture appears: Display Options Click the Display Options Icon in the Icons Menu. The following dialog window appears: Select the Labels tab, then check the Load Value box:
  35. 35. 35 Close the dialog window with Ok, and the load values will appear in the graphics area.
  36. 36. 36 Line Load Click the Line Load Icon, and select the lower horizontal beams: Finish the selection with Ok, then type -50 in the pz1, pz2 edit boxes. Close the dialog window with Ok and the following picture results:
  37. 37. 37 Load Cases & Load Groups Click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon. New Load Case Static In the New Case panel click the Static Icon and name the load case WIND. Close the dialog window with OK. All previous loads ’disappeared’, and the current load case’s name in the Info Window is WIND. Coordinate System Switch to Y-X plane (top view). The following picture appears:
  38. 38. 38 Line Load Click the Line Load Icon, and define on the upper left columns a load of intensity 6 kN/m in x direction. From the top view select the upper left node with a selection windows (thus selecting everything inside the selection window, including the two columns). Finish the selection with Ok, then type a load intensity value of 6 in px1, px2 edit boxes and close the dialog window. Repeat the above step for the bottom left node. Repeat the above step for the middle left column, except type a load intensity value of 12. Coordinate System Switch to Perspective View. The following picture appears: Load Combinations Let’s create a load combination. Click the Load Combinations Icon, and the Table Browser will appear.
  39. 39. 39 New Row Use the New Row Icon to add a new load combination. You have to specify a factor for each load case in a load combination. Let’s assume the following factors. Type in these factors in their columns: VARIABLE1 1.2, Enter WIND 1.2, Enter Accept the new load combination(s) by closing the Table Browser with Ok. Now the preprocessing part of the example is finished. Display Options Click the Display Options Icon, and uncheck the Node, Cross- Section Shape, Load boxes in the Symbols tab, andthe Load Value box in the Labels tab. Static The next step is the analysis and post processing. Click the Static tab. Here you can start the analysis and visualize the results. Linear Static Analysis Click on the Linear Static Analysis Icon. A Model Save Dialog will appear if you haven’t already assigned a name for the model. Accept save and a Save dialog window appears, where you can specify the model filename and path. During the analysis the following window appears: Details If you click the details button to view details of computation, the topmost label shows the current computation step, the upper bar shows its progress. The lower bar shows the global progress of computation. The estimated memory requirement shows the estimated virtual memory demand. If the virtual memory of the computer is set to a lower value, an error message will appear. When the computation has finished, the two progress bars will disappear. Close the window with Ok.
  40. 40. 40 Static By default the postprocessor will start with the ez displacement of the first load case, which is now VARIABLE1. The display mode will be iso surface. Change to isoline display. You will see the displacements from the VARIABLE1 load case in global Z direction. To view the results from the load combination select Co. #1 in the Case Selector combo box. Switch from Isoline to Diagram by Clicking the Result Display Parameters Icon and select Diagram in the Display Mode menu box: Coordinate System Switch to Z-X plane. The following picture appears. Parts Click the Parts Icon on the left Icons Menu. The following dialog window appears.
  41. 41. 41 Click the New Button, which brings up a window where you can specify the name of the part. Type in 1 and close this window with Ok. You have to select the entities which will make up the part named 1. Select the right columns with a selection window according to the following picture. Finish the selection with Ok. The dialog window will reappear as in the picture below.
  42. 42. 42 Close the dialog window with Ok, and part 1 will be accepted. Coordinate System Switch to Z-Y plane. Result Display Parameters Click the Result Display Parameters Icon, and check Nodes and Lines in the Write Values to box. Click OK to close the dialog window, and the following picture appears.
  43. 43. 43 Min/Max Values Click the Minimum and Maximum Values Icon to find out the location of maximum displacement. The following dialog box will appear: Here you can select one displacement component. Leave it on ez and click Ok. First the location and value of the negative minimum displacement appears. Click Ok, and the location and value of positive maximum displacement will appear. Select from the Result Component combo box Nx from the
  44. 44. 44 Beam Internal Forces. Click the Result Display Parameters Icon, Change display to section line. The Nx force diagram will appear. View the My moment diagram in a similar way. Now view the Rz Nodal Support Internal Force diagram.
  45. 45. 45 Steel Design Click the Steel Design tab to start the checking of column A1. Design Parameters Click the Design Parameters Icon, then select column A1 and finish the selection with Ok. The following dialog window appears: Overwrite Kyy with 1.25, and then close the dialog window with Ok. Axial Force- Bending-Shear Let’s view the N-M-V diagram.
  46. 46. 46 The following picture appears: Buckling Now view the N-M-Flx Buckling diagram:
  47. 47. 47 Choose the efficiency diagram. The following picture appears: If you click column A1 then all of its checks will appear. Click Ok to close this window.
  48. 48. 48 3. PLATE MODEL Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in the Start, Programs Menu. New Create a new model with the New Icon. In the dialog window that pops up, replace the Model Filename with “Frame”, and in the Design Code panel select Eurocode. Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the maximum deflection, bending moments and required reinforcement of the following plate. Lets suppose the plate thickness is 20 cm, the concrete is of C20/25, and the reinforcement is computed according to Eurocode-2. The first step is to create the geometry of structure. Coordinate System In the lower left corner of the graphics area is the global coordinate system symbol. The positive direction is marked by the corresponding capital letter (X, Y, Z). The default coordinate system of a new model is the X-Z coordinate system. It is important to note that unless changed the gravity acts along the – Z direction.
  49. 49. 49 In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and is set to X=0, Y=0, Z=0. The location of the cursor is defined as a relative coordinate. You can change to the relative coordinate values by pressing the ‘d’ labeled button on the left of the Coordinate Window. (Hint: In the right column of the coordinate window you can specify points in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems). The origin of the relative coordinate system is marked by a thick blue X. Geometry If not already selected, activate the Geometry tab. Under it appears the Geometry Toolbar. View Click the Y-X view from the View Icon Bar. Line Create the geometry of plate using the Rectangle command. Holding down the left mouse button on the Line Icon can access it. Note: When the a line type is chosen, the Relative coordinate system automatically changes to the local system (‘d’ prefix) Rectangle The corners of the rectangle can be specified graphically or by entering the coordinates. Lets enter them with coordinates: Set the first corner (node) of the rectangle by typing in these entries: X=0 Y=0 Z=0 Finish specifying the first corner point by pressing Enter. The first node of the plate model is now also the global coordinates origin point. Relative Coordinates Lets specify the relative coordinates of the next corner. Type in the following sequence of keys: X=8.4 Y=6.8 Z=0
  50. 50. 50 Finish specifying the second corner point by pressing Enter. (Note: If the decimal separator on the computer is set to comma, then instead of the ‘dot’ you have to uses the comma.) The following picture appears: Lets move the relative origin to the lower left corner of the rectangle. For this move the cursor over the lower left node and left Click. Exit from rectangle line command by pressing Esc. Node Icon Click the Node Icon, then type in the following sequence: X=6.4 Y=2.2, Enter X=0 Y=2.4, Enter These nodes have added columns to support the plate. Exit from the Node command with Esc. Elements The next step is to define the finite elements. Click the Elements tab. Domain Click the Domain Icon, then click on one line and the whole rectangle will be selected. Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window appears.
  51. 51. 51 Material Library Import Click the Material Library Import Icon in the row of Material, and the following dialog window appears: Choose C20/25 from Materials List Box, using the scroll bar if necessary. Close the Material Library Import dialog window with Ok. Thickness Type in the thickness combo box the value 200 [mm], then close the dialog window with Ok. The following picture appears: Note the red line on the inner contour of the domain This is the symbol of a (plate) domain. If you move the mouse on this contour, the properties of the domain will appear in a hint window.
  52. 52. 52 Zoom to Fit For a better view let’s click the Zoom to Fit Icon on the Zoom Icon bar. Domain Meshing Click the Domain Meshing Icon. Use the select All command (the asterisk) and finish the selection with OK. The following dialog window appears: Type in the Average Mesh Element Size edit box the value 0.66 [m], then press Ok. An automatic mesh generation will start. Its progress is showed in the following window. When the mesh generation finishes, the following picture appears:
  53. 53. 53 The surface element symbol is a solid red square in the center of the element. If you move the cursor over it, the properties of the element appear in an info window. Refinement Let's refine the mesh around the two nodal supports. Depress the left mouse button over the Refinement Icon, and click the Refinement by BiSection Icon that appears. Uniform Refinement Select the surface elements around the nodal supports with a selection box, according to the picture below: Finish the selection with Ok and accept the offered Maximum Side Length. The result of the refinement is shown in the following picture: Display Options Let's view the local coordinate system of the surface elements. Click the Display Options Icon in the Icons Menu (left side).
  54. 54. 54 Activate the Symbols tab, then on the Local System Panel check the Surface box. Close the dialog window with Ok. A red line shows the local -x direction, a yellow line the local -y direction and a green line the local -z direction: Display Options Select Display Options Icon to switch off the Surface box on the Local System panel.
  55. 55. 55 Nodal Support Let's specify the supports of the structure. Click on the Nodal Support command then select the two nodes in the center of the columns and finish the selection with Ok. The Nodal Support Window appears. Calculations Click the Calculations button. The following dialog window appears: In this dialog window you can specify the support stiffness for the column type support. New Cross Section Click the New Cross Section Icon. The following dialog window appears:
  56. 56. 56 Rectangle Shape Click the Rectangular Shape Icon. The following dialog window appears: Type 300 [mm] in the upper two edit boxes, as the dimensions of cross section, and click Place. Click in the Cross Section Editor Drawing Area to place the rectangle. The location where the rectangle is placed is unimportant.
  57. 57. 57 A following picture appears: Close the Cross Section Editor with Ok. A dialog window asks for the name of the new cross-section. Type in 300x300, then close the dialog window with Ok. The Global Node Support Calculation dialog window’s stiffness values will take into account this cross-section's properties. Accepting the remaining settings click Ok. The stiffness values displayed in the Global Node Support Calculation dialog window will be copied in the Nodal Support dialog window. Close the dialog window with Ok, and the two supports are created.
  58. 58. 58 The following picture appears: Line Support Let's create the line supports on the contour of the domain. Click the Line Support Icon, and select the four contour lines of the domain. They represent walls on the edges of the plate. Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog window appears. Calculation Click the Calculation button. Here you can calculate the line support stiffness due to a wall support. Type in the thickness of wall edit box 300 [mm]. You can see that the height of the wall is 3.0m, and the wall stiffness is also shwon in this dialog box.
  59. 59. 59 Depress both the upper and lower End Release Icons. Close with Ok the dialog windows. Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF Icon. Select all nodes with the All command (the asterisk), then finish the selection with Ok. In the Nodal Degrees Of Freedom dialog box select Plate in X-Y from the list. Accepting this will constrain the degree of freedom to vertical displacements and rotations about axes in the plane of the plate.
  60. 60. 60 Loads The next step is to apply the loads. Click the Loads tab. Load Cases & Load Groups It is useful to group the loads into load cases. To manage the load cases click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon. The following dialog window appears: ST1 in the upper left corner of the window is the first load case (created by default). Click it and rename it to Self-Weight. Closing the dialog window it will be the active load case. It can be seen on the Info Window: Self Weight Click the Self Weight Icon, and select all elements with the All command. Finish the selection with Ok, and the self-weight load will be applied to all elements. This can be seen by the red dashed lines on the contour of elements.
