Locating social media
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  • Beliefs, interests and affiliation

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  • 1. Locating Social Media
    BasuMallickKoustav
    Choo Jun Lin Darren
    Chua JiaHwa
    Goh Yong-Qin Darrel
    Tan Jun Jie
    1
  • 2. Agenda
    Image: http://socialnomics.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/social-media-ball.jpg
    2
  • 3. Definitions
    Media Technology
    e.g. internet, phone, TV
    1st order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
    Final meaning of the media technology develops through their actual use and social function of the technology
    3
  • 4. Definitions
    Media form
    e.g. SMS, email, blog
    2nd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
    Constructed from media technologies
    Result of interrelations between technology and function within everyday lives
    4
  • 5. Definitions
    Genres
    e.g. personal blog, travel blog, food blog
    3rd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
    More specific types of the same media form
    Socially implemented characteristics
    5
  • 6. AS SUCH…
    Same technologies can be used for both interpersonal and mass communication
    6
  • 7. Characteristics
    Mass Media
    Personal Media
    Accessible by many
    Reproduced/broadcasted to many
    Asymmetrical involvement
    Less element of social interaction
    Institutional/professional content
    Function system
    Accessible by few
    Reproduced/broadcasted to few
    Symmetrical involvement
    More element social interaction
    De-institutional/De-professional content
    Non-function system
    7
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 8. Personal and mass media today is blurred
    Features shared with mass media:
    Accessibility
    Reproduction of content
    Role of users and producers
    8
  • 9. Interaction
    Face to face, mediated and quasi-mediated interaction
    Blurring between mass communication and interpersonal communication
    Convergence
    Mediated and quasi-mediated as a continuum
    9
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 10. Network structures
    Networks facilitated by personal media differs from mass media (Luder, 2008)
    But some aspect may have changed due to digitalization
    Amount of time, emotional intensity, intimacy and reciprocal services
    Strong ties = complex patterns of media use
    Higher frequency and more media used
    Mass communication produces weak ties
    But more complicated with the use of personal media within mass media
    10
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 11. Example
    Latent ties
    May connect formerly unconnected others
    Turned into weak ties when interaction occurs
    Strong ties
    Look for new and more media to communicate
    Communication processes migrate to personal media arenas
    Shifting from latent to weak to strong tie
    11
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 12. Users as producers
    Egalitarian
    Not mundane
    Political agendas not the most important motivational factor
    Pro-sumers
    Meeting of consumption and production technologies
    12
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 13. “‘Anyone’ becomes qualified to be a media producer and is likely to have an audience to their productions”
    Encouraged by key actors in the mass media industry
    But institutional setting of the mass media influences how user-created content is filtered and screened for publishing
    13
    Users as producers
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 14. The model
    2 dimensional model
    Interactional axis
    Institutional/professional axis
    Personal media
    Mediated interaction
    De-institutional/de-professionalized
    14
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 15. Institutionalized/
    Professionalized
    Symmetrical
    Asymmetrical
    De-institutional/
    De-professional content
    15
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 16. Exercise 1
    Personal webpage
    PAP Facebook fanpage
    Twitter
    YoutubeMediacorp TV
    The Straits Time
    Email
    Blog
    SMS
    Phone call
    FHM
    16
  • 17. What is Digital Culture?
    What is it?
    Emerging set of values, expectation, practices in reaction to “computer-mediated forms of production, distribution and communication”
    How it come about?
    User-elasticity of computer and Internet technology as basis for mass and personal communication
    Component
    Remediation, Participation, Bricolage
    17
    (Deuze, 2006)
  • 18. Participation
    Web 2.0 is an open structure
    Average people given the tools to archive, annotate, appropriate and re-circulate content
    Participation has political dimension
    18
    (Deuze, 2006)
  • 19. Remediation
    Remix of older and newer media
    Newer medium diverges from older media, yet also reproduces older medium
    Barrier of entry to personalizing and individualization lowered
    Incorporating subjectivity and personal opinion valued
    19
    (Deuze, 2006)
  • 20. Bricolage
    Bricoleur mixing, hybridizing materials from different sources
    Highly personalized, continuous, autonomous assembly, disassembly, reassembly of mediated reality
    Eg mash-up, CC
    Foster feeling of community, yet isolation
    20
    (Deuze, 2006)
  • 21. How Digital Culture informs shift in media usage?
