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  1. 1. Schizoid Personality Disorder A schizophrenia spectrum disorder Kacey Ceder South Puget Sound Community College
  2. 2. The Disorder <ul><li>Schizoid Personality Disorder is categorized under “odd” personality disorders or “Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders” </li></ul><ul><li>People who suffer from Schizoid Personality Disorder avoid social relationships and show very little emotion. They do not desire to have any close relationships because they avoid social contact. Just because they generally like to be alone. They tend to just care and worry about themselves. They are unaffected by praise or criticism, they have no need for attention. People view them as “cold, humorless, or dull” (Comer 2009). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychoanalytic <ul><li>Theorists believe that this disorder develops from unsatisfied need for human contact. Their parents are believed to have been unaccepting, neglective, or abusive of their children. People with this disorder are unable to give or receive love. (Comer 2009) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cognitive <ul><li>Theorists believe that Schizoids suffer from deficiencies in their thinking. Their thoughts are vague and empty and they have bad observation skills. They can’t pick up any emotional signals from other people and don’t respond to emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theorist predict that children with this disorder will develop their language skills very slowly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Trait <ul><li>Suffers of Schizoid PD have significantly low scores on the NEO–PI–R. It appears as though anyone suffering doesn’t score above a 40% in any area of the test. Neuroticism 31%, extraversion 5.5%, openness 28.5, agreeableness 13.5%, and conscientiousness 11% </li></ul><ul><li>This shows the apparent lack of emotion, desire, and social needs people with SPD have. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biological <ul><li>It’s believed that SPD derives itself from schizophrenia since it has a lot of similar symptoms. People with this personality disorder commonly have relatives with schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>There has not been much success in determining the causes of this disorder </li></ul><ul><li>It’s common for a person with a personality disorder to develop an Axis I disorder as well, “a relationship called comorbidity ” (Comer 2008). A personality disorder will complicate someone’s ability to recover from psychological problems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Humanistic <ul><li>Empathy is an important part of human behavior and people with SPD generally lack empathy. “People with schizoid personality disorder have been described as unable to experience social warmth or to have deep feelings for others…They may struggle to understand morality and they may sometimes harm others” (Smith 2006) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment <ul><li>Treatment is very difficult and there are not very many options. Many psychiatrists believe it to be out of their expertise and/or untreatable ( </li></ul><ul><li>People with SPD have a hard time becoming emotionally close to their therapists. Sometimes therapy helps suffers to experience more positive feelings and have better social interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug therapy is also administered but has limited help. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critique <ul><li>Honestly, there wasn’t much information around on the disorder, but primarily the generalized schizophrenia spectrum disorder category. All of the theories seem to be saying the same thing, and not many causes are underlined aside from being derived from schizophrenia itself and lack of social interactions in childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t really have any disadvantages to list because I was lucky just to find information on the subject. All the research I found was grouped with other disorders. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Discuss <ul><li>My thoughts and opinions would have to be that there really does need to be more information and resources for people who suffer from this disorder. People need to be helped because social interaction is very vital part of life. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s definitely unfortunate that some of us have to go through life without feeling or being positive. </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Adam Smith.  (2006). COGNITIVE EMPATHY AND EMOTIONAL EMPATHY IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION.  The Psychological Record,   56 (1), 3-21.  Retrieved May 20, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 982379251). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Akhtar, S. (1987). Schizoid Personality Disorder: A Synthesis of Developmental, Dynamic, and Descriptive Features. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 41 (4), 499. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Arash Javanbakht.  (2006). Was the myth of narcissus misinterpreted by freud? Narcissus, a model for schizoid-histrionic, not narcissistic, personality disorder.  American Journal of Psychoanalysis,   66 (1), 63-71.  Retrieved May 20, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1027336791). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Burger, Jerry M.  (2008). Personality. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Comer, R.J. (2008). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology . New York: Worth </li></ul><ul><li>Davidson, D.. (2009). NEGATIVE COUNTER-TRANSFERENCE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY OF PERSONALITY DISORDER.  Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis,   17 (1), 62-82,184.  Retrieved May 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1743736271). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>KENDLER, K., MYERS, J., TORGERSEN, S., NEALE, M., & REICHBORN-KJENNERUD, T.. (2007). The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire.  Psychological Medicine,   37 (5), 655.  Retrieved May 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1252883091). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Kosson, D., Blackburn, R., Byrnes, K., Park, S., Logan, C., & Donnelly, J. (2008). Assessing Interpersonal Aspects of Schizoid Personality Disorder: Preliminary Validation Studies. Journal of Personality Assessment , 90 (2), 185-196. doi:10.1080/00223890701845427. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Roberts, D. (1997). Differential interventions in psychotherapy of borderline, narcissistic, and schizoid personality disorders: the Masterson approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy , 4 (4), 233-245. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ross, S., Lutz, C., & Bailley, S. (2002). Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizotypy and the Five-Factor Model: A Domain and Facet Level Analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(1), 53-72. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Kavaler-Adler.  (2004). Anatomy of Regret: A Developmental View of the Depressive Position and a Critical Turn Toward Love and Creativity in the Transforming Schizoid Personality.  American Journal of Psychoanalysis,   64 (1), 39-76.  Retrieved May 20, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 817356251). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Thylstrup, B., & Hesse, M. (2009). &quot;I am not Complaining&quot;--Ambivalence Construct in Schizoid Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 63 (2), 147-167. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul>