Locating Social Media<br />BasuMallickKoustav<br />Choo Jun Lin Darren<br />Chua JiaHwa<br />Goh Yong-Qin Darrel<br />Tan ...
Agenda<br />Image: http://socialnomics.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/social-media-ball.jpg<br />2<br />
Definitions<br />Media Technology<br />e.g. internet, phone, TV<br />1st order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />Final me...
Definitions<br />Media form<br />e.g. SMS, email, blog<br />2nd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />Constructed from ...
Definitions<br />Genres<br />e.g. personal blog, travel blog, food blog<br />3rd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />...
AS SUCH…<br />	Same technologies can be used for both interpersonal and mass communication<br />6<br />
Characteristics<br />Mass Media<br />Personal Media<br />Accessible by many<br />Reproduced/broadcasted to many<br />Asymm...
Personal and mass media today is blurred<br />Features shared with mass media:<br />Accessibility<br />Reproduction of con...
Interaction<br />Face to face, mediated and quasi-mediated interaction  <br />Blurring between mass communication and inte...
Network structures<br />Networks facilitated by personal media differs from mass media (Luder, 2008)<br />But some aspect ...
Example<br />Latent ties<br />May connect formerly unconnected others<br />Turned into weak ties when interaction occurs<b...
Users as producers<br />Egalitarian<br />Not mundane<br />Political agendas not the most important motivational factor <br...
“‘Anyone’ becomes qualified to be a media producer and is likely to have an audience to their productions”<br />Encouraged...
The model<br />2 dimensional model<br />Interactional axis<br />Institutional/professional axis<br />Personal media<br />M...
Institutionalized/<br />Professionalized<br />Symmetrical<br />Asymmetrical<br />De-institutional/<br />De-professional co...
Exercise 1<br />Personal webpage<br />PAP Facebook fanpage<br />Twitter<br />YoutubeMediacorp TV<br />The Straits Time<br ...
What is Digital Culture?<br />What is it? <br />Emerging set of values, expectation, practices in reaction to “computer-me...
Participation<br />Web 2.0 is an open structure<br />Average people given the tools to archive, annotate, appropriate and ...
Remediation<br />Remix of older and newer media<br />Newer medium diverges from older media, yet also reproduces older med...
Bricolage<br />Bricoleur mixing, hybridizing materials from different sources<br />Highly personalized, continuous, autono...
How Digital Culture informs shift in media usage?<br />These principal components inform the way we use media<br />Digital...
Participation<br /><ul><li>Personification of Corporations
Personal pages on SNSs
Respond and interact with personal network
Corporatization of Self
Advertisement with profiles and photos
Personal communication resembling mass communication</li></ul>Image: Facebook.com<br />22<br />
Remediation & Bricolage<br /><ul><li>Remediation
Blogs and Micro-blogs (Twitter)
Bricolage
Journalism: Hybridity and Hypertextuality by both Prosumers and News Centres
Redefinition of ‘News’</li></ul>23<br />
Implications<br />Changing modes of literacy<br />Encode and decode multimodal media messages of various genres<br />Multi...
Literacy and multiple discourses<br />Multimodal-literacy<br />Complex mix of audiovisual-textual media technologies<br />...
Identity and social relations<br />Notion of Identity becomes reflexive and dynamic<br />Personal media used to express th...
Identity and social relations<br />Resulting in relationships bring constantly chosen, established, negotiated, maintained...
Individuals and smaller groups have the potential to describe and publish their interpretations of the world<br />Result i...
Journalism<br />The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and ...
Journalism: Traditional vs Modern<br />Shift in editorial priorities<br />From hard news and investigation to  “scandal-mo...
Journalism: Traditional vs Modern<br />Blurred nation-state boundaries<br />Multi-faceted and fragmented public<br />Journ...
Network journalism<br />Across any/every medium, type or format<br />Journalist serves as a node in a complex network <br ...
Online journalism<br />4 key characteristics	<br />Interactivity<br />Customisation of content<br />Hypertextuality<br />M...
Independent Media Centres (IMCs)<br />Indymedia<br />To give activists a space where they could express their concerns, sh...
