Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Parallal and Distributed Computing


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Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Parallal and Distributed Computing

  1. 1. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS 2012 – 2013 Parallel and Distributed ComputingCorporate Office: Madurai 227-230, Church road, Anna nagar, Madurai – 625 020. 0452 – 4390702, 4392702, +9199447933980 Email:, Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Trichy 15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main road, Trichy – 620 001. 0431 – 4002234, +919790464324. Email:, Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Coimbatore 577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641 002. +919677751577 Website:, Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Kollam Surya Complex, Vendor junction, Kollam – 691 010, Kerala. 0474 – 2723622, +919446505482. Email: Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Cochin 4th Floor, Anjali Complex, near south over bridge, Valanjambalam, Cochin – 682 016, Kerala. 0484 – 6006002, +917736004002. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  2. 2. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, Email:, Website: PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING 2012 – 2013EGC A Cluster-on-a-Chip Architecture for High-Throughput Phylogeny Search3201 In this paper, we describe an FPGA-based coprocessor architecture that performs a high-throughput branch-and-bound search of the space of phylogenetic trees corresponding to the number of input taxa. Our coprocessor architecture is designed to accelerate maximum-parsimony phylogeny reconstruction for gene-order and sequence data and is amenable to both exhaustive and heuristic tree searches. Our architecture exposes coarse-grain parallelism by dividing the search space among parallel processing elements (PEs) and each PE exposes fine-grain memory parallelism for their lower-bound computation, the kernel computation performed by each PE. Inter-PE communication is performed entirely on-chip. When using this coprocessor for maximum-parsimony reconstruction for gene-order data, our coprocessor achieves a 40X improvement over software in search throughput, corresponding to a 14X end-to-end application improvement when including all communication and systems overheads.EGC A Framework for Routing Performance Analysis in Delay Tolerant Networks with3202 Application to Non-Cooperative Networks In this paper, we present a framework for analyzing routing performance in delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Differently from previous work, our framework is aimed at characterizing the exact distribution of relevant performance metrics, which is a substantial improvement over existing studies characterizing either the expected value of the metric, or an asymptotic approximation of the actual distribution. In particular, the considered performance metrics are packet delivery delay, and communication cost, expressed as number of copies of a packet circulating in the network at the time of delivery. Our proposed framework is based on a characterization of the routing process as a stochastic coloring process and can be applied to model performance of most stateless delay tolerant routing protocols, such as epidemic, two-hops, and spray and wait. After introducing the framework, we present examples of its application to derive the packet delivery delay and communication cost distribution of two such protocols, namely epidemic and two-hops routing. Characterizing packet delivery delay and communication cost distribution is important to investigate fundamental properties of delay tolerant networks. As an example, we show how packet delivery delay distribution can be used to estimate how epidemic routing performance changes in presence of different degrees of node cooperation within the network. More specifically, we consider fully cooperative, noncooperative, and probabilistic cooperative scenarios, and derive nearly exact expressions of the packet delivery rate (PDR) under these scenarios based on our proposed framework. The comparison of the obtained packet delivery rate estimation in the various cooperation scenarios suggests that even a modest level of node cooperation (probabilistic cooperation with a low probability of cooperation) is sufficient to achieve 2-fold performance improvement with respect to the most pessimistic scenario in which all potential forwarders dr- - op packets. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  3. 3. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Formation of Clustered Overlay Networks3203 In many large-scale content sharing applications, participants or nodes are connected with each other based on their content or interests, thus forming clusters. In this paper, we model the formation of such clustered overlays as a strategic game, where nodes determine their cluster membership with the goal of improving the recall of their queries. We study the evolution of such overlays both theoretically and experimentally in terms of stability, optimality, load balance, and the required overhead. We show that, in general, decisions made independently by each node using only local information lead to overall cost-effective cluster configurations that are also dynamically adaptable to system updates such as churn and query or content changes.EGC A Novel Parallel Scan for Multicore Processors and Its Application in Sparse Matrix-3204 Vector Multiplication We present a novel parallel algorithm for computing the scan operations on x86 multicore processors. The existing best known parallel scan for the same platform requires the number of processors to be a power of two. But this constraint is removed from our proposed method. In the design of the algorithm architectural considerations for x86 multicore processors are given so that the rate of cache misses is reduced and the cost of thread synchronization and management is minimized. Results from tests made on a machine with dual-socket times quad-core Intel Xeon E5405 showed that the proposed solution outperformed the best known parallel reference. A novel approach to sparse matrix- vector multiplication (SpMV) based on the proposed scan is then explained. The approach, unlike the existing ones that make use of backward segmented operations, uses forward ones for more efficient caching. An implementation of the proposed SpMV was tested against the SpMV in Intels Math Kernel Library (MKL) and merits were found in the proposed approach.EGC A QoS Oriented Vertical Handoff Scheme for WiMAX/WLAN Overlay Networks3205 Recently, a number of wireless communication technologies are migrating toward heterogeneous overlay networks. The integration of Mobile WiMAX and WLAN seems to be a promising approach due to their homogeneous nature and complementary characteristics. In this paper, we investigate several important issues for the interworking of Mobile WiMAX and WLAN networks. We address a tightly coupled interworking architecture. Further, a seamless and proactive vertical handoff scheme is designed based on the architecture with aims to provide always the best quality of service (QoS) for users. Both the performance of applications and network conditions are considered in the handoff process. Moreover, we derive evaluation algorithms to estimate the conditions of both WiMAX and WLAN networks in terms of available bandwidth and packet delay. A simulation study has demonstrated that the proposed schemes can keep stations always being best connected. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  4. 4. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC A Rendezvous-Based Approach Enabling Energy-Efficient Sensory Data Collection with3206 Mobile Sinks A large class of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications involves a set of isolated urban areas (e.g., urban parks or building blocks) covered by sensor nodes (SNs) monitoring environmental parameters. Mobile sinks (MSs) mounted upon urban vehicles with fixed trajectories (e.g., buses) provide the ideal infrastructure to effectively retrieve sensory data from such isolated WSN fields. Existing approaches involve either single-hop transfer of data from SNs that lie within the MSs range or heavy involvement of network periphery nodes in data retrieval, processing, buffering, and delivering tasks. These nodes run the risk of rapid energy exhaustion resulting in loss of network connectivity and decreased network lifetime. Our proposed protocol aims at minimizing the overall network overhead and energy expenditure associated with the multihop data retrieval process while also ensuring balanced energy consumption among SNs and prolonged network lifetime. This is achieved through building cluster structures consisted of member nodes that route their measured data to their assigned cluster head (CH). CHs perform data filtering upon raw data exploiting potential spatial-temporal data redundancy and forward the filtered information to appropriate end nodes with sufficient residual energy, located in proximity to the MSs trajectory. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our approach against as well as its performance gain over alternative methods.EGC A Sequentially Consistent Multiprocessor Architecture for Out-of-Order Retirement of Instructions3207 Out-of-order retirement of instructions has been shown to be an effective technique to increase the number of in-flight instructions. This form of runtime scheduling can reduce pipeline stalls caused by head-of-line blocking effects in the reorder buffer (ROB). Expanding the width of the instruction window can be highly beneficial to multiprocessors that implement a strict memory model, especially when both loads and stores encounter long latencies due to cache misses, and whose stalls must be overlapped with instruction execution to overcome the memory latencies. Based on the Validation Buffer (VB) architecture (a previously proposed out-of-order retirement, checkpoint-free architecture for single processors), this paper proposes a cost-effective, scalable, out-of-order retirement multiprocessor, capable of enforcing sequential consistency without impacting the design of the memory hierarchy or interconnect. Our simulation results indicate that utilizing a VB can speed up both relaxed and sequentially consistent in-order retirement in future multiprocessor systems by between 3 and 20 percent, depending on the ROB size.EGC A Survey and Evaluation of Topology-Agnostic Deterministic Routing Algorithms3208 Most standard cluster interconnect technologies are flexible with respect to network topology. This has spawned a substantial amount of research on topology-agnostic routing algorithms, which make no assumption about the network structure, thus providing the flexibility needed to route on irregular networks. Actually, such an irregularity should be IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  5. 5. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, often interpreted as minor modifications of some regular interconnection pattern, such as those induced by faults. In fact, topology-agnostic routing algorithms are also becoming increasingly useful for networks on chip (NoCs), where faults may make the preferred 2D mesh topology irregular. Existing topology-agnostic routing algorithms were developed for varying purposes, giving them different and not always comparable properties. Details are scattered among many papers, each with distinct conditions, making comparison difficult. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the known topology-agnostic routing algorithms. We classify these algorithms by their most important properties, and evaluate them consistently. This provides significant insight into the algorithms and their appropriateness for different on- and off-chip environments.EGC3209 A Survey of Parallel Programming Models and Tools in the Multi and Many-Core Era In this work, we present a survey of the different parallel programming models and tools available today with special consideration to their suitability for high-performance computing. Thus, we review the shared and distributed memory approaches, as well as the current heterogeneous parallel programming model. In addition, we analyze how the partitioned global address space (PGAS) and hybrid parallel programming models are used to combine the advantages of shared and distributed memory systems. The work is completed by considering languages with specific parallel support and the distributed programming paradigm. In all cases, we present characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. The study shows that the availability of multi-core CPUs has given new impulse to the shared memory parallel programming approach. In addition, we find that hybrid parallel programming is the current way of harnessing the capabilities of computer clusters with multi-core nodes. On the other hand, heterogeneous programming is found to be an increasingly popular paradigm, as a consequence of the availability of multi-core CPUs+GPUs systems. The use of open industry standards like OpenMP, MPI, or OpenCL, as opposed to proprietary solutions, seems to be the way to uniformize and extend the use of parallel programming models.EGC A Systematic Approach toward Automated Performance Analysis and Tuning3210 High productivity is critical in harnessing the power of high-performance computing systems to solve science and engineering problems. It is a challenge to bridge the gap between the hardware complexity and the software limitations. Despite significant progress in programming language, compiler, and performance tools, tuning an application remains largely a manual task, and is done mostly by experts. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach toward automated performance analysis and tuning that we expect to improve the productivity of performance debugging significantly. Our approach seeks to build a framework that facilitates the combination of expert knowledge, compiler techniques, and performance research for performance diagnosis and solution discovery. With our framework, once a diagnosis and tuning strategy has been developed, it can be stored in an open and extensible database and thus be reused in the future. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through the automated performance analysis and tuning of two scientific applications. We show that the tuning process is highly automated, and the performance improvement is significant. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  6. 6. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC A Transport-Friendly NIC for Multicore/Multiprocessor Systems3211 Receive side scaling (RSS) is an NIC technology that provides the benefits of parallel receive processing in multiprocessing environments. However, RSS lacks a critical data steering mechanism that would automatically steer incoming network data to the same core on which its application thread resides. This absence causes inefficient cache usage if an application thread is not running on the core on which RSS has scheduled the received traffic to be processed and results in degraded performance. To remedy the RSS limitation, Intels Ethernet Flow Director technology has been introduced. However, our analysis shows that Flow Director can cause significant packet reordering. Packet reordering causes various negative impacts in high-speed networks. We propose an NIC data steering mechanism to remedy the RSS and Flow Director limitations. This data steering mechanism is mainly targeted at TCP. We term an NIC with such a data steering mechanism “A Transport-Friendly NIC” (A-TFN). Experimental results have proven the effectiveness of A-TFN in accelerating TCP/IP performance.EGC A Two-Dimensional Low-Diameter Scalable On-Chip Network for Interconnecting Thousands of3212 Cores This paper introduces the Spidergon-Donut (SD) on-chip interconnection network for interconnecting 1,000 cores in future MPSoCs and CMPs. Unlike the Spidergon network, the SD network which extends the Spidergon network into the second dimension, significantly reduces the network diameter, well below the popular 2D Mesh and Torus networks for one extra node degree and roughly 25 percent more links. A detailed construction of the SD network and a method to reshuffle the SD networks nodes for layout onto the 2D plane, and simple one-to-one and broadcast routing algorithms for the SD network are presented. The various configurations of the SD network are analyzed and compared including detailed area and delay studies. To interconnect a thousand cores, the paper concludes that a hybrid version of the SD network with smaller SD instances interconnected by a crossbar is a feasible low-diameter network topology for interconnecting the cores of a thousand core system.EGC Accelerating Matrix Operations with Improved Deeply Pipelined Vector Reduction3213 Many scientific or engineering applications involve matrix operations, in which reduction of vectors is a common operation. If the core operator of the reduction is deeply pipelined, which is usually the case, dependencies between the input data elements cause data hazards. To tackle this problem, we propose a new reduction method with low latency and high pipeline utilization. The performance of the proposed design is evaluated for both single data set and multiple data set scenarios. Further, QR decomposition is used to demonstrate how the proposed method can accelerate its execution. We implement the design on an FPGA and compare its results to other IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  7. 7. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, methods.EGC Adaptive Forwarding Delay Control for VANET Data Aggregation3214 In-network data aggregation is a useful technique to reduce redundant data and to improve communication efficiency. Traditional data aggregation schemes for wireless sensor networks usually rely on a fixed routing structure to ensure data can be aggregated at certain sensor nodes. However, they cannot be applied in highly mobile vehicular environments. In this paper, we propose an adaptive forwarding delay control scheme, namely Catch-Up, which dynamically changes the forwarding speed of nearby reports so that they have a better chance to meet each other and be aggregated together. The Catch-Up scheme is designed based on a distributed learning algorithm. Each vehicle learns from local observations and chooses a delay based on learning results. The simulation results demonstrate that our scheme can efficiently reduce the number of redundant reports and achieve a good trade-off between delay and communication overhead.EGC3215 Aho-Corasick String Matching on Shared -Memory Parallel Architectures String matching requires a combination of (sometimes all) the following characteristics: high and/or predictable performance, support for large data sets and flexibility of integration and customization. This paper compares several software-based implementations of the Aho-Corasick algorithm for high-performance systems. We focus on the matching of unknown inputs streamed from a single source, typical of security applications and difficult to manage since the input cannot be preprocessed to obtain locality. We consider shared-memory architectures (Niagara 2, x86 multiprocessors, and Cray XMT) and distributed-memory architectures with homogeneous (InfiniBand cluster of x86 multicores) or heterogeneous processing elements (InfiniBand cluster of x86 multicores with NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPUs). We describe how each solution achieves the objectives of supporting large dictionaries, sustaining high performance, and enabling customization and flexibility using various data sets.EGC3216 An Efficient Adaptive Deadlock-Free Routing Algorithm for Torus Networks A deadlock-free minimal routing algorithm called clue is first proposed for VCT (virtual cut-through)-switched tori. Only two virtual channels are required. One channel is applied in the deadlock-free routing algorithm for the mesh subnetwork based on a known base routing scheme, such as, negative-first or dimension-order routing. The other channel is similar to an adaptive channel. This combination presents a novel fully adaptive minimal routing scheme because the first channel does not supply routing paths for every source-destination pair. Other two algorithms named flow controlled clue and wormhole clue are proposed. Flow controlled clue is proposed for VCT-switched tori, which is fully adaptive minimal deadlock-free with no virtual channel. Each input port requires at least two buffers, each of which IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  8. 8. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, is able to keep a packet. A simple but well-designed flow control function is used in the proposed flow controlled clue routing algorithm to avoid deadlocks. Wormhole clue is proposed for wormhole-switched tori. It is partially adaptive because we add some constraints to the adaptive channels for deadlock avoidance. It is shown that clue and flow controlled clue work better than the bubble flow control scheme under several popular traffic patterns in 3-dimensional (3D) torus. In a wormhole-switched tori, the advantage of wormhole clue over Duatos protocol is also very apparent.EGC An Efficient Approach for Mobile Asset Tracking Using Contexts3217 Due to the heterogeneity involved in smart interconnected devices, cellular applications, and surrounding (GPS-aware) environments there is a need to develop a realistic approach to track mobile assets. Current tracking systems are costly and inefficient over wireless data transmission systems where cost is based on the rate of data being sent. Our aim is to develop an efficient and improved geographical asset tracking solution and conserve valuable mobile resources by dynamically adapting the tracking scheme by means of context-aware personalized route learning techniques. We intend to perform this tracking by proactively monitoring the context information in a distributed, efficient, and scalable fashion. Context profiles, which indicate the characteristics of a route based on environmental conditions, are utilized to dynamically represent the values of the assets properties. We designed and implemented an adaptive learning based scheme that makes an optimized judgment of data transmission. This manuscript is complemented with theoretical and practical evaluations that prove that significant costs can be saved and operational efficiency can be achieved. EGCEGC An Efficient Prediction-Based Routing in Disruption-Tolerant Networks 32183218 Routing is one of the most challenging, open problems in disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) because of the short-lived wireless connectivity environment. To deal with this issue, researchers have investigated routing based on the prediction of future contacts, taking advantage of nodes mobility history. However, most of the previous work focused on the prediction of whether two nodes would have a contact, without considering the time of the contact. This paper proposes predict and relay (PER), an efficient routing algorithm for DTNs, where nodes determine the probability distribution of future contact times and choose a proper next-hop in order to improve the end-to-end delivery probability. The algorithm is based on two observations: one is that nodes usually move around a set of well-visited landmark points instead of moving randomly; the other is that node mobility behavior is semi-deterministic and could be predicted once there is sufficient mobility history information. Specifically, our approach employs a time-homogeneous semi-Markov process model that describes node mobility as transitions between landmarks. Then, we extend it to handle the scenario where we consider the transition time between two landmarks. A simulation study shows that this approach improves the delivery ratio and also reduces the delivery latency compared to traditional DTN routing schemes. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  9. 9. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC An Intelligent Task Allocation Scheme for Multihop Wireless Networks3219 Emerging applications in Multihop Wireless Networks (MHWNs) require considerable processing power which often may be beyond the capability of individual nodes. Parallel processing provides a promising solution, which partitions a program into multiple small tasks and executes each task concurrently on independent nodes. However, multihop wireless communication is inevitable in such networks and it could have an adverse effect on distributed processing. In this paper, an adaptive intelligent task mapping together with a scheduling scheme based on a genetic algorithm is proposed to provide real-time guarantees. This solution enables efficient parallel processing in a way that only possible node collaborations with cost-effective communications are considered. Furthermore, in order to alleviate the power scarcity of MHWN, a hybrid fitness function is derived and embedded in the algorithm to extend the overall network lifetime via workload balancing among the collaborative nodes, while still ensuring the arbitrary application deadlines. Simulation results show significant performance improvement in various testing environments over existing mechanisms.EGC An MDP-Based Dynamic Optimization Methodology for Wireless Sensor Networks3220 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are distributed systems that have proliferated across diverse application domains (e.g., security/defense, health care, etc.). One commonality across all WSN domains is the need to meet application requirements (i.e., lifetime, responsiveness, etc.) through domain specific sensor node design. Techniques such as sensor node parameter tuning enable WSN designers to specialize tunable parameters (i.e., processor voltage and frequency, sensing frequency, etc.) to meet these application requirements. However, given WSN domain diversity, varying environmental situations (stimuli), and sensor node complexity, sensor node parameter tuning is a very challenging task. In this paper, we propose an automated Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based methodology to prescribe optimal sensor node operation (selection of values for tunable parameters such as processor voltage, processor frequency, and sensing frequency) to meet application requirements and adapt to changing environmental stimuli. Numerical results confirm the optimality of our proposed methodology and reveal that our methodology more closely meets application requirements compared to other feasible policies.EGC3221 Analysis of Impact of TXOP Allocation on IEEE 802.11e EDCA under Variable Network Load In this paper, we investigate the impact of transmission opportunity (TXOP), arbitration interframe space (AIFS), and contention window on the performance of an IEEE 802.11e cluster with four traffic classes under Poisson frame arrivals. We derive an analytical model of the cluster using queuing model of individual nodes, discrete time Markov chain, and probabilistic modeling of the backoff process. The analytical model demonstrates the complex interaction between IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  10. 10. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, TXOP, on one side, and AIFS and contention window, on the other. We derive saturation and stability points for all traffic classes and discuss their dependency on TXOP allocations. Our results indicate that use of nonzero TXOP parameter under Poisson frame arrivals improves performance slightly by separating points of saturation and instability. More substantial performance improvements should be expected by deploying TXOP differentiation under bursty traffic. Since all traffic classes need to operate in stable, nonsaturated regime, this work has important implications for the design of congestion control and admission control schemes in IEEE 802.11e clusters.EGC3222 ASM: Adaptive Voice Stream Multicast over Low-Power Wireless Networks Low-power Wireless Networks (LWNs) have become increasingly available for mission-critical applications such as security surveillance and disaster response. In particular, emerging low-power wireless audio platforms provide an economical solution for ad hoc voice communication in emergency scenarios. In this paper, we develop a system called Adaptive Stream Multicast (ASM) for voice communication over multihop LWNs. ASM is composed of several novel components specially designed to deliver robust voice quality for multiple sinks in dynamic environments: 1) an empirical model to automatically evaluate the voice quality perceived at sinks based on current network condition; 2) a feedback-based Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme where the source can adapt its coding redundancy