    These principal components inform the way we use media
    Digital Culture “accelerates” the blurring of the line between personal media and mass media
    21
    (Deuze, 2006)
  • 22. Participation
    • Personification of Corporations
    • 23. Personal pages on SNSs
    • 24. Respond and interact with personal network
    • 25. Corporatization of Self
    • 26. Advertisement with profiles and photos
    • 27. Personal communication resembling mass communication
    Image: Facebook.com
    22
  • 28. Remediation & Bricolage
    • Remediation
    • 29. Blogs and Micro-blogs (Twitter)
    • 30. Bricolage
    • 31. Journalism: Hybridity and Hypertextuality by both Prosumers and News Centres
    • 32. Redefinition of ‘News’
    23
  • 33. Implications
    Changing modes of literacy
    Encode and decode multimodal media messages of various genres
    Multimodal: use of several semiotic and the way in which they are combined
    Social discourses multiplied
    Mass media institutions no longer exclusive storytellers with worldwide audiences
    24
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 34. Literacy and multiple discourses
    Multimodal-literacy
    Complex mix of audiovisual-textual media technologies
    Producing and deciphering meanings
    Multimodal skills in interpretation and production required
    Knowledge of intricate and multimodal resources required
    Digital divide
    25
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 35. Identity and social relations
    Notion of Identity becomes reflexive and dynamic
    Personal media used to express the senses of the self leads to increased sense of control
    Although mediated subject perceived as open and honest and close to a ‘true self’
    More symmetrical social relationships
    26
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 36. Identity and social relations
    Resulting in relationships bring constantly chosen, established, negotiated, maintained and renewed
    Personal media employed to establish and maintain social relation actively
    27
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 37. Individuals and smaller groups have the potential to describe and publish their interpretations of the world
    Result in change in power relations
    Mass media institutions no longer the only ones to produce messages for dissemination
    28
    Identity and social relations
    (Luders, 2008)
  • 38. Journalism
    The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and in radio and television broadcasts. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)
    The professional selection of actual news facts to an audience by means of technological distribution methods (Bardoel, 1997)
    29
  • 39. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern
    Shift in editorial priorities
    From hard news and investigation to “scandal-mongering…sensationalism and sentiment…masquerading in perverse guise as human interest” (Franklin, 1997)
    Shift from traditional news towards cover of leisure, style and consumer affairs and stories about entertainers (Connell, 1991)
    Technological change is blurring the distinction between journalists and non-journalists (Stephenson & Mory, 1990)
    Progress is influenced by the ability to output news multiple mediums (Ursell, 2001)
    30
  • 40. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern
    Blurred nation-state boundaries
    Multi-faceted and fragmented public
    Journalists are no more gatekeepers of information
    Change in power relations
    (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
    31
  • 41. Network journalism
    Across any/every medium, type or format
    Journalist serves as a node in a complex network
    People will be more active information-seekers on subjects they are familiar with, while seeking assistance in unfamiliar areas
    More horizontal communication instead of ‘traditional vertical paternalistic communication’
    (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
    32
  • 42. Online journalism
    4 key characteristics
    Interactivity
    Customisation of content
    Hypertextuality
    Multimediality
    (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
    33
  • 43. Independent Media Centres (IMCs)
    Indymedia
    To give activists a space where they could express their concerns, show their interests and discuss local and global issues
    2002 -> Over 80 Indymedia sites (Platon & Deuze, 2003)
    Currently -> 178 Indymedia sites (www.indymedia.org/en)
    Open Publishing
    Asia: 12
    Africa: 6
    Oceania: 12
    Europe: 61
    USA: 56
    Canada: 12
    Latin America: 19
    34
  • 44. Open Publishing
    News creation process is transparent
    Group consensus manages content
    Individuals provide, evaluate and comment on news
    Reader has influence over content production and customisation
    Interaction with content producers
    (Platon & Deuze, 2003)
    35
  • 45. Analysis and Critique
    Personal media is tended towards symmetrical communication
    This may not be true
    Could be asymmetrical
    quasi-interactional relations between producer and audience
    Social Shaping Theory: Highlights the spiraling relationship between consumers and technology and how they exist in a reciprocal relationship. This encourages the development of technology to be more human centered
    36
  • 46. Critique: Technological Determinism
    Technological determinism: Technology determinism states that technology is the prime mover in societal development. It implies that societal change is inevitably predetermined by technological innovation
    Examples:Facebook – does not allow one to show one ‘dislikes’ a commentSMS – use only 160 characters to send a text message
    37
  • 47. Critique: Social Determinism
    Social Determinism – Social interactions and constructs determine individual behaviour through the arsenal of cultural factors, social preferences, customs and expectations and interpersonal interactions. The theory focuses on the human agency and choice.
    Examples:
    • How many of you guys answered the question posted by us on Facebook?
    • 48. Initial reason for Facebook and SMS
    38
  • 49. So what is Social Media
    The use of media is shaped by:
    User’s intention
    Its usage
    Properties of the technology
    39
  • 50. So what is Social Media to You?
    Now, what is social media according to you?
    By your definition, draw a model relating social media, personal media and mass media.
    40
  • 51. Where is social media?
    The Prosumer Cycle
    The Digital Culture
    De-institutionalized
    De-professionalized
    Institutional
    Professional
    The Digital Culture
    41
  • 52. Definition
    Social Media thus is just a characteristic of the media that allows one to participate as a producer and a consumer due to the affordances brought about by digital culture.
    The model generates information and will continuously improve on itself as the cycle goes on
    This discounts people who do not have access to technology and hence cannot participate in this prosumer cycle intensifying the Digital Divide
    42
  • 53. Bardoel, Jo, Deuze, Mark, (2001). Network Journalism: Converging Competences of Media Professionals and Professionalism. Australian Journalism Review 23 (2), 91-103
    Deuze, M. (1999). Journalism and the Web: an analysis of skills and standards in an online environnent. Gazette 61 (5), 373-390.
    Deuze, M. (2001a). Understanding the Impact of the Internet: On New Media Professionalism, Mindsets and Buzzwords [online]. EJournalist 1 (1). Available: http://www.ejournalism.au.com/ejournalist/deuze.pdf.
    Deuze, M. (2006). Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture. The Information Society, 22. 63-75.
    Franklin, B. (1997) Newszak and News Media. London: Arnold.
    Luders, M. (2008). Conceptualizing personal media. SAGE Publications, 683 – 700.
    Newhagen, J.E., Rafaeli, S. (1996). Why communication researchers should study theInternet: a dialogue. Political Communication 46 (1), 4-13.
    Pavlik, J. (1997, August). The future of on-line journalism: bonanza or black hole? Columbia Journalism Review, 30-36.
    Pavlik, J. (1999). New media and news: implications for the future of journalism. New Media & Society 1 (1), 54-59.
    Stephenson, H. and P. Mory (1990) Journalism Training in Europe. Brussels: European Commission.
    Singer, J. (1998). Online Journalists: Foundations for Research Into Their Changing Roles. The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4 (1) [online]. Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol4/issue1/singer.html [1999, Oct.20].
    References
    43