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Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
Marketing- Macroenvironment
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Marketing- Macroenvironment

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  • my teacher give me an assignemnt of to doing micro and macro environmetn and to chose some organazation and working abt in this two environment so how can i work this please give me some advice to in my e-mail address and give me some notes linatilahun@gmail.com thanks for every thing
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  • 1. SOCIO ECONOMICTRENDSMACRO ENVIRONMENTForces that shape opportunities and posethreats to a company
  • 2. Macro Environment Demographics Economic Technology Political/Legal Natural The CulturalEnvironment company
  • 3. Natural Environment• Natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities • water, forests, oil, coal, minerals• As resources become more scarce, costs increase
  • 4. Natural Environment Changes in response to environment:  biodegradable packs, charges for packets, Wellness Warehouse, Backsberg wine/carbon-neutral, PET bottle Major drivers that affect Marketing  Consumer driven e.g. lobby groups, blogs, esp overseas  Formal media, e,g, Carte Blanche, newspapers, Al Gore’s “Inconvenient Truth”  Government intervention e.g. pollution laws, legislation for environmental reviews for new developments  Note : Corporations CAN be proactive, but tend to be reactive; change is costly
  • 5. Technological environment• Forces that create new technologies, create new product and marketing opportunities • And change the way we market and communicate with customers
  • 6. Internet changes the way consumers…• …engage with each other and brands • Facebook, twitter• ... communicate • Led by consumers, not marketers!• …make purchasing decisions • Research • Peer reviews
  • 7. Technological environment: issues Rapid pace of change High R&D cost/High Risk  Invest in human resources or fall behind  Invest in infrastructure or massive repercussions ▪ SA and internet  Marketing often partnered with R&D to ensure commercial value (flying pigs, space colonies) Not always needs-driven  Often create the need – iphone, ipad Government regulation? (privacy?) Well managed, technology can offer huge competitive advantage – SCM, POS Focus increasingly on on-going adaptation rather than macro change .. Apple iphone/ipad
  • 8. POLITICAL/LEGALENVIRONMENT
  • 9. Political Environment• Laws, governments, agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organisations and individuals in a given society.
  • 10. Political environment• South Africa has stable political environment• Rule of law is respected and upheld• Many countries do not have this benefit• Corruption may drive marketing successes/failures
  • 11. Political- Legal environment Public policy to guide commerce - sets of laws and regulations that limit business for the good of society at large Increasing legislation  Protect firms ▪ Competition Act ▪ Occupational Health and Safety  Protect consumers ▪ National Gambling Act Legislation ▪ New Credit Act affects strategy ▪ Tobacco Products Control Act  Protect the interests of society ▪ Lotteries Act
  • 12. Legal environment• Not all laws are written• Social codes and professional ethics• Socially Responsible Behaviour • Do the right thing• Cause related marketing • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR • Doing well by doing good
  • 13. Legal Environment• Advertising Standards • The Advertising Standards Authority of South Africa (also known as the ASA) is an independent body to ensure that its system of self-regulation works in the public interest. • Protect children from certain forms of advertising • Protect companies from unfair competition • Body to maintain fair business
  • 14. Economic environment• Factors that affect consumer buying power and patterns
  • 15. Economic Environment GDP growth (6.0% in 2006; now 3.5%), GINI coefficient ESKOM!!  increasing costs for everyone, declining productivity Increase in fuel price Disposable income, Currency strength, cost of imported goods vs local manufacture; impact of oil price:  food, airfares, car usage, car sales, taxi industry, food inflation variations Recession
  • 16. Demographic environment• Demography • The study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation and other statistics
  • 17. Demographic Environmental Factors• South Africa COMPLEX! Characterised by • Young age profile (pyramid) but note the importance of Prime Timers (over 40’s) • Prevalence of single-parent households/ extended families • High mortality rates • HIV • Rural Urban • Income diversity (Gini Coefficient)
  • 18. Changing Demographics• On the subject of Marriage • Divorcing or separating • Choosing not to marry • Choosing to marrying later • Marrying without intending to have children • Having children and not marrying
  • 19. Cultural environment• Consists of institutions and other forces that affect a society’s basic values, perceptions and behaviours • Culture of working, getting married, abiding by the rule of law, being a good person, caring about others • Arabic, Indian, China, Europe, Africa • Marriage (who?when?how?multiple?roles?)• RSA is a multi cultural country • often segmentation also coincides with cultural differences • Language/religion/age/gender• Culture is hard to define • Kalk Bay versus Seapoint vs Durbanville vs Blouberg • Soccer fans vs Rugby fans • Teenagers versus over 35’s
  • 20. How do we incorporate Macro issues intomarketing strategy? We need to know and understand them and appreciate their immediate and long term impact  recession and buyer behaviour We need to use them to our advantage  refocusing on needs and character of new Black Middle Class We need to find ways of turning changes to our advantage  Dubai world Crisis – rise of Second hand sales We need to identify trends which are Macro environmentally driven  consumer attitudes towards ecology as Woolworths has done.
  • 21. Examples of Macro trends Faith Popcorn http://www.faithpopcorn.com/ 99 Lives – wearing different hats/taking on lots of roles Anchoring Atmosfear Being alive Cashing out –opting for simpler more meaningful lives Clanning Cocooning: creating a safe environment at home/preferring home than going out Downaging Egonomics – crave recognition as individuals Eve-olution –more relational society Fanatsy adventure Icon toppling Pleasure revenge Small indulgences – wanting to reward ourselves Vigilante consumer SOS (Save our Society)
  • 22. RISE OF THE INFORMALSECTOR
  • 23. Rise of the informal sector in RSA Macro Factors  Exclusive, discriminatory laws e.g. Group Areas Act, Job Reservation Act, Education policies  Political Reaction .. Unrest in 1986; stayaways, boycott of white- owned businesses, withdrawal of traditional retailers from”black areas”, disenchantment with white owned businesses (no opportunities) Lot of red tape to start a formal business  Limited access to capital and credit  High unemployment  Massive urbanisation as influx laws are scrapped  Limited education opportunities
  • 24. Growth of informal sector• Consumer needs• Societal support• Evolution of unique structure • Stokvels/burial societies/investment clubs, shebeens, spaza’s
  • 25. What is a spaza? It’s an informal retail outlet, usually selling essential, often perishable groceries Stay open for long, appropriate hours, staffed by owner’s family Located in townships Usually offer informal credit Typically sell top-up, replenishments Strong child customer base Sell top brands, often in small packs Now under pressure .. Having to compete with formal retailers who are now moving into townships, but still are relevant, particularly in very poor areas
  • 26. What is a stokvel? A group of people – usually 12… Who come together to save, invest for common purpose Requires commitment.. Monthly.. Which is then redistributed  Either on a full payout monthly rotation  Or split at end of year (or biannually) Have a strong social context Types  Investment cartels ▪ Often increase savings by 30% by loaning out stokvel funds  Saving schemes ▪ Burial societies ▪ Christmas, back-to-school savings schemes

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