ratio dynamically in response to the voice quality variation at sinks; 3) a Tree-based Opportunistic Routing (TOR) protocol that fully exploits the broadcast opportunities on a tree based on novel forwarder selection and coordination rules; and 4) a distributed admission control algorithm that ensures the voice quality guarantees when admitting new voice streams. ASM has been implemented on a low-power hardware platform and extensively evaluated through experiments on a test bed of 18 nodes. The experiment results show that ASM can achieve satisfactory multicast voice quality in dynamic environments while incurring low-communication overhead.EGC Asymmetric Event-Driven Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks3223 Localization of wireless sensor nodes has long been regarded as a problem that is difficult to solve, especially when considering characteristics of real-world environments. This paper formally describes, designs, implements, and evaluates a novel localization system called Spotlight. The system uses spatiotemporal properties of well-controlled events in the network, light in this case, to obtain locations of sensor nodes. Performance of the system is evaluated through deployments of Mica2 and XSM motes in an outdoor environment, where 20 cm localization error is achieved. A 2 sensor network consisting of any number of nodes deployed in a 2,500 m area can be localized in under 10 minutes. Submeter localization error in an outdoor environment is made possible without equipping the wireless sensor nodes with specialized ranging hardware. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  11. 11. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC3224 Autonomic Placement of Mixed Batch and Transactional Workloads To reduce the cost of infrastructure and electrical energy, enterprise datacenters consolidate workloads on the same physical hardware. Often, these workloads comprise both transactional and long-running analytic computations. Such consolidation brings new performance management challenges due to the intrinsically different nature of a heterogeneous set of mixed workloads, ranging from scientific simulations to multitier transactional applications. The fact that such different workloads have different natures imposes the need for new scheduling mechanisms to manage collocated heterogeneous sets of applications, such as running a web application and a batch job on the same physical server, with differentiated performance goals. In this paper, we present a technique that enables existing middleware to fairly manage mixed workloads: long running jobs and transactional applications. Our technique permits collocation of the workload types on the same physical hardware, and leverages virtualization control mechanisms to perform online system reconfiguration. In our experiments, including simulations as well as a prototype system built on top of state-of- the-art commercial middleware, we demonstrate that our technique maximizes mixed workload performance while providing service differentiation based on high-level performance goals.EGC3225 Balancing Performance and Cost in CMP Interconnection Networks This paper presents an innovative router design, called Rotary Router, which successfully addresses CMP cost/performance constraints. The router structure is based on two independent rings, which force packets to circulate either clockwise or counterclockwise, traveling through every port of the router. These two rings constitute a completely decentralized arbitration scheme that enables a simple, but efficient way to connect every input port to every output port. The proposed router is able to avoid network deadlock, livelock, and starvation without requiring data-path modifications. The organization of the router permits the inclusion of throughput enhancement techniques without significantly penalizing the implementation cost. In particular, the router performs adaptive routing, eliminates HOL blocking, and carries out implicit congestion control using simple arbitration and buffering strategies. Additionally, the proposal is capable of avoiding end-to-end deadlock at coherence protocol level with no physical or virtual resource replication, while guaranteeing in-order packet delivery. This facilitates router management and improves storage utilization. Using a comprehensive evaluation framework that includes full-system simulation and hardware description, the proposal is compared with two representative router counterparts. The results obtained demonstrate the Rotary Routers substantial performance and efficiency advantages.EGC3226 Balancing the Trade-Offs between Query Delay and Data Availability in MANETs IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  12. 12. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), nodes move freely and link/node failures are common, which leads to frequent network partitions. When a network partition occurs, mobile nodes in one partition are not able to access data hosted by nodes in other partitions, and hence significantly degrade the performance of data access. To deal with this problem, we apply data replication techniques. Existing data replication solutions in both wired or wireless networks aim at either reducing the query delay or improving the data availability, but not both. As both metrics are important for mobile nodes, we propose schemes to balance the trade-offs between data availability and query delay under different system settings and requirements. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes can achieve a balance between these two metrics and provide satisfying system performance.EGC BECAN: A Bandwidth-Efficient Cooperative Authentication Scheme for Filtering Injected False3227 Data in Wireless Sensor Networks Injecting false data attack is a well known serious threat to wireless sensor network, for which an adversary reports bogus information to sink causing error decision at upper level and energy waste in en-route nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel bandwidth-efficient cooperative authentication (BECAN) scheme for filtering injected false data. Based on the random graph characteristics of sensor node deployment and the cooperative bit-compressed authentication technique, the proposed BECAN scheme can save energy by early detecting and filtering the majority of injected false data with minor extra overheads at the en-route nodes. In addition, only a very small fraction of injected false data needs to be checked by the sink, which thus largely reduces the burden of the sink. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high filtering probability and energy saving.EGC3228 BEES: Bio inspired backbone Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks Sensor networks have their own distinguishing characteristics that set them apart from other types of networks. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature to address some of the fundamental problems faced by a sensor network design. Most of the proposed techniques attempt to solve one problem in isolation from the others; hence, protocol designers have to face the same common challenges again and again. This, in turn, has a direct impact on the complexity of the protocols and on energy consumption. Instead of using this approach, we propose BEES, a lightweight bioinspired backbone construction protocol, that can help mitigate many of the typical challenges in sensor networks by allowing the development of simpler network protocols. We show how BEES can help mitigate many of the typical challenges inherent to sensor networks including sensor localization, clustering, and data aggregation among others.EGC BloomCast: Efficient and Effective Full-Text Retrieval in Unstructured P2P Networks3229 IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  13. 13. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, Efficient and effective full-text retrieval in unstructured peer-to-peer networks remains a challenge in the research community. First, it is difficult, if not impossible, for unstructured P2P systems to effectively locate items with guaranteed recall. Second, existing schemes to improve search success rate often rely on replicating a large number of item replicas across the wide area network, incurring a large amount of communication and storage costs. In this paper, we propose BloomCast, an efficient and effective full-text retrieval scheme, in unstructured P2P networks. By leveraging a hybrid P2P protocol, BloomCast replicates the items uniformly at random across the P2P networks, achieving a guaranteed recall at a communication cost of O(√N), where N is the size of the network. Furthermore, by casting Bloom Filters instead of the raw documents across the network, BloomCast significantly reduces the communication and storage costs for replication. We demonstrate the power of BloomCast design through both mathematical proof and comprehensive simulations based on the query logs from a major commercial search engine and NIST TREC WT10G data collection. Results show that BloomCast achieves an average query recall of 91 percent, which outperforms the existing WP algorithm by 18 percent, while BloomCast greatly reduces the search latency for query processing by 57 percent.EGC Bounding the Impact of Unbounded Attacks in Stabilization3230 Self-stabilization is a versatile approach to fault-tolerance since it permits a distributed system to recover from any transient fault that arbitrarily corrupts the contents of all memories in the system. Byzantine tolerance is an attractive feature of distributed systems that permit to cope with arbitrary malicious behaviors. Combining these two properties proved difficult: it is impossible to contain the spatial impact of Byzantine nodes in a self-stabilizing context for global tasks such as tree orientation and tree construction. We present and illustrate a new concept of Byzantine containment in stabilization. Our property, called Strong Stabilization enables to contain the impact of Byzantine nodes if they actually perform too many Byzantine actions. We derive impossibility results for strong stabilization and present strongly stabilizing protocols for tree orientation and tree construction that are optimal with respect to the number of Byzantine nodes that can be tolerated in a self-stabilizing context.EGC Capacity of Data Collection in Arbitrary Wireless Sensor Networks3231 Data collection is a fundamental function provided by wireless sensor networks. How to efficiently collect sensing data from all sensor nodes is critical to the performance of sensor networks. In this paper, we aim to understand the theoretical limits of data collection in a TDMA-based sensor network in terms of possible and achievable maximum capacity. Previously, the study of data collection capacity has concentrated on large-scale random networks. However, in most of the practical sensor applications, the sensor network is not uniformly deployed and the number of sensors may not be as huge as in theory. Therefore, it is necessary to study the capacity of data collection in an arbitrary network. In this paper, we first derive the upper and lower bounds for data collection capacity in arbitrary networks IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  14. 14. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, under protocol interference and disk graph models. We show that a simple BFS tree-based method can lead to order- optimal performance for any arbitrary sensor networks. We then study the capacity bounds of data collection under a general graph model, where two nearby nodes may be unable to communicate due to barriers or path fading, and discuss performance implications. Finally, we provide discussions on the design of data collection under a physical interference model or a Gaussian channel model.EGC3232 Cashing in on the Cache in the Cloud Over the past decades, caching has become the key technology used for bridging the performance gap across memory hierarchies via temporal or spatial localities; in particular, the effect is prominent in disk storage systems. Applications that involve heavy I/O activities, which are common in the cloud, probably benefit the most from caching. The use of local volatile memory as cache might be a natural alternative, but many well-known restrictions, such as capacity and the utilization of host machines, hinder its effective use. In addition to technical challenges, providing cache services in clouds encounters a major practical issue (quality of service or service level agreement issue) of pricing. Currently, (public) cloud users are limited to a small set of uniform and coarse-grained service offerings, such as High-Memory and High-CPU in Amazon EC2. In this paper, we present the cache as a service (CaaS) model as an optional service to typical infrastructure service offerings. Specifically, the cloud provider sets aside a large pool of memory that can be dynamically partitioned and allocated to standard infrastructure services as disk cache. We first investigate the feasibility of providing CaaS with the proof-of-concept elastic cache system (using dedicated remote memory servers) built and validated on the actual system, and practical benefits of CaaS for both users and providers (i.e., performance and profit, respectively) are thoroughly studied with a novel pricing scheme. Our CaaS model helps to leverage the cloud economy greatly in that 1) the extra user cost for I/O performance gain is minimal if ever exists, and 2) the providers profit increases due to improvements in server consolidation resulting from that performance gain. Through extensive experiments with eight resource allocation strategies, we demonstrate that our CaaS model can be a promising cost-efficient solution for both users and providers.EGC3233 Communication-Aware Globally-Coordinated On-Chip Networks With continued Moores law scaling, multicore-based architectures are becoming the de facto design paradigm for achieving low-cost and performance/power-efficient processing systems through effective exploitation of available parallelism in software and hardware. A crucial subsystem within multicores is the on-chip interconnection network that orchestrates high-bandwidth, low-latency, and low-power communication of data. Much previous work has focused on improving the design of on-chip networks but without more fully taking into consideration the on-chip communication behavior of application workloads that can be exploited by the network design. A significant portion of this paper IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  15. 15. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, analyzes and models on-chip network traffic characteristics of representative application workloads. Leveraged by this, the notion of globally coordinated on-chip networks is proposed in which application communication behavior-captured by traffic profiling-is utilized in the design and configuration of on-chip networks so as to support prevailing traffic flows well, in a globally coordinated manner. This is applied to the design of a hybrid network consisting of a mesh augmented with configurable multidrop (bus-like) spanning channels that serve as express paths for traffic flows benefiting from them, according to the characterized traffic profile. Evaluations reveal that network latency and energy consumption for a 64-core system running OpenMP benchmarks can be improved on average by 15 and 27 percent, respectively, with globally coordinated on-chip networks.EGC3234 Consensus in Sparse, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Consensus is central to several applications including collaborative ones which a wireless ad hoc network can facilitate for mobile users in terrains with no infrastructure support for communication. We solve the consensus problem in a sparse network in which a node can at times have no other node in its wireless range and useful end-to-end connectivity between nodes can just be a temporary feature that emerges at arbitrary intervals of time for any given node pair. Efficient one-to-many dissemination, essential for consensus, now becomes a challenge; enough number of destinations cannot deliver a multicast unless nodes retain the multicast message for exercising opportunistic forwarding. Seeking to keep storage and bandwidth costs low, we propose two protocols. An eventually relinquishing (◇ RC) protocol that does not store messages for long is used for attempting at consensus, and an eventually quiescent (◇ QC) one that stops forwarding messages after a while is used for concluding consensus. Use of the ◇ RC protocol poses additional challenges for consensus, when the fraction, f/n, of nodes that can crash is 1/4 ≤ f/n <; 1/2. Consensus latency and packet overhead are measured through simulations and both decrease considerably even for a modest increase in network density.EGC Cost-Driven Scheduling of Grid Workflows Using Partial Critical Paths3235 Recently, utility Grids have emerged as a new model of service provisioning in heterogeneous distributed systems. In this model, users negotiate with service providers on their required Quality of Service and on the corresponding price to reach a Service Level Agreement. One of the most challenging problems in utility Grids is workflow scheduling, i.e., the problem of satisfying the QoS of the users as well as minimizing the cost of workflow execution. In this paper, we propose a new QoS-based workflow scheduling algorithm based on a novel concept called Partial Critical Paths (PCP), that tries to minimize the cost of workflow execution while meeting a user-defined deadline. The PCP algorithm has two phases: in the deadline distribution phase it recursively assigns subdeadlines to the tasks on the partial critical paths ending at previously assigned tasks, and in the planning phase it assigns the cheapest service to each task while meeting its subdeadline. The simulation results show that the performance of the PCP algorithm is very promising. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  16. 16. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC3236 Coverage and Connectivity in Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks for Event Monitoring In duty-cycled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for stochastic event monitoring, existing efforts are mainly concentrated on energy-efficient scheduling of sensor nodes to guarantee the coverage performance, ignoring another crucial issue of connectivity. The connectivity problem is extremely challenging in the duty-cycled WSNs due to the fact that the link connections between nodes are transient thus unstable. In this paper, we propose a new kind of network, partitioned synchronous network, to jointly address the coverage and connectivity problem. We analyze the coverage and connectivity performances of partitioned synchronous network and compare them with those of existing asynchronous network. We perform extensive simulations to demonstrate that the proposed partitioned synchronous network has a better connectivity performance than that of asynchronous network, while coverage performances of two types of networks are close.EGC CSI: An Energy-Aware Cover-Sense-Inform Framework for k-Covered Wireless Sensor3237 Networks It is well known that sensor duty-cycling is an important mechanism that helps densely deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) save energy. On the other hand, geographic forwarding is an efficient scheme for WSNs as it requires maintaining only local topology information to forward data to their destination. Most of geographic forwarding protocols assume that all sensors are always on (or active) during forwarding. However, such an assumption is unrealistic for real-world applications where sensors are switched on or off (or inactive). In this paper, we describe our cover-sense-inform (CSI) framework for k-covered WSNs, where each point in a sensor field is covered by at least k active sensors. In CSI, k-coverage, sensor scheduling, and data forwarding are jointly considered. Based on our previous work on connected k-coverage [3], we propose the first design of geographic forwarding protocols for duty- cycled k-covered WSNs with and without data aggregation. Then, we evaluate the performance of our joint k-coverage and geographic forwarding protocols and compare them to CCP [37], a k-Coverage Configuration Protocol, with a geographic forwarding protocol on top of it, such as BVGF [36], which we have slightly updated in such a way that it considers energy for a fair comparison. Simulation results show that our joint protocols outperform CCP+BVGF.EGC3238 Cut Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks A wireless sensor network can get separated into multiple connected components due to the failure of some of its nodes, which is called a “cut.” In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting cuts by the remaining nodes of a wireless sensor network. We propose an algorithm that allows 1) every node to detect when the connectivity to a specially designated node has been lost, and 2) one or more nodes (that are connected to the special node after the cut) to detect the occurrence of the cut. The algorithm is distributed and asynchronous: every node needs to communicate IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  17. 17. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, with only those nodes that are within its communication range. The algorithm is based on the iterative computation of a fictitious “electrical potential” of the nodes. The convergence rate of the underlying iterative scheme is independent of the size and structure of the network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through simulations and a real hardware implementation.EGC3239 DCS: Distributed Asynchronous Clock Synchronization in Delay Tolerant Networks In this paper, we propose a distributed asynchronous clock synchronization (DCS) protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Different from existing clock synchronization protocols, the proposed DCS protocol can achieve global clock synchronization among mobile nodes within the network over asynchronous and intermittent connections with long delays. Convergence of the clock values can be reached by compensating for clock errors using mutual relative clock information that is propagated in the network by contacted nodes. The level of clock accuracy is depreciated with respect to time in order to account for long delays between contact opportunities. Mathematical analysis and simulation results for various network scenarios are presented to demonstrate the convergence and performance of the DCS protocol. It is shown that the DCS protocol can achieve faster clock convergence speed and, as a result, reduces energy cost by half for neighbor discovery.EGC3240 DDC: A Novel Scheme to Directly Decode the Collisions in UHF RFID Systems RFID has been gaining popularity due to its variety of applications, such as inventory control and localization. One important issue in RFID system is tag identification. In RFID systems, the tag randomly selects a slot to send a Random Number (RN) packet to contend for identification. Collision happens when multiple tags select the same slot, which makes the RN packet undecodable and thus reduces the channel utilization. In this paper, we redesign the RN pattern to make the collided RNs decodable. By leveraging the collision slots, the system performance can be dramatically enhanced. This novel scheme is called DDC, which is able to directly decode the collisions without exact knowledge of collided RNs. In the DDC scheme, we modify the RN generator in RFID tag and add a collision decoding scheme for RFID reader. We implement DDC in GNU Radio and USRP2 based testbed to verify its feasibility. Both theoretical analysis and testbed experiment show that DDC achieves 40 percent tag read rate gain compared with traditional RFID protocol.EGC3241 Delegation-Based I/O Mechanism for High Performance Computing Systems Massively parallel applications often require periodic data checkpointing for program restart and post-run data analysis. Although high performance computing systems provide massive parallelism and computing power to fulfill the crucial requirements of the scientific applications, the I/O tasks of high-end applications do not scale. Strict data consistency IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  18. 18. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, semantics adopted from traditional file systems are inadequate for homogeneous parallel computing platforms. For high performance parallel applications independent I/O is critical, particularly if checkpointing data are dynamically created or irregularly partitioned. In particular, parallel programs generating a large number of unrelated I/O accesses on large- scale systems often face serious I/O serializations introduced by lock contention and conflicts at file system layer. As these applications may not be able to utilize the I/O optimizations requiring process synchronization, they pose a great challenge for parallel I/O architecture and software designs. We propose an I/O mechanism to bridge the gap between scientific applications and parallel storage systems. A static file domain partitioning method is developed to align the I/O requests and produce a client-server mapping that minimizes the file lock acquisition costs and eliminates the lock contention. Our performance evaluations of production application I/O kernels demonstrate scalable performance and achieve high I/O bandwidths.EGC Determination of Wireless Networks Parameters through Parallel Hierarchical Support Vector3242 Machines We consider the problems of 1) estimating the physical locations of nodes in an indoor wireless network, and 2) estimating the channel noise in a MIMO wireless network, since knowing these parameters are important to many tasks of a wireless network such as network management, event detection, location-based service, and routing. A hierarchical support vector machines (H-SVM) scheme is proposed with the following advantages. First, H-SVM offers an efficient evaluation procedure in a distributed manner due to hierarchical structure. Second, H-SVM could determine these parameters based only on simpler network information, e.g., the hop counts, without requiring particular ranging hardware. Third, the exact mean and the variance of the estimation error introduced by H-SVM are derived which are seldom addressed in previous works. Furthermore, we present a parallel learning algorithm to reduce the computation time required for the proposed H-SVM. Thanks for the quicker matrix diagonization technique, our algorithm can reduce the traditional SVM learning complexity from O(n3) to O(n2) where n is the training sample size. Finally, the simulation results verify the validity and effectiveness for the proposed H-SVM with parallel learning algorithm.EGC3243 Distributed Diagnosis of Dynamic Events in Partitionable Arbitrary Topology Networks This work introduces the Distributed Network Reachability (DNR) algorithm, a distributed system-level diagnosis algorithm that allows every node of a partitionable arbitrary topology network to determine which portions of the network are reachable and unreachable. DNR is the first distributed diagnosis algorithm that works in the presence of network partitions and healings caused by dynamic fault and repair events. Both crash and timing faults are assumed, and a faulty node is indistinguishable of a network partition. Every link is alternately tested by one of its adjacent nodes at subsequent testing intervals. Upon the detection of a new event, the new diagnostic information is disseminated to reachable nodes. New events can occur before the dissemination completes. Any time a new event is detected or informed, a working node may compute the network reachability using local diagnostic information. The bounded IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  19. 19. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, correctness of DNR is proved, including the bounded diagnostic latency, bounded startup and accuracy. Simulation results are presented for several random and regular topologies, showing the performance of the algorithm under highly dynamic fault situations.EGC Distributed Evidence Propagation in Junction Trees on Clusters3244 Evidence propagation is a major step in exact inference, a key problem in exploring probabilistic graphical models. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for parallelizing evidence propagation in junction trees on clusters. Our proposed method explores structural parallelism in a given junction tree. We decompose a junction tree into a set of subtrees, each consisting of one or multiple leaf-root paths in the junction tree. In evidence propagation, we first perform evidence collection in these subtrees concurrently. Then, the partially updated subtrees exchange data for junction tree merging, so that all the cliques in the junction tree can be fully updated for evidence collection. Finally, evidence distribution is performed in all the subtrees to complete evidence propagation. Since merging subtrees requires communication across processors, we propose a technique called bitmap partitioning to explore the tradeoff between bandwidth utilization efficiency and the overhead due to the startup latency of message passing. We implemented the proposed method using Message Passing Interface (MPI) on a state-of-the-art Myrinet cluster consisting of 128 processors. Compared with a baseline method, our technique results in improved scalability.EGC3245 Distributed Packet Buffers for High-Bandwidth Switches and Routers High-speed routers rely on well-designed packet buffers that support multiple queues, provide large capacity and short response times. Some researchers suggested combined SRAM/DRAM hierarchical buffer architectures to meet these challenges. However, these architectures suffer from either large SRAM requirement or high time-complexity in the memory management. In this paper, we present scalable, efficient, and novel distributed packet buffer architecture. Two fundamental issues need to be addressed to make this architecture feasible: 1) how to minimize the overhead of an individual packet buffer; and 2) how to design scalable packet buffers using independent buffer subsystems. We address these issues by first designing an efficient compact buffer that reduces the SRAM size requirement by (k-1)/k. Then, we introduce a feasible way of coordinating multiple subsystems with a load-balancing algorithm that maximizes the overall system performance. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our load-balancing algorithm and the distributed packet buffer architecture can easily scale to meet the buffering needs of high bandwidth links and satisfy the requirements of scale and support for multiple queues.EGC Distributed Privacy-Preserving Access Control in Sensor Networks3246 IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  20. 20. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, The owner and users of a sensor network may be different, which necessitates privacy-preserving access control. On the one hand, the network owner need enforce strict access control so that the sensed data are only accessible to users willing to pay. On the other hand, users wish to protect their respective data access patterns whose disclosure may be used against their interests. This paper presents {rm DP}^2{rm{AC}}, a Distributed Privacy-Preserving Access Control scheme for sensor networks, which is the first work of its kind. Users in {rm DP}^2{rm{AC}} purchase tokens from the network owner whereby to query data from sensor nodes which will reply only after validating the tokens. The use of blind signatures in token generation ensures that tokens are publicly verifiable yet unlinkable to user identities, so privacy-preserving access control is achieved. A central component in {rm DP}^2{rm{AC}} is to prevent malicious users from reusing tokens, for which we propose a suite of distributed token reuse detection (DTRD) schemes without involving the base station. These schemes share the essential idea that a sensor node checks with some other nodes (called witnesses) whether a token has been used, but they differ in how the witnesses are chosen. We thoroughly compare their performance with regard to TRD capability, communication overhead, storage overhead, and attack resilience. The efficacy and efficiency of {rm DP}^2{rm{AC}} are confirmed by detailed performance evaluations.EGC Distributed Throughput Optimization for ZigBee Cluster-Tree Networks3247 ZigBee, a unique communication standard designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks, has extremely low complexity, cost, and power consumption for wireless connectivity in inexpensive, portable, and mobile devices. Among the well-known ZigBee topologies, ZigBee cluster-tree is especially suitable for low-power and low-cost wireless sensor networks because it supports power saving operations and light-weight routing. In a constructed wireless sensor network, the information about some area of interest may require further investigation such that more traffic will be generated. However, the restricted routing of a ZigBee cluster-tree network may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load, so the additional information may not be delivered successfully. In this paper, we present an adoptive-parent-based framework for a ZigBee cluster-tree network to increase bandwidth utilization without generating any extra message exchange. To optimize the throughput in the framework, we model the process as a vertex-constraint maximum flow problem, and develop a distributed algorithm that is fully compatible with the ZigBee standard. The optimality and convergence property of the algorithm are proved theoretically. Finally, the results of simulation experiments demonstrate the significant performance improvement achieved by the proposed framework and algorithm over existing approaches.EGC Distributed Uplink Power Control in Multiservice Wireless Networks via a Game Theoretic3248 Approach with Convex Pricing IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  21. 21. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, In this paper, the problem of efficient distributed power control via convex pricing of users transmission power in the uplink of CDMA wireless networks supporting multiple services is addressed. Each user is associated with a nested utility function, which appropriately represents his degree of satisfaction in relation to the expected trade-off between his QoS-aware actual uplink throughput performance and the corresponding power consumption. Initially, a Multiservice Uplink Power Control game (MSUPC) is formulated, where each user aims selfishly at maximizing his utility-based performance under the imposed physical limitations and its unique Nash equilibrium point is determined. Then the inefficiency of MSUPC games Nash equilibrium is proven and a usage-based convex pricing policy of the transmission power is introduced, which offers a more effective approach compared to the linear pricing schemes that have been adopted in the literature. Consequently, a Multiservice Uplink Power Control game with Convex Pricing (MSUPC-CP) is formulated and its unique Pareto optimal Nash equilibrium is determined. A distributed iterative algorithm for computing MSUPC-CP games equilibrium is proposed, while the overall approachs efficiency is illustrated via modeling and simulation.EGC3249 DRAGON: Detection and Tracking of Dynamic Amorphous Events in Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks may be deployed in many applications to detect and track events of interest. Events can be either point events with an exact location and constant shape, or region events which cover a large area and have dynamic shapes. While both types of events have received attention, no event detection and tracking protocol in existing wireless sensor network research is able to identify and track region events with dynamic identities, which arise when events are created or destroyed through splitting and merging. In this paper, we propose DRAGON, an event detection and tracking protocol which is able to handle all types of events including region events with dynamic identities. DRAGON employs two physics metaphors: event center of mass, to give an approximate location to the event; and node momentum, to guide the detection of event merges and splits. Both detailed theoretical analysis and extensive performance studies of DRAGONs properties demonstrate that DRAGONs execution is distributed among the sensor nodes, has low latency, is energy efficient, is able to run on a wide array of physical deployments, and has performance which scales well with event size, speed, and count.EGC3250 Dynamic Beacon Mobility Scheduling for Sensor Localization In mobile-beacon assisted sensor localization, beacon mobility scheduling aims to determine the best beacon trajectory so that each sensor receives sufficient beacon signals and becomes localized with minimum delay. We propose a novel DeteRministic dynamic bEAcon Mobility Scheduling (DREAMS) algorithm, without requiring any prior knowledge of the sensory field. In this algorithm, the beacon trajectory is defined as the track of Depth-First Traversal (DFT) of the network graph, thus deterministic. The mobile beacon performs DFT dynamically, under the instruction of nearby sensors on the fly. It moves from sensor to sensor in an intelligent heuristic manner according to Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based distance measurements. We prove that DREAMS guarantees full localization (every sensor is IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  22. 22. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, localized) when the measurements are noise-free, and derive the upper bound of beacon total moving distance in this case. Then, we suggest to apply node elimination and Local Minimum Spanning Tree (LMST) to shorten beacon tour and reduce delay. Further, we extend DREAMS to multibeacon scenarios. Beacons with different coordinate systems compete for localizing sensors. Loser beacons agree on winner beacons coordinate system, and become cooperative in subsequent localization. All sensors are finally localized in a commonly agreed coordinate systems. Through simulation we show that DREAMS guarantees full localization even with noisy distance measurements. We evaluate its performance on localization delay and communication overhead in comparison with a previously proposed static path- based scheduling method.EGC3251 Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling versus Batch Scheduling We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online nonclairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with lightweight online scheduling strategies can afford dramatic improvements in performance for executing HPC workloads.EGC EasyPDP: An Efficient Parallel Dynamic Programming Runtime System for Computational3252 Biology Dynamic programming (DP) is a popular and efficient technique in many scientific applications such as computational biology. Nevertheless, its performance is limited due to the burgeoning volume of scientific data, and parallelism is necessary and crucial to keep the computation time at acceptable levels. The intrinsically strong data dependency of dynamic programming makes it difficult and error-prone for the programmer to write a correct and efficient parallel program. Therefore, this paper builds a runtime system named EasyPDP aiming at parallelizing dynamic programming algorithms on multicore and multiprocessor platforms. Under the concept of software reusability and complexity reduction of parallel programming, a DAG Data Driven Model is proposed, which supports those applications with a strong data interdependence relationship. Based on the model, EasyPDP runtime system is designed and implemented. It automatically handles thread creation, dynamic data task allocation and scheduling, data partitioning, and fault tolerance. Five frequently used DAG patterns from biological dynamic programming algorithms have been put into the DAG pattern library of EasyPDP, so that the programmer can choose to use any of them according to his/her specific IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  23. 23. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, application. Besides, an ideal computing distribution model is proposed to discuss the optimal values for the performance tuning arguments of EasyPDP. We evaluate the performance potential and fault tolerance feature of EasyPDP in multicore system. We also compare EasyPDP with other methods such as Block-Cycle Wavefront (BCW). The experimental results illustrate that EasyPDP system is fine and provides an efficient infrastructure for dynamic programming algorithms.EGC3253 Efficient Communication Algorithms in Hexagonal Mesh Interconnection Networks In this paper, we show that the hexagonal mesh networks developed in the early 1990s are a special case of the EJ networks that have been considered more recently. Using a node addressing scheme based on the EJ number system, we give a shortest path routing algorithm for hexagonal mesh networks. We also extend the known efficient one-to-all broadcasting algorithm on hexagonal mesh networks to algorithms for one-to-one personalized broadcasting, all-to-all broadcasting, and all-to-all personalized broadcasting algorithms. Their time complexity and optimality are analyzed.EGC Efficient Hardware Barrier Synchronization in Many-Core CMPs3254 Traditional software-based barrier implementations for shared memory parallel machines tend to produce hotspots in terms of memory and network contention as the number of processors increases. This could limit their applicability to future many-core CMPs in which possibly several dozens of cores would need to be synchronized efficiently. In this work, we develop GBarrier, a hardware-based barrier mechanism especially aimed at providing efficient barriers in future many-core CMPs. Our proposal deploys a dedicated G-line-based network to allow for fast and efficient signaling of barrier arrival and departure. Since GBarrier does not have any influence on the memory system, we avoid all coherence activity and barrier-related network traffic that traditional approaches introduce and that restrict scalability. Through detailed simulations of a 32-core CMP, we compare GBarrier against one of the most efficient software-based barrier implementations for a set of kernels and scientific applications. Evaluation results show average reductions of 54 and 21 percent in execution time, 53 and 18 percent in network traffic, and also 76 and 31 percent in the energy-delay² product metric for the full CMP when the kernels and scientific applications, respectively, are considered.EGC3255 Efficient Master/Worker Parallel Discrete Event Simulation on Meta computing Systems The master/worker (MW) paradigm can be used as an approach to parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) on metacomputing systems. MW PDES applications incur overheads not found in conventional PDES executions executing on tightly coupled machines. We introduce four optimization techniques in MW PDES systems on public resource and desktop grid infrastructures. Work unit caching, pipelined state updates, expedited message delivery, and adaptive work IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  24. 24. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, unit scheduling mechanisms in the context of MW PDES are described. These optimizations provide significant performance benefits when used in tandem. We present results showing that an optimized MW PDES system using these techniques can exhibit performance comparable to a traditional PDES system for queueing network and particle physics simulation applications while providing execution capability across metacomputing systems.EGC Efficient Server Provisioning with Control for End-to-End Response Time Guarantee on3256 Multitier Clusters Dynamic virtual server provisioning is critical to quality-of-service assurance for multitier Internet applications. In this paper, we address three important challenging problems. First, we propose an efficient server provisioning approach on multitier clusters based on an end-to-end resource allocation optimization model. It is to minimize the number of virtual servers allocated to the system while the average end-to-end response time guarantee is satisfied. Second, we design a model-independent fuzzy controller for bounding an important performance metric, the 90th-percentile response time of requests flowing through the multitier architecture. Third, to compensate for the latency due to the dynamic addition of virtual servers, we design a self-tuning component that adaptively adjusts the output scaling factor of the fuzzy controller according to the transient behavior of the end-to-end response time. Extensive simulation results, using two representative customer behavior models in a typical three-tier web cluster, demonstrate that the provisioning approach is able to significantly reduce the number of virtual servers allocated for the performance guarantee compared to an existing representative approach. The approach integrated with the model-independent self-tuning fuzzy controller can efficiently assure the average and the 90th-percentile end-to-end response time guarantees on multitier clusters.EGC3257 Embedded Transitive Closure Network for Runtime Deadlock Detection in Networks-on-Chip Interconnection networks with adaptive routing are susceptible to deadlock, which could lead to performance degradation or system failure. Detecting deadlocks at runtime is challenging because of their highly distributed characteristics. In this paper, we present a deadlock detection method that utilizes runtime transitive closure (TC) computation to discover the existence of deadlock-equivalence sets, which imply loops of requests in networks-on-chip (NoCs). This detection scheme guarantees the discovery of all true deadlocks without false alarms in contrast with state- of-the-art approximation and heuristic approaches. A distributed TC-network architecture, which couples with the NoC infrastructure, is also presented to realize the detection mechanism efficiently. Detailed hardware realization architectures and schematics are also discussed. Our results based on a cycle-accurate simulator demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It drastically outperforms timing-based deadlock detection mechanisms by eliminating false detections and, thus, reducing energy wastage in retransmission for various traffic scenarios including real-world application. We found that timing-based methods may produce two orders of magnitude more deadlock alarms than the TC-network method. Moreover, the implementations presented in this paper demonstrate that the hardware overhead of TC-networks is insignificant. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  25. 25. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC3258 Enabling Secure and Efficient Ranked Keyword Search over Outsourced Cloud Data Cloud computing economically enables the paradigm of data service outsourcing. However, to protect data privacy, sensitive cloud data have to be encrypted before outsourced to the commercial public cloud, which makes effective data utilization service a very challenging task. Although traditional searchable encryption techniques allow users to securely search over encrypted data through keywords, they support only Boolean search and are not yet sufficient to meet the effective data utilization need that is inherently demanded by large number of users and huge amount of data files in cloud. In this paper, we define and solve the problem of secure ranked keyword search over encrypted cloud data. Ranked search greatly enhances system usability by enabling search result relevance ranking instead of sending undifferentiated results, and further ensures the file retrieval accuracy. Specifically, we explore the statistical measure approach, i.e., relevance score, from information retrieval to