TOMBS:- the encient egyptians had a strong
belief that there was a mysterious kingdom
of the dead on western side where the sun
went down . Because of this tombs were
always built on the bank of nile. Egyptian
also believed that the dead man survived in
There are two types of tombs :- mastabas
, royal pyramid.
Mastaba tombs were low rectangular brick or stone structures. Like the
pyramids, they wer built on the west side of the Nile (symbol of
death, where the sun falls into the underworld).
In the mastabas, lavish tombs with all necessary possessions would be
prepared for the Phaorahs
The pyramids evolved from the mastabas
Pyramids are massive
funerary structures of stone
or brick with a square base
and four sloping triangular
sides meeting at the tip of the
pyramid, or at the top. The
material that it consisted of
was mainly stones. The tip of
the pyramid was made from
gold or electrum. They were
built as tombs for deceased
Pharaohs, where everything
that belonged to the Pharaoh
was placed there. Around
it, several buildings were built
for his belongings. Smaller
pyramids were for his
wives, a temple in front of the
pyramid was so people could
worship him. A causeway
leading from the pyramid
complex down to the temple
in the valley.
A valley temple was where
the pharaoh's funeral would
The exact number of
stones was originally
blocks weighing from
2-30 tons each, with
some weighing up to
The pyramid base
covers an area of 13
The estimated total
weight of the
structure is 6.5
a step pyramid or stepped pyramid
is an arch. Structure That uses flat
flat platform , or steps, recending
from the Ground . These pyramids are
made of stones. The steps are formed
on this pyramid . The angle of incliNation of steps is 51 degree.
Height of stepped pyramid is 90m.
, and side length is 145m.
THESE PYRAMIDS ARE BENT
FROM THE ABOVE PORTION
, THE DIMENTION ARE DI-FFERENT FROM THE STEPPED
ANGLE-52degree 20 minute.
3.TRUE PYRAMID :This is the the last stage of pyramid ,
These pyramids are huge and massive
, all the sides are straight .
Sides length- 216m.
Angle- 52degree 20 minute
Why were the temples built?
Egyptian temples were built for the official
worship of the gods and commemoration of
pharaohs in Ancient Egypt and in regions under
Within them, the Egyptians performed a variety
of rituals, the central functions of Egyptian
religion: giving offerings to the gods, reenacting
their mythological interactions through
festivals, and warding off the forces of chaos.
A temple was an important religious site for all
classes of Egyptians, who went there to
pray, give offerings, and seek oracular guidance
from the god dwelling within.
Temples were seen as houses for the gods or
kings to whom they were dedicated.
About the interior of temples
The most important part of the temple was the
sanctuary, which typically contained a cult
image, a statue of its god.
Alongwith sanctuarys there were hypostyle halls
and peristyle courtyards, all axially aligned.
The rooms outside the sanctuary grew larger and
more elaborate over time and came to be called
In the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100–2686
BC), the first pharaohs built funerary
complexes in the religious center of Abydos
following a single general pattern, with a
rectangular mud-brick enclosure that may have
contained an off-center earthen mound.
In the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC) that
followed the Early Dynastic Period, royal
funerary monuments underwent tremendous
expansion, while most divine temples
remained comparatively small .
Then, tomb and temple were joined in elaborate
stone pyramid complexes.
Other changes came in the reign of a king
who, beginning with his first pyramid at
Meidum, built pyramid complexes symmetrically
along an east–west axis, with a valley temple on
the banks of the Nile linked to a pyramid temple
at the foot of the pyramid.
Where was a temple built ?
Temples were built throughout Upper and Lower
Egypt, as well as at Egyptian-controlled oases in
the Libyan Desert.
The exact site of a temple was often chosen for
religious reasons. , for example, be the mythical
birthplace or burial place of a god.
The temple axis might also be designed to align
with locations of religious significance, such as
the site of a neighboring temple or the rising
place of the sun or particular stars.
The Great Temple of Abu Simbel, for instance, is
aligned so that twice a year the rising sun
illuminates the statues of the gods in its
innermost room .
Most temples, however, were aligned toward the
Nile with an axis running roughly east–west.
An elaborate series of foundation rituals
Temple structures were built on foundations of
Egyptians mostly used stone and brick for
The main stones used in temple construction
were limestone and sandstone, which are
common in Egypt; stones that are harder and
more difficult to carve, such as granite, were
used in smaller amounts.
Walls and other structures were built with large
blocks of varying shapes. The blocks were laid
in courses, usually without mortar.
Each stone was dressed to fit with its
neighbors, producing cuboid blocks whose
uneven shapes interlocked.
Once the temple structure was complete, the
rough faces of the stones were dressed to create
a smooth surface.
Temple construction did not end once the
original plan was complete; pharaohs often
rebuilt or replaced decayed temple structures or
made additions to those still standing. In the
course of these additions, they frequently
dismantled old temple buildings to use as fill for
the interiors of new structures.
They were covered rooms filled with columns.
they typically lay directly in front of the
These halls were less restricted than the inner
rooms, being open to laymen at least in some
Kingdom halls rose into tall central passages
over the processional path, allowing a
clerestory to provide dim light.
The epitome of this style is the Great
Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, whose largest
columns are 69 feet (21 m) tall.
Beyond the hypostyle hall were one or more
peristyle courts open to the sky .
These open courts, which had been a part of
Egyptian temple design since the Old
Kingdom, became transitional areas in the
standard plan of the New Kingdom, lying
between the public space outside the temple
and the more restricted areas within. Here the
public met with the priests and assembled
At the front of each court was usually a
pylon, a pair of broad, flat towers flanking the
Outside the temple building proper was the
temple enclosure, surrounded by a rectangular
brick wall that symbolically protected the
sacred space from outside disorder.
In late temples these walls frequently had
alternating concave and convex courses of
bricks, so that the top of the wall undulated
Some enclosures contained satellite chapels
dedicated to deities associated with the temple
god, including mammisis celebrating the birth
of the god's mythological child.
The sacred lakes found in many temple
enclosures served as reservoirs for the water
used in rituals, as places for the priests to
ritually cleanse themselves, and as
representations of the water from which the
Mortuary temples sometimes contained a palace
for the spirit of the king to whom the temple was
dedicated, built against the temple building
Sanatoria in some temples provided a place for
the sick to await healing dreams sent by the god.
Especially important was the "house of
life", where the temple edited, copied, and stored
its religious texts, including those used for
temple rituals. The house of life also functioned
as a general center of learning, containing works
on non-religious subjects such as
history, geography, astronomy, and medicine.