  61. 61. 61 New Load Case Click the Load Cases & Load Groups Icon again, and create a new load case with the Static Icon. Name it Permanent Load. This load case contains the dead loads on the plate. Let's assume it is 2.5 kN/m2 distributed load. Distributed Surface Load Click the Distributed Surface Load Icon and select all elements with the All command. Finish the selection and type in the -pz input box the value -2.5 kN/m2. The negative value means a load acting in opposite direction to the local z-axis of the surface element. This is a load on the surfaces of the plate. New Load Case Create a new load case and name it Live Load. It will contain the variable loads. Click the Distributed Surface Load Icon and select all elements with the All command. Finish the selection and type in -pz=-1.5 kN/m2. Load Combinations Now, that all loads have been applied to the structure, the load combinations can be created. There will be only one load combination, containing all load cases. Click the Load Combinations Icon. The following dialog window appears:
  62. 62. 62 New Row Create a new load combination by using the New Row command. You can apply load factors to load cases by using a load combination. In this example the factors of the Eurocode2 will be used: Self Weight 1.35 Dead Load 1.35 Variable 1.50 Type in these values in their columns. You can move to the next column by pressing Enter. When finished press Ok, and the new load combination is created. Now all the model data is available for the analysis. Static The next step is the analysis and postprocessing. Click the Static tab. Here you can start the static analysis and visualize the results. Linear Static Analysis Click the Linear Static Analysis Icon. If till this point the model wasn't saved, the program will ask to save. Accept Save, and a Save dialog window appears, where you can specify the model file name and path. The analysis process will start. During the analysis the following window appears: If you click the details button, the topmost bar shows the progress of the current computation step. The bar below it shows the global analysis progress. The estimated memory requirement is the amount of virtual memory that must be available. If the size of the operating systems virtual memory is limited to a lower value, an error message will appear, showing the required virtual memory. When the analysis has finished, the progress bars will disappear. Static Closing the Linear Analysis window with Ok the postprocessor will start by default with the first load case (Self-Weight in this case), the result component is ez displacement and the display mode is isosurface 2D. This shows the vertical displacements from the first load case.
  63. 63. 63 Click the Case Selector combo box, and select Co.#1 to view the results from the load combination. The Color Legend Window shows that the displacements are negative, because they are in an opposite direction with the local z-axis of the elements. This is the top view of a surface load. Display Options Click the Display Options Icon on the Icons Menu in the left side. Under the Symbols tab, in the Graphics Symbols Panel switch off the Load and Surface Center options. Min/Max Values Let’s find the maximal displacements. Click the Min, Max Values Icon. The following dialog window appears: Here you can select the displacement component extremities. Accept ez, and a window pops up, showing the location and value of maximum negative displacement Click Ok, and another window pops up, showing the location and value of maximum positive displacement.
  64. 64. 64 Color Legend The Color Legend Window shows the color ranges. You can change the number of colors by dragging the handle beside the level number edit box or entering a new value. Let’s find the ranges with a displacement larger than 10 mm. Click on the values in the Color Legend Window. In the Color Legend Setup dialog window check Auto Interpolate, then click on the bottom value in the left column, and replace -11.4 with -10.
  65. 65. 65 Close the dialog window with OK, and the new ranges will be applied. The ranges with a displacement larger than 10 mm are shown by the inclined hatching. Display Mode Let's view the displacement in isoline display mode too. Click the Display Mode combo box (the one which is displaying Isosurface 2D), and select Isoline from the list.
  66. 66. 66 The following picture appears: Perspective View Let's view the results in perspective. Click the Perspective View Icon from the View Icon Bar. Accept the perspective display values in the dialog window by closing it with Close Icon. Result Display Parameters Click the Result Display Parameters Icon to view the deformed shape. In the Display Shape Panel select Deformed. When the dialog window is closed the deformed shape of the structure is shown. Rendered Click the Rendered Icon in the Display Mode Icon Bar, and the deformed shape of the structure will be rendered.
  67. 67. 67 Click the Wireframe Icon and return to the Isoline display mode. Let's switch to X-Y Plane. After studying the deformed shape let’s look at the internal forces. Click the Result Component combo box (the one which displays ez), and the following list appears: Open the Surface Internal Forces by clicking on it, then select mx. The isoline display of the mx internal moments appears on the screen. This is the moment that is taken by the reinforcement in the -x direction. The my, mxy internal moments and the qxz, qyz shear forces can be viewed in a similar way. Open in the Result Component combo box the Nodal Support Internal Forces, and select Rz. This way you will be able to see the compressive force acting on the columns.
  68. 68. 68 Result Display Parameters For this click the Result Display Parameters Icon. The following dialog window appears: In the Write Values To Panel check the Nodes box, and uncheck the Min, Max. only. Close the dialog window with Ok and the value of the axial forces in the columns appears near the nodes. The reactions from the line supports can be viewed in a similar way. In Result Display Parameters check only Lines in the Write Values to Panel. Select Line Support Internal Forces and value Rz.
  69. 69. 69 R.C. Design Let's switch to R.C. Design tab. Here the reinforcement areas from the internal forces can be obtained. Reinforcement Parameters Click the Reinforcement Parameters Icon, and select all surface elements with the All command. Finish the selection with Ok, and the following dialog windows appear: The characteristics of the concrete are already known from the creation of domain. Select B500B for the type of the reinforcement:
  70. 70. 70 Type in 1.5 for the depth of concrete cover in -x direction, and 2.5 for the -y direction. When the dialog window is closed, the axb diagram appears, which is the isosurface diagram of the bottom steel area in -x direction. In the Result Component combo box you can select the top or bottom -x or -y direction of the steel reinforcement. By changing the number of levels and the top and bottom values in the Color Legend Window, it is easy to see variations in the required reinforcement needed. In this case let's study the reinforcement at the top in -x direction. Switch to –axt in the Result Component combo box. Min/Max Values Find the maximal amount of steel reinforcement using the Min, Max. Values command. Clicking on its icon the following dialog window appears: Continue with Ok, and a dialog window appears with the location and area of maximum reinforcement. Let's use as minimal reinforcement (0.3%) fi12/18, whose area is 628 mm2/m, and for actual reinforcement fi12/9, whose area is 1257 mm2/m.
  71. 71. 71 It can be seen that the area for actual reinforcement is greater than the maximum area of calculated reinforcement, so it can be applied over the whole plate. To separate reinforcement regions set the number of levels to 3 in the Color Legend Window. Activate the Color Legend Setup by clicking on a value, then type 1257 in the top row, 628 under it and 0 in the last row. The regions that require the minimum or maximum reinforcement are displayed. It can be seen that in the middle region of the plate no top reinforcement in -x direction is required from calculation, near
  72. 72. 72 the edges the minimal reinforcement is enough and in the area around the columns, the maximum reinforcement is required. To view the reinforcement needed in the area around the columns Click the Static tab. In Result Component combo box select Surface Internal Forces and click on -mxy. Set the display to Isosurface. . Section Lines Click the Section Lines Icon on the Left Icon Bar. Click the New Section Plane button, and name the section plane Column1 in the dialog window that appears: Accept the name and specify the section plane on the drawing. Select one of the column support nodes, then the other column support node.
  73. 73. 73 The following dialog window returns: Accept it with Ok. The display should be set to the Section Line. Coordinate System Switch to Z-Y plane, Select Surface Internal Forces –m1 and the moment diagram section across the columns is obtained. Let's switch off the display of section. Click the Section Lines Icon uncheck the box before Column1 and close the dialog window with Ok.
  74. 74. 74 Result Display Parameters Click the Result Display Parameter Icon, and uncheck the boxes in the Write Values To panel. Switch to perspective view, then set the display mode to Isosurface 3d. The Color Legend window should be set to –10 max value. The following picture appears, which shows the internal moments in the -x direction.
  75. 75. 75 4. MEMBRANE MODEL 4.1. Preprocessing with surface elements Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the AxisVM folder, found on the Desktop, or in the Start, Programs Menu. New Create a new model with the New Icon. In the dialog window that pops up, replace the Model Filename with “Membrane 1”. Select the Design Code. Click Ok. Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the internal forces and reinforcements of the following wall structure. Assume the wall thickness is 200 mm, the concrete is of C20/25, and the reinforcement is B500A computed according to Eurocode-2. The first step is to create the geometry of structure. Coordinate System In the lower left corner of the graphics area is, in blue color, the coordinate system beginning point marked with a blue X. The coordinate system view can be changed from the Icons Menu with the Views Icon. Move the cursor over that icon and the following icon bar is displayed:
  76. 76. 76 The vertical upward direction is taken as the positive Z direction. It has relevance for the direction of gravitational force. If the view is not already in Z-X plane, switch to it. Geometry If not already selected, activate the Geometry tab, under which the Geometry Toolbar is displayed. Quad/Triangle Division The geometry of the wall is created with the Quad/Triangle Division Icon. Hold down the left mouse button to display the sub-menu. Click on the first Icon on the left and the following dialog window is displayed: To create the upper part enter N1=20, N2=8. Close the dialog window with Ok. Now you have to specify the corners of the Quad. They can be specified graphically or by entering the coordinates. Lets enter them with coordinates : To enter the first corner, Type in the following sequence of keys: X=0 Y=0 Z=3, Enter Specify the relative coordinates of the next corners in a similar way. Type in the following sequence of keys : X=12 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0 Y=0 Z=3, Enter X=-12 Y=0 Z=0, Enter
  77. 77. 77 Exit from drawing quads by pressing Esc. The following Drawing is displayed: Quad/Triangle Division The pillars are created in a similar way. Click the Quad/Triangle Divison Icon. Enter the following values: N1=3, N2=6 Close the dialog window with Ok. Now you have to specify the corners of the Quad. Type in the following sequence of keys : X=0 Y=0 Z=-6, Enter X=1 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0.8 Y=0 Z=3, Enter X=-1.8 Y=0 Z=0, Enter Exit from drawing quads by pressing Esc. The following drawing is displayed: Mirror Create the other pillar by mirroring the first one with respect to the center of structure (X=6). Click the Mirror Icon. The Selection Icon Bar is displayed:
  78. 78. 78 Select with a selection window all nodes of the pillar. The selected elements will be highlighted. Finish the selection with Ok and the following dialog window will be displayed: Set Mirror: Copy, Nodes to connect: None, Copy: All. Now you have to specify the mirror plane. First select the middle point of the bottom line of the upper part, then select any point vertically above it.
  79. 79. 79 The following drawing is displayed: The geometry of the wall has been successfully created. Zoom Let's zoom to the structure. Move the cursor over the Zoom Icon on the Icons Menu. The Zoom Icon Bar pops up. Fit in Window Click the Fit In Window Icon. Geometry Check In the top icon bar, Click the Geometry Check Icon to check for possible duplicate entries. In the dialog window displayed the tolerance for merging the nodes can be specified. If the distance between two nodes is less than the value you enter they respective nodes will be merged. Enter .001.
  80. 80. 80 Click OK and a check summary is displayed when completed. Elements The next step is to create the finite elements. Activate the Elements tab. Surface Elements Click the Surface Elements Icon. After selecting All elements the following dialog window is displayed: Set the type of the element to Membrane(plane stress). Material Library Import Click the Material Library Import Icon. The following dialog window is displayed: Select C25/30 from the Materials list, then accept it with Ok. Thickness Enter(type) in the Thickness edit box 200 [mm], then close the dialog window with Ok.
  81. 81. 81 The surface elements have been created. Display Options To view the local coordinate system of the surface elements click on the Display Options Icon on the Icons Menu in the left side. The following dialog window is displayed: Check the Surface box in the Local Systems panel. Accept the change with Ok. If the Mesh, Node, Surface Center is switched on among the Graphics Symbols, it is visible that the program uses 9-node membrane elements. These 9 nodes are the corners, middpoints and center point of surface element. If you move the cursor on the surface center symbol (a filled square), a hint window is displayed with the property of the surface element: its tag, material, thickness, mass and references, as shown in the next drawing:
  82. 82. 82 The red line shows the x axis of the local coordinate system, the yellow one the y axis and the green one the z axis. Line Support To create the supports click on the Line Support Icon and select the bottom lines of the pillars with a selection box. Finish the selection with Ok. The following dialog window is displayed:
  83. 83. 83 To create a pinned support use the following settings: Nodal DOF Click the Nodal DOF Icon, select all nodes with the All command and accept the selection. In the dialog window scroll to Membrane in Plane X-Z and apply it.