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  • Beliefs, interests and affiliation
  • Locating social media

    1. 1. Locating Social Media<br />BasuMallickKoustav<br />Choo Jun Lin Darren<br />Chua JiaHwa<br />Goh Yong-Qin Darrel<br />Tan Jun Jie<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Agenda<br />Image: http://socialnomics.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/social-media-ball.jpg<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Definitions<br />Media Technology<br />e.g. internet, phone, TV<br />1st order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />Final meaning of the media technology develops through their actual use and social function of the technology<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Definitions<br />Media form<br />e.g. SMS, email, blog<br />2nd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />Constructed from media technologies<br />Result of interrelations between technology and function within everyday lives<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Definitions<br />Genres<br />e.g. personal blog, travel blog, food blog<br />3rd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)<br />More specific types of the same media form<br />Socially implemented characteristics<br />5<br />
    6. 6. AS SUCH…<br /> Same technologies can be used for both interpersonal and mass communication<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Characteristics<br />Mass Media<br />Personal Media<br />Accessible by many<br />Reproduced/broadcasted to many<br />Asymmetrical involvement<br />Less element of social interaction<br />Institutional/professional content<br />Function system<br />Accessible by few<br />Reproduced/broadcasted to few<br />Symmetrical involvement<br />More element social interaction<br />De-institutional/De-professional content<br />Non-function system<br />7<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    8. 8. Personal and mass media today is blurred<br />Features shared with mass media:<br />Accessibility<br />Reproduction of content<br />Role of users and producers<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Interaction<br />Face to face, mediated and quasi-mediated interaction <br />Blurring between mass communication and interpersonal communication<br />Convergence<br />Mediated and quasi-mediated as a continuum<br />9<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    10. 10. Network structures<br />Networks facilitated by personal media differs from mass media (Luder, 2008)<br />But some aspect may have changed due to digitalization<br />Amount of time, emotional intensity, intimacy and reciprocal services<br />Strong ties = complex patterns of media use<br />Higher frequency and more media used<br />Mass communication produces weak ties<br />But more complicated with the use of personal media within mass media<br />10<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    11. 11. Example<br />Latent ties<br />May connect formerly unconnected others<br />Turned into weak ties when interaction occurs<br />Strong ties<br />Look for new and more media to communicate<br />Communication processes migrate to personal media arenas<br />Shifting from latent to weak to strong tie<br />11<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    12. 12. Users as producers<br />Egalitarian<br />Not mundane<br />Political agendas not the most important motivational factor <br />Pro-sumers<br />Meeting of consumption and production technologies<br />12<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    13. 13. “‘Anyone’ becomes qualified to be a media producer and is likely to have an audience to their productions”<br />Encouraged by key actors in the mass media industry<br />But institutional setting of the mass media influences how user-created content is filtered and screened for publishing<br />13<br />Users as producers<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    14. 14. The model<br />2 dimensional model<br />Interactional axis<br />Institutional/professional axis<br />Personal media<br />Mediated interaction<br />De-institutional/de-professionalized<br />14<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    15. 15. Institutionalized/<br />Professionalized<br />Symmetrical<br />Asymmetrical<br />De-institutional/<br />De-professional content<br />15<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    16. 16. Exercise 1<br />Personal webpage<br />PAP Facebook fanpage<br />Twitter<br />YoutubeMediacorp TV<br />The Straits Time<br />Email<br />Blog<br />SMS<br />Phone call<br />FHM<br />16<br />
    17. 17. What is Digital Culture?<br />What is it? <br />Emerging set of values, expectation, practices in reaction to “computer-mediated forms of production, distribution and communication”<br />How it come about?<br />User-elasticity of computer and Internet technology as basis for mass and personal communication<br />Component<br />Remediation, Participation, Bricolage<br />17<br />(Deuze, 2006)<br />
