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Locating social media

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  • Beliefs, interests and affiliation
  • Transcript

    • 1. Locating Social Media
      BasuMallickKoustav
      Choo Jun Lin Darren
      Chua JiaHwa
      Goh Yong-Qin Darrel
      Tan Jun Jie
      1
    • 2. Agenda
      Image: http://socialnomics.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/social-media-ball.jpg
      2
    • 3. Definitions
      Media Technology
      e.g. internet, phone, TV
      1st order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
      Final meaning of the media technology develops through their actual use and social function of the technology
      3
    • 4. Definitions
      Media form
      e.g. SMS, email, blog
      2nd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
      Constructed from media technologies
      Result of interrelations between technology and function within everyday lives
      4
    • 5. Definitions
      Genres
      e.g. personal blog, travel blog, food blog
      3rd order of user agency (Luders, 2008)
      More specific types of the same media form
      Socially implemented characteristics
      5
    • 6. AS SUCH…
      Same technologies can be used for both interpersonal and mass communication
      6
    • 7. Characteristics
      Mass Media
      Personal Media
      Accessible by many
      Reproduced/broadcasted to many
      Asymmetrical involvement
      Less element of social interaction
      Institutional/professional content
      Function system
      Accessible by few
      Reproduced/broadcasted to few
      Symmetrical involvement
      More element social interaction
      De-institutional/De-professional content
      Non-function system
      7
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 8. Personal and mass media today is blurred
      Features shared with mass media:
      Accessibility
      Reproduction of content
      Role of users and producers
      8
    • 9. Interaction
      Face to face, mediated and quasi-mediated interaction
      Blurring between mass communication and interpersonal communication
      Convergence
      Mediated and quasi-mediated as a continuum
      9
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 10. Network structures
      Networks facilitated by personal media differs from mass media (Luder, 2008)
      But some aspect may have changed due to digitalization
      Amount of time, emotional intensity, intimacy and reciprocal services
      Strong ties = complex patterns of media use
      Higher frequency and more media used
      Mass communication produces weak ties
      But more complicated with the use of personal media within mass media
      10
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 11. Example
      Latent ties
      May connect formerly unconnected others
      Turned into weak ties when interaction occurs
      Strong ties
      Look for new and more media to communicate
      Communication processes migrate to personal media arenas
      Shifting from latent to weak to strong tie
      11
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 12. Users as producers
      Egalitarian
      Not mundane
      Political agendas not the most important motivational factor
      Pro-sumers
      Meeting of consumption and production technologies
      12
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 13. “‘Anyone’ becomes qualified to be a media producer and is likely to have an audience to their productions”
      Encouraged by key actors in the mass media industry
      But institutional setting of the mass media influences how user-created content is filtered and screened for publishing
      13
      Users as producers
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 14. The model
      2 dimensional model
      Interactional axis
      Institutional/professional axis
      Personal media
      Mediated interaction
      De-institutional/de-professionalized
      14
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 15. Institutionalized/
      Professionalized
      Symmetrical
      Asymmetrical
      De-institutional/
      De-professional content
      15
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 16. Exercise 1
      Personal webpage
      PAP Facebook fanpage
      Twitter
      YoutubeMediacorp TV
      The Straits Time
      Email
      Blog
      SMS
      Phone call
      FHM
      16
    • 17. What is Digital Culture?
      What is it?
      Emerging set of values, expectation, practices in reaction to “computer-mediated forms of production, distribution and communication”
      How it come about?