  84. 84. 84 4.2. Preprocessing with domains Start Start AxisVM by double-clicking the AxisVM icon in the AxisVM folder, found on the Deskto, or in the Start, Programs Menu. New Create a new model with the New Icon. In the dialog window that pops up, replace the Model Filename with “Membrane-2”. Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the internal forces and reinforcements of the following wall structure: Assume that the wall thickness is 200 mm, the concrete is of C25/30, and the reinforcement is B500A, computed according to Eurocode-2. The first step is to create the geometry of structure. Coordinate System In the lower left corner of the graphics area is the global coordinate system symbol. The positive direction is marked by the corresponding capital letter (X, Y, Z). The default coordinate system of a new model is the X-Z coordinate system. It is important to note that unless changed the gravity acts along the – Z direction.
  85. 85. 85 In a new model, the global coordinate default location of the cursor is the bottom left corner of the graphic area, and is preset to X=0, Y=0, Z=0. The location of the cursor is defined as a relative coordinate. You can change to the relative coordinate values by pressing the ‘d’ labeled button on the left of the Coordinate Window. (Hint: In the right column of the coordinate window you can specify points in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems). The origin of the relative coordinate system is marked by a thick blue X. Geometry If not already selected, activate the Geometry tab. The Geometry Toolbar is displayed: Line Press down the left mouse button while the mouse is on the Line Icon. (Note: Icons default display is to the last icon selection) The following icon sub-menu is displayed: Note: When the a line type is chosen, the Relative coordinate system automatically changes to the local system (‘d’ prefix) Polygon Select the Polygon icon, which is the second from left. When the Polygon is chosen, the Relative coordinate system automatically changes to the local system (‘d’ prefix) The polygon coordinates for the frame model can be drawn with the mouse, or by typing in their numerical values. Set the first point (node) of the polygon by typing in these entries: X=0 Y=0 Z=3 Finish specifying the first line point by pressing Enter. To enter the remaining nodes of the polygon membrane model, enter the following sequence of values: X=1 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0.8 Y=0 Z=3, Enter X=8.4 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0.8 Y=0 Z=-3, Enter
  86. 86. 86 X=1 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0 Y=0 Z=6, Enter X=-12 Y=0 Z=0, Enter X=0 Y=0 Z=-6, Enter Exit from the command by clicking Esc twice. Translate Click the Translate Icon. Select the top horizontal line and finish the selection with Ok. Choose Incremental from the Method panel, N=1, Nodes to Connect: None, then close the dialog window with Ok. Now you must specify the translation vector. Click any empty place in the Graphics Area, then type in the following sequence: X=0 Y=0 Z= -0.75, Enter The following drawing results: Elements The next step is to create the finite elements. Click the Elements tab. Domain Click the Domain Icon, then select All. Accept the selection with Ok and the following dialog window is displayed:
  87. 87. 87 Set the type of the element to Membrane (plane stress). Material Library Import Click the Material Library Import Icon and the following dialog window is displayed: Select C25/30 from the materials list, and close the dialog window with Ok. Thickness Enter(Type in) 200 [mm] as the thickness of wall , then close the dialog window with Ok.
  88. 88. 88 The following drawing results: It is easy to observe the symbol of the domain - a blue line on the inner contour of the domain. Moving the cursor over it a hint window is displayed with the properties of the domain: Domain Meshing Click the Domain Meshing Icon. Select the domain with the All command (the asterisk) and finish the selection with Ok. The following dialog window is displayed: Type in 0.75 [m] for the average mesh element size. After closing this dialog window with Ok the automatic mesh generation is started. The progress of mesh generation is shown in a window.
  89. 89. 89 After the mesh generation is completed, the following drawing is displayed: If you move the cursor on the surface center symbol (a filled square), a hint window is displayed with the property of the surface element : it's tag, material, thickness, mass and references as shown in the next drawing. Line Support The next step is to specify the supports. Click the Line support Icon. Select the bottom lines with a selection box. Accept the selection with Ok. The following dialog window is displayed:
  90. 90. 90 To create pinned support set the dialog window as shown below: Close the dialog window with Ok, and the following drawing is displayed: Nodal DOF The next (optional) step is to set the nodal degrees of freedom. Click the Nodal DOF Icon. Select all nodes with the All command, finish the selection with Ok, and in the dialog window select Membrane in plane X-Z.
  91. 91. 91 The finite elements have now been created. The next step is to apply the loads. Load Click the Loads tab. Surface Edge Load Assume a 50kN/m vertical distributed load. Click on the Surface Edge Load Icon, then select the line you have created with the translate command (the second black line from top): Finish the selection with Ok, and enter(type) in: py 50 [kn/m]:
  92. 92. 92 Press Ok and the load is applied. The following drawing is displayed: Static The next step is the analysis and postprocessing. Click the Static tab. Linear Static Analysis Click the Linear Static Analysis Icon. The model will be saved with it's current name (which is Membrane 2 in this case). A Model Save Dialog will appear if you haven’t already assigned a name for the model. Accept save and a Save dialog window appears, where you can specify the model filename and path. Calculation During the calculation the following window is visible:
  93. 93. 93 Click the Details button to view the details of calculation: The topmost label shows the current computation step, and the bar below it shows its progress. The second bar shows the global progress of computation. The estimated memory requirement shows the estimated virtual memory needed. If the virtual memory of the computer is set to a lower value than the needed value, an error message is displayed. When the computation has finished, the progress bars will disappear. Postprocessor Close the window with Ok. By default the postprocessor will start with the ez displacement, the display mode will be isoline. You will see the vertical displacements. Display Options For a clearer view, switch off the display of Loads. Click the Display Options Icon, and uncheck the Load box. Fit in Window Click on the Fit in Window Icon. The following drawing results: Click the Result Component combo box (the one showing ez[mm] and select nx from Surface Internal Forces.