    18. 18. Participation<br />Web 2.0 is an open structure<br />Average people given the tools to archive, annotate, appropriate and re-circulate content<br />Participation has political dimension<br />18<br />(Deuze, 2006)<br />
    19. 19. Remediation<br />Remix of older and newer media<br />Newer medium diverges from older media, yet also reproduces older medium<br />Barrier of entry to personalizing and individualization lowered<br />Incorporating subjectivity and personal opinion valued<br />19<br />(Deuze, 2006)<br />
    20. 20. Bricolage<br />Bricoleur mixing, hybridizing materials from different sources<br />Highly personalized, continuous, autonomous assembly, disassembly, reassembly of mediated reality<br />Eg mash-up, CC<br />Foster feeling of community, yet isolation <br />20<br />(Deuze, 2006)<br />
    21. 21. How Digital Culture informs shift in media usage?<br />These principal components inform the way we use media<br />Digital Culture “accelerates” the blurring of the line between personal media and mass media<br />21<br />(Deuze, 2006)<br />
    22. 22. Participation<br /><ul><li>Personification of Corporations
    23. 23. Personal pages on SNSs
    24. 24. Respond and interact with personal network
    25. 25. Corporatization of Self
    26. 26. Advertisement with profiles and photos
    27. 27. Personal communication resembling mass communication</li></ul>Image: Facebook.com<br />22<br />
    28. 28. Remediation & Bricolage<br /><ul><li>Remediation
    29. 29. Blogs and Micro-blogs (Twitter)
    30. 30. Bricolage
    31. 31. Journalism: Hybridity and Hypertextuality by both Prosumers and News Centres
    32. 32. Redefinition of ‘News’</li></ul>23<br />
    33. 33. Implications<br />Changing modes of literacy<br />Encode and decode multimodal media messages of various genres<br />Multimodal: use of several semiotic and the way in which they are combined<br />Social discourses multiplied<br />Mass media institutions no longer exclusive storytellers with worldwide audiences<br />24<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    34. 34. Literacy and multiple discourses<br />Multimodal-literacy<br />Complex mix of audiovisual-textual media technologies<br />Producing and deciphering meanings<br />Multimodal skills in interpretation and production required<br />Knowledge of intricate and multimodal resources required<br />Digital divide<br />25<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    35. 35. Identity and social relations<br />Notion of Identity becomes reflexive and dynamic<br />Personal media used to express the senses of the self leads to increased sense of control<br />Although mediated subject perceived as open and honest and close to a ‘true self’<br />More symmetrical social relationships<br />26<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    36. 36. Identity and social relations<br />Resulting in relationships bring constantly chosen, established, negotiated, maintained and renewed<br />Personal media employed to establish and maintain social relation actively<br />27<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    37. 37. Individuals and smaller groups have the potential to describe and publish their interpretations of the world<br />Result in change in power relations<br />Mass media institutions no longer the only ones to produce messages for dissemination<br />28<br />Identity and social relations<br />(Luders, 2008)<br />
    38. 38. Journalism<br />The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and in radio and television broadcasts. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)<br />The professional selection of actual news facts to an audience by means of technological distribution methods (Bardoel, 1997)<br />29<br />
    39. 39. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern<br />Shift in editorial priorities<br />From hard news and investigation to “scandal-mongering…sensationalism and sentiment…masquerading in perverse guise as human interest” (Franklin, 1997)<br />Shift from traditional news towards cover of leisure, style and consumer affairs and stories about entertainers (Connell, 1991)<br />Technological change is blurring the distinction between journalists and non-journalists (Stephenson & Mory, 1990)<br />Progress is influenced by the ability to output news multiple mediums (Ursell, 2001)<br />30<br />
    40. 40. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern<br />Blurred nation-state boundaries<br />Multi-faceted and fragmented public<br />Journalists are no more gatekeepers of information<br />Change in power relations<br />(Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)<br />31<br />
    41. 41. Network journalism<br />Across any/every medium, type or format<br />Journalist serves as a node in a complex network <br />People will be more active information-seekers on subjects they are familiar with, while seeking assistance in unfamiliar areas<br />More horizontal communication instead of ‘traditional vertical paternalistic communication’<br /> (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)<br />32<br />