      User-elasticity of computer and Internet technology as basis for mass and personal communication
      Component
      Remediation, Participation, Bricolage
      17
      (Deuze, 2006)
    • 18. Participation
      Web 2.0 is an open structure
      Average people given the tools to archive, annotate, appropriate and re-circulate content
      Participation has political dimension
      18
      (Deuze, 2006)
    • 19. Remediation
      Remix of older and newer media
      Newer medium diverges from older media, yet also reproduces older medium
      Barrier of entry to personalizing and individualization lowered
      Incorporating subjectivity and personal opinion valued
      19
      (Deuze, 2006)
    • 20. Bricolage
      Bricoleur mixing, hybridizing materials from different sources
      Highly personalized, continuous, autonomous assembly, disassembly, reassembly of mediated reality
      Eg mash-up, CC
      Foster feeling of community, yet isolation
      20
      (Deuze, 2006)
    • 21. How Digital Culture informs shift in media usage?
      These principal components inform the way we use media
      Digital Culture “accelerates” the blurring of the line between personal media and mass media
      21
      (Deuze, 2006)
    • 22. Participation
      • Personification of Corporations
      • 23. Personal pages on SNSs
      • 24. Respond and interact with personal network
      • 25. Corporatization of Self
      • 26. Advertisement with profiles and photos
      • 27. Personal communication resembling mass communication
      Image: Facebook.com
      22
    • 28. Remediation & Bricolage
      • Remediation
      • 29. Blogs and Micro-blogs (Twitter)
      • 30. Bricolage
      • 31. Journalism: Hybridity and Hypertextuality by both Prosumers and News Centres
      • 32. Redefinition of ‘News’
      23
    • 33. Implications
      Changing modes of literacy
      Encode and decode multimodal media messages of various genres
      Multimodal: use of several semiotic and the way in which they are combined
      Social discourses multiplied
      Mass media institutions no longer exclusive storytellers with worldwide audiences
      24
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 34. Literacy and multiple discourses
      Multimodal-literacy
      Complex mix of audiovisual-textual media technologies
      Producing and deciphering meanings
      Multimodal skills in interpretation and production required
      Knowledge of intricate and multimodal resources required
      Digital divide
      25
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 35. Identity and social relations
      Notion of Identity becomes reflexive and dynamic
      Personal media used to express the senses of the self leads to increased sense of control
      Although mediated subject perceived as open and honest and close to a ‘true self’
      More symmetrical social relationships
      26
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 36. Identity and social relations
      Resulting in relationships bring constantly chosen, established, negotiated, maintained and renewed
      Personal media employed to establish and maintain social relation actively
      27
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 37. Individuals and smaller groups have the potential to describe and publish their interpretations of the world
      Result in change in power relations
      Mass media institutions no longer the only ones to produce messages for dissemination
      28
      Identity and social relations
      (Luders, 2008)
    • 38. Journalism
      The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and in radio and television broadcasts. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2009)
      The professional selection of actual news facts to an audience by means of technological distribution methods (Bardoel, 1997)
      29
    • 39. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern
      Shift in editorial priorities
      From hard news and investigation to “scandal-mongering…sensationalism and sentiment…masquerading in perverse guise as human interest” (Franklin, 1997)
      Shift from traditional news towards cover of leisure, style and consumer affairs and stories about entertainers (Connell, 1991)
      Technological change is blurring the distinction between journalists and non-journalists (Stephenson & Mory, 1990)
      Progress is influenced by the ability to output news multiple mediums (Ursell, 2001)
      30
    • 40. Journalism: Traditional vs Modern
      Blurred nation-state boundaries
      Multi-faceted and fragmented public
      Journalists are no more gatekeepers of information
      Change in power relations
      (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
      31
    • 41. Network journalism
      Across any/every medium, type or format
      Journalist serves as a node in a complex network
      People will be more active information-seekers on subjects they are familiar with, while seeking assistance in unfamiliar areas