  94. 94. 94 Min/Max Value To find the location of maximum internal force. Click the Min, Max Value Icon. The following dialog window is displayed: Here you can select the component you are interested in. Accept nx by clicking Ok. A dialog window will show the value and location of the negative maximum. Click Ok and another window is displayed showing the location and value of positive maximum.
  95. 95. 95 The color regions are delimited by the values in the Color Legend Window. You can change the number of colors by dragging the handle beside the level number edit box or entering a new value. Color Legend Setup Window To find the ranges with a normal force larger than -100 kN/m, Click on the values in the Color Legend Window. In the Color Legend Setup dialog window check Auto Interpolate, then click on the bottom value in the left column, and replace – 331.62 with -100. Close the dialog window with OK, and the new ranges will be applied. The following drawing results:
  96. 96. 96 The regions with a normal force greater then -100 are hatched. Isoline View the internal forces in Isoline display mode. Click the Display Mode combo box (the one which displays Isosurface 2D) and select Isoline from the list. The isoline drawing is shown below: View the internal forces of the supports. Select rz from Line Support Internal Forces in the Result Component combo box. Result Display Parameters Click the Result Display Parameters Icon, and the following dialog window is displayed. Check the Lines box in the Write Values To panel and set the Display Mode to Diagram
  97. 97. 97 Close the dialog window with Ok and the values of support forces is displayed on the screen: R.C. Design The next step is to calculate the reinforcement. Click the R.C. Design tab: Click on the Reinforcement Parameters Icon, and select all surface elements with the All command. Complete the selection with OK, and the following dialog window is displayed:
  98. 98. 98 Close the dialog window with OK and the axb diagram is displayed: The area of reinforcement in the x direction is the sum of the axt and axb values.
  99. 99. 99 5. SHELL MODEL Start To run the program click AxisVM 8 icon in the AxisVM folder on the Desktop. New Create a new model by clicking the New icon or File / New from the menu. Enter ‘Reservoir’ into the Model Filename field and into the first line of the Page Header. Select Front View from the left toolbar and select Eurocode as Design Code.: Job definition Determine the specific forces and the amount of reinforcement for the following reservoir filled with water. Thickness of the walls and the baseplate is 250 mm, ribs on the upper edge are 30x60s. The structure is made of C25/30 concrete and B500B rebars. Use Eurocode 2. Settings Use Settings / Options / Grid & Cursor… to open the following dialog:
  100. 100. 100 Replace each value under Cursor Step by 0.2 to ensure that the mouse cursor moves in 0.2 m steps so you avoid geometric imperfections while drawing the model. Now you create the geometry using enhanced editing functions. Geometry Click the Geometry tab under the menu getting to the geometry toolbar: Polygon The third icon from the left is Polygon. Click the mouse left button on it to draw a polygon. First we draw the reservoir wall in X-Z plane. Choose the global origin as the origin of the polygon. It is on the bottom left at the intersection of a horizontal and a vertical brown line representing the global X and Z axes. The blue x shows the current origin of the editing coordinate-system. Relative coordinate- To enter further polygon vertices choose the relative coordinate- system (relative to the blue x). Turn on relative coordinates by
  101. 101. 101 system clicking the d button. If this button is down the relative coordinates are displayed and coordinates have a d prefix. If this button is up global coordinates are displayed. Move the mouse cursor to the following locations and click once to enter each vertex: 11.0 right and 0.2 down, down 0.4, right 1.0, up 3.6, left 12.0, down 3.0 (or by keyboard: x 11 z –0,2 [Enter] z –0.4 [Enter] x 1 [Enter] z 3.6 [Enter] x –12 [Enter] z –3 [Enter]). Double-click at the last vertex to quit the drawing function. Now you have this: Translation Use the Translation icon on the Icon bar on the left to create the geometry of the reservoir in space. The Selection palette appears: Select all lines by pressing the Gray* on the keyboard or the fourth icon on the toolbar. Selected elements turn purple. Click the OK button to accept the selection and you get to the Translate dialog. Select the Incremental method, N=1, and All nodes to connect. Click OK to close the dialog.
  102. 102. 102 Change view Select the icon on the left from the toolbar and the X-Y plane or press [Ctrl+2] Now specify the translation vector. Its base point can be anywhere and set its endpoint using relative coordinates to get to this point: Change view Select the icon on the left from the toolbar and click the Perspective view (or press Ctrl+4): The perspective palette appears: The cursor changes to show that you can drag and rotate the model to set a new perspective. Rotate it to get to the following settings or enter these H, V, P values: Close the palette by clicking any of the two small x button. Fit in window To see the entire structure click the Zoom icon on the left toolbar and choose Fit in window: Numbering Move the cursor to the bottom right corner anf find the Numbering icon among the speed buttons!
  103. 103. 103 Here you can turn numbering on or off. Turn on the check box before Node and node numbers appear immediately. Translation (move) To shape up the grip slope move the line between Node 3 and 4 down by 0.2 m. Drag a selection rectangle around Node 3 and 4: All elements within the rectangle will be selected (Node 3, Node 4 and the line between them). Move the cursor onto the selected line and start dragging it. Now you have to specify the translation vector. Select the Special constraints icon from the Icon bar on the left and choose the second icon from the flyout toolbar. Click the vertical line between Node 4 and 5. Now you have applied a parallel constraint: the translation vector will be parallel to the vertical line. Move the line between Node 3 and 4 down. To specify the exact distance type Z to get to the dZ coordiante edit field and type –0.2 [Enter]. Geometry Check To check the model geo- metry use the Geometry Check. Here you can set the tole- rance. If two nodes are closer than this distance they will automatically be joined. After clicking OK a check report will appear: Elements Clicking the Elements tab you can specify the element types, material properties, cross-sections and references determining
  104. 104. 104 local systems of the elements. Reference point The local system of finite elements can be set by references. In this example a reference point is used to define the orientation of the local Z direction on the plane normal and a reference plane to define the in-plane X and Y axes. Click the reference point icon then click the midside point of the line between Node 5 and 11. To locate the midside point move the cursor along the line and check if the cursor shape changes from ’/’ to ’ ½’. Numbering Move the cursor over the Numbering button on the speed button toolbar. Turn on the Reference check box. Now an „R1” label appears beside the reference symbol. Reference plane To set the local system of domains create a reference plane. Click the icon on the Elements toolbar. You need three points to define the plane. Click Node 6, click anywhere on the line between Node 1 and 2 then click Node 1. You get this: Domains Define a domain to create structural surface elements. Click the Domain icon. The Selection palette appears. Click on the following lines to select domain contours: 6 – 6; 6 – 1; → Rectangle 6 – 1 – 7 – 12 is automatically selected 1 – 7; 7 – 8; 8 – 2; 2 – 1 11 – 10; 10 – 4; → Rectangle 11 – 10 – 4 – 5 is automatically selected Click OK on the Selection palette. You get to the Domains dialog.