    42. 42. Online journalism<br />4 key characteristics <br />Interactivity<br />Customisation of content<br />Hypertextuality<br />Multimediality<br />(Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)<br />33<br />
    43. 43. Independent Media Centres (IMCs)<br />Indymedia<br />To give activists a space where they could express their concerns, show their interests and discuss local and global issues<br />2002 -> Over 80 Indymedia sites (Platon & Deuze, 2003)<br />Currently -> 178 Indymedia sites (www.indymedia.org/en)<br />Open Publishing<br />Asia: 12<br />Africa: 6<br />Oceania: 12<br />Europe: 61<br />USA: 56<br />Canada: 12<br />Latin America: 19<br />34<br />
    44. 44. Open Publishing<br />News creation process is transparent<br />Group consensus manages content<br />Individuals provide, evaluate and comment on news<br />Reader has influence over content production and customisation<br />Interaction with content producers<br />(Platon & Deuze, 2003)<br />35<br />
    45. 45. Analysis and Critique<br />Personal media is tended towards symmetrical communication<br />This may not be true<br />Could be asymmetrical <br />quasi-interactional relations between producer and audience<br />Social Shaping Theory: Highlights the spiraling relationship between consumers and technology and how they exist in a reciprocal relationship. This encourages the development of technology to be more human centered<br />36<br />
    46. 46. Critique: Technological Determinism<br />Technological determinism: Technology determinism states that technology is the prime mover in societal development. It implies that societal change is inevitably predetermined by technological innovation<br />Examples:Facebook – does not allow one to show one ‘dislikes’ a commentSMS – use only 160 characters to send a text message<br />37<br />
    47. 47. Critique: Social Determinism<br />Social Determinism – Social interactions and constructs determine individual behaviour through the arsenal of cultural factors, social preferences, customs and expectations and interpersonal interactions. The theory focuses on the human agency and choice.<br />Examples: <br /><ul><li>How many of you guys answered the question posted by us on Facebook?
    48. 48. Initial reason for Facebook and SMS</li></ul>38<br />
    49. 49. So what is Social Media<br />The use of media is shaped by:<br />User’s intention<br />Its usage<br />Properties of the technology<br />39<br />
    50. 50. So what is Social Media to You?<br />Now, what is social media according to you?<br />By your definition, draw a model relating social media, personal media and mass media.<br />40<br />
    51. 51. Where is social media?<br />The Prosumer Cycle<br />The Digital Culture<br />De-institutionalized<br />De-professionalized<br />Institutional<br />Professional<br />The Digital Culture<br />41<br />
    52. 52. Definition<br />Social Media thus is just a characteristic of the media that allows one to participate as a producer and a consumer due to the affordances brought about by digital culture.<br />The model generates information and will continuously improve on itself as the cycle goes on<br />This discounts people who do not have access to technology and hence cannot participate in this prosumer cycle intensifying the Digital Divide<br />42<br />
    53. 53. Bardoel, Jo, Deuze, Mark, (2001). Network Journalism: Converging Competences of Media Professionals and Professionalism. Australian Journalism Review 23 (2), 91-103<br />Deuze, M. (1999). Journalism and the Web: an analysis of skills and standards in an online environnent. Gazette 61 (5), 373-390.<br />Deuze, M. (2001a). Understanding the Impact of the Internet: On New Media Professionalism, Mindsets and Buzzwords [online]. EJournalist 1 (1). Available: http://www.ejournalism.au.com/ejournalist/deuze.pdf.<br />Deuze, M. (2006). Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture. The Information Society, 22. 63-75.<br />Franklin, B. (1997) Newszak and News Media. London: Arnold.<br />Luders, M. (2008). Conceptualizing personal media. SAGE Publications, 683 – 700.<br />Newhagen, J.E., Rafaeli, S. (1996). Why communication researchers should study theInternet: a dialogue. Political Communication 46 (1), 4-13.<br />Pavlik, J. (1997, August). The future of on-line journalism: bonanza or black hole? Columbia Journalism Review, 30-36.<br />Pavlik, J. (1999). New media and news: implications for the future of journalism. New Media & Society 1 (1), 54-59.<br />Stephenson, H. and P. Mory (1990) Journalism Training in Europe. Brussels: European Commission.<br />Singer, J. (1998). Online Journalists: Foundations for Research Into Their Changing Roles. The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4 (1) [online]. Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol4/issue1/singer.html [1999, Oct.20].<br />References<br />43<br />
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