      More horizontal communication instead of ‘traditional vertical paternalistic communication’
      (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
      32
    • 42. Online journalism
      4 key characteristics
      Interactivity
      Customisation of content
      Hypertextuality
      Multimediality
      (Bardoel, Jo, Deuze & Mark, 2001)
      33
    • 43. Independent Media Centres (IMCs)
      Indymedia
      To give activists a space where they could express their concerns, show their interests and discuss local and global issues
      2002 -> Over 80 Indymedia sites (Platon & Deuze, 2003)
      Currently -> 178 Indymedia sites (www.indymedia.org/en)
      Open Publishing
      Asia: 12
      Africa: 6
      Oceania: 12
      Europe: 61
      USA: 56
      Canada: 12
      Latin America: 19
      34
    • 44. Open Publishing
      News creation process is transparent
      Group consensus manages content
      Individuals provide, evaluate and comment on news
      Reader has influence over content production and customisation
      Interaction with content producers
      (Platon & Deuze, 2003)
      35
    • 45. Analysis and Critique
      Personal media is tended towards symmetrical communication
      This may not be true
      Could be asymmetrical
      quasi-interactional relations between producer and audience
      Social Shaping Theory: Highlights the spiraling relationship between consumers and technology and how they exist in a reciprocal relationship. This encourages the development of technology to be more human centered
      36
    • 46. Critique: Technological Determinism
      Technological determinism: Technology determinism states that technology is the prime mover in societal development. It implies that societal change is inevitably predetermined by technological innovation
      Examples:Facebook – does not allow one to show one ‘dislikes’ a commentSMS – use only 160 characters to send a text message
      37
    • 47. Critique: Social Determinism
      Social Determinism – Social interactions and constructs determine individual behaviour through the arsenal of cultural factors, social preferences, customs and expectations and interpersonal interactions. The theory focuses on the human agency and choice.
      Examples:
      • How many of you guys answered the question posted by us on Facebook?
      • 48. Initial reason for Facebook and SMS
      38
    • 49. So what is Social Media
      The use of media is shaped by:
      User’s intention
      Its usage
      Properties of the technology
      39
    • 50. So what is Social Media to You?
      Now, what is social media according to you?
      By your definition, draw a model relating social media, personal media and mass media.
      40
    • 51. Where is social media?
      The Prosumer Cycle
      The Digital Culture
      De-institutionalized
      De-professionalized
      Institutional
      Professional
      The Digital Culture
      41
    • 52. Definition
      Social Media thus is just a characteristic of the media that allows one to participate as a producer and a consumer due to the affordances brought about by digital culture.
      The model generates information and will continuously improve on itself as the cycle goes on
      This discounts people who do not have access to technology and hence cannot participate in this prosumer cycle intensifying the Digital Divide
      42
    • 53. Bardoel, Jo, Deuze, Mark, (2001). Network Journalism: Converging Competences of Media Professionals and Professionalism. Australian Journalism Review 23 (2), 91-103
      Deuze, M. (1999). Journalism and the Web: an analysis of skills and standards in an online environnent. Gazette 61 (5), 373-390.
      Deuze, M. (2001a). Understanding the Impact of the Internet: On New Media Professionalism, Mindsets and Buzzwords [online]. EJournalist 1 (1). Available: http://www.ejournalism.au.com/ejournalist/deuze.pdf.
      Deuze, M. (2006). Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture. The Information Society, 22. 63-75.
      Franklin, B. (1997) Newszak and News Media. London: Arnold.
      Luders, M. (2008). Conceptualizing personal media. SAGE Publications, 683 – 700.
      Newhagen, J.E., Rafaeli, S. (1996). Why communication researchers should study theInternet: a dialogue. Political Communication 46 (1), 4-13.
      Pavlik, J. (1997, August). The future of on-line journalism: bonanza or black hole? Columbia Journalism Review, 30-36.
      Pavlik, J. (1999). New media and news: implications for the future of journalism. New Media & Society 1 (1), 54-59.
      Stephenson, H. and P. Mory (1990) Journalism Training in Europe. Brussels: European Commission.
      Singer, J. (1998). Online Journalists: Foundations for Research Into Their Changing Roles. The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4 (1) [online]. Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol4/issue1/singer.html [1999, Oct.20].
      References
      43

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