  105. 105. 105 Material Library Import Click the Material Library Import button to select a material: Select C25/30. The list on the right displays the material properties. Click OK. Thickness Enter 250 into the edit field Thickness[mm]. Reference Set the local x reference to R2: Local z reference will be Auto. Click OK to close the dialog. You will see a green contour along the domain boundary showing the shape of the domain. The color depends on the element type. Shell domains always have a green contour. Local systems Turn on the display of local systems clicking the Local systems speed button in the bottom right toolbar. Domains Define another structural surface element the same way. Click the Domain icon. The Selection palette appears. Click on the following lines to select domain contour:
  106. 106. 106 8 – 9; 9 – 3; → Polygon 8 – 9 – 3 – 2 is automatically selected. Click OK on the Selection palette. You get to the Domains dialog. Choose Shell as element type, 250 mm as Thickness, R2 as Local x reference, R1 as Local z reference and click OK. Domains Define the remaining structural surface elements the same way. Click the Domain icon. The Selection palette appears. Click on the following lines to select domain contours: 11 – 10; 10 – 9; → Polygon 11 – 10 – 9 – 8 – 7 – 12 is automatically selected. 9 – 10; 10 – 4; 4 – 3; → Rectangle 9 – 10 – 4 – 3 is automatically selected. 5 – 4; 4 – 3; 3 – 2; 2 – 1; → Polygon 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 is automatically selected. Click OK on the Selection palette. You get to the Domains dialog. Define a shell domain with a thickness of 250 mm but this time with Auto references and click OK. You get the following: Speed buttons Turn off Numbering / Node and Local systems using speed buttons. Line elements To define ribs on the upper edges click Line elements on the Elements toolbar. The Selection palette appears. Press the [Shift] key and click on the 4 edges. Click OK on the Selection palette. You get to the Line elements dialog.
  107. 107. 107 Cross-section Editor A borda keresztmetszetének megadásához aktiváljuk a Szelvény felirat mellett jobbra elhelyezked• Szelvényszerkeszt• funkciót! A következ• ablak jelenik meg: Rectangular shape To define a 30 x 60 rectangular shape click the Rectangular shape icon on the toolbar. Type 300 into the b[mm] edit field and 600 into h[mm] then click the Place button.
  108. 108. 108 You get back to the main window. Click anywhere to place the shape. The cross-section 1st and 2nd principal direction, center of gravity and other cross-sectionn parameters are displayed within the property info window. Click More parameters to see all parameters calculated automatically by a finite element analysis of the cross-section. Click OK to close the Cross-section Editor then enter 30*60 as the name of the cross- section. Click OK again. You get back to the Line Elements dialog. Enter –175 mm as Eccentricity then click OK. Rib centerlines are displayed as blue lines and a grey diagram shows the actual cross-section. Move the cursor over a rib and wait for the tooltip to appear displaying element properties: Rendered view Move the cursor over the View mode icon on the Icon bar on the left. A flyout toolbar appears. Select the rightmost icon to choose Rendered view. This way you can check element definitions.
  109. 109. 109 Rotate view Click the Rotate view icon on the Zoom toolbar at the bottom left corner of the main window. Drag the model to rotate it. A special Rotation toolbar appears. You can control the way view rotation works by selecting from the options. Press the [Esc] key or close the Rotation toolbar by clicking the x button to quit view rotation. View undo Select View undo from the Zoom toolbar. Fit in view Click this icon to make the drawing fill the window. Wireframe Select Wireframe from the view mode flyout toolbar. Surface support To define supports for the structure click the Surface support icon on the Elements toolbar. The Selection palette appears. Click the two non-vertical domains. Click OK on the Selection toolbar. You get to the support definition dialog. Set Rx and Ry to 1E3 and click OK.
  110. 110. 110 You get this: Loads To define loads click the Loads tab. Load cases and load groups To define load cases and load groups click Load cases and load groups icon on the Loads toolbar. You get to this dialog:
  111. 111. 111 Click on the selected load case to rename it to ’Self Weight’. Click OK to close the dialog. Self weight To define self weight click the Self weight icon. On the Selection palette click the Select all (asterisk) icon or press gray * on the keyboard. Click OK to close the Selection palette. Dashed lines along the domain contours represent the self weight. Moving the cursor to a domain you get a tooltip like this: Static Load Case To create another load case click the Load cases and load groups icon on the Loads toolbar and click the Static button in the New Case group box. Enter ’Water’ as the name of the new load case in the tree view. Click OK to close the dialog. Fluid loads To define the water load click the Fluid loads icon. On the Selection palette click the Select all (asterisk) icon or press gray * on the keyboard. Click OK to close the Selection palette. To define water level 30 cm under the top edge of the reservoir change Z1 [m]=3.000 to 2.7, and set the bottom pressure value to –35 (pressure is in the negative local z direction) and click OK:
  112. 112. 112 You get this: Load combinations To create laod combinations click the Load combinations icon. You get to the load combinations table in the Table Browser. New row To create a new combination click the New row icon then enter 1.35 into the Self-Weight column and 1.00 into the Water column. Use [Tab] or [Enter] to jump to the next cell. Click OK to close the dialog. Speed buttons Turn off the Load display using the speed button and turn off Supports and Reference from the Graphic symbols flyout. Mesh generation To create finite element mesh click the Mesh tab.
  113. 113. 113 Click the Domain meshing icon. On the Selection palette click the Select all (asterisk) icon or press gray * on the keyboard. Click OK to close the Selection palette. Use Uniform mesh size and set Average Mesh Element Size to 0.600 m and click OK to close the dialog. You get a visual feedback on the meshing process. After completing you get the following: Green points at the center of surface elements is the symbol of shell centerpoints. Moving the mouse over a centerpoint you get a tooltip information on the element and the domain.
  114. 114. 114 Now we entered all properties necessary to analyse the model. Static To run the analysis and display the results click the Static tab. Linear analysis Click Linear static analysis to run the linear analysis. You get to the dialog which gives you a feedback on the process of the analysis. Click Details to know more about it. You can see the actual steps of the calculation. The first bar shows the actual progress of the current step while the second one displays the overall progress of the analysis. The Estimated Memory Requirement shows the necessary amount of memory to run the analysis. If this value is higher than the available physical memory AxisVM uses the hard disk to swap memory blocks during the calculation. If the system of equations fits into the physical memory the calculation is considerably faster. At the end of the analysis you see the following
  115. 115. 115 Click OK to close the dialog. You get to the Static tab, displaying the Self Weight load case and eZ (i.e. vertical displacements due to the self weight). Numbering Click the Numbering speed button and turn on Write Values to Surfaces and Min./Max. only. To see the result for the Water load case click the dropdown button of the combo box displaying Self Weight and select Water. You can change the result component the similar way. Parts To hide the front wall of the reservoir create a part. Click the Parts icon on the Icon bar on the left. You get to the Parts dialog. Define a part containing everything but the front wall. Click New and specify the name as WithoutFront.
  116. 116. 116 Change view Select the X-Y view from the flyout toolbar or press [Ctrl+2]. On the Selection palette click the Select all (asterisk) icon or press gray * on the keyboard. The first button of the palette (Add entities to the selection) comes up and the second one (Remove entities from the selection) goes down showing that the selection mode has been changed. Scroll the model left or zoom out a bit (use the mouse wheel or [Grey -]) and deselect the front wall. Click OK to close the Selection palette then click OK in the Parts dialog. The Info Window shows that there is an active part: View Undo Undo the view (or select Perspective view by [Ctrl+4]) and you will see that now the front wall is hidden.
  117. 117. 117 Min, max To determine the extreme values of the horizontal displacements click the Min, max icon. You get to a dialog (on the right). Select eY and close the dialog. First the minimum value of eY appears near the selected node which is the location where the extreme can be found. If you click OK or press [Enter], you get to the maximum eY location. Display Parameters Select the load combination (Co. #1) and the eR resultant displacement. Click the Display Parameters icon, set Display Shape to Deformed, Display Mode to Diagram and Scale By to 2. Go to the bottom of the screen, turn the Mesh Display speed button on, and change display mode on the Icon bar to Hidden line removal. Rotation Use the bottom left toolbar to activate the interactive rotation and check the deformed shape.
  118. 118. 118 Change view Color Legend Select the X-Z view from the flyout toolbar or press [Ctrl+1]. In the Display Parameters dialog set Display Shape to Undeformed, Display Mode to Isosurface 2D and Scale By to 1. Choose mx result component from the Surface Internal Forces category of the dropdown tree. Go to the bottom of the screen, turn the Mesh Display speed button off. Test different number of color levels by dragging the bottom of the Color Legend window. If we set 11 colors first then 29 we get the following drawings: Now choose my result component. Section To show this component in a section click the Section icon on the Icon bar. To define a new section plane click the New section plane button in the dialog and enter 1 as the name of the section plane.
  119. 119. 119 A section plane can be defined by two points in side, front of top view. Being in front view click the rib at 6.000 m and enter the second point somewhere under the first on a vertical line (e.g. typing z –3 [Enter]). You get back to the Section Lines dialog. Click OK. Change view Numbering Select the Y-Z side view from the flyout toolbar or press [Ctrl+3]. Click Numbering speed button and turn on Write Values to Lines. You get the following diagram:
  120. 120. 120 Speed buttons Turn off Sections clicking its speed button at the bottom. Change view Select the perspective view from the flyout toolbar or press [Ctrl+4]. Choose Rz from Surface Support Internal Forces and set Isoline display style with 22 levels. Turn on Write Values To Surfaces. R. C. Design To determine the required amount of reinforcement click the R. C. Design tab Vasalási paraméterek To define surface reinforcement parameters click the Reinforcement parameters icon. On the Selection palette click the Select all (asterisk) icon or press gray * on the keyboard. Click OK to close the Selection palette. In the Surface Re- inforcement Para- meters dialog set Concrete to B500B and change xtop and xbottom to 45 mm. Click OK to close the dialog. Gyorspaletta Turn off Write Values To Line and Surface by clicking the Numbering speed button. We get this for axb (required amount of reinforcement in local x direction at the bottom of the elements (top and bottom are defined by the local z coordinate)
  121. 121. 121 Also check components in other directions and positions: axt, ayb, ayt. Reinforced Beam Design To determine the required amount of reinforcement in concrete beams click the Beam Reinforcement Calculation icon. The Selection palette appears. Click one of the ribs on the longer walls and click OK on the palette. You get a warning message: Close the dialog and you get to the Beam Reinforcement window displaying the structural model of the beam, the bending moment, shear force and torsional force distribution.
  122. 122. 122 Beam Parameters Click Beam Parameters to specify the design properties. Click the icon of the rectangular cross-section and click OK. You get the required amount of reinforcement and stirrup distance.
  123. 123. 123
  124. 124. 124 Notes
  125. 125. 125 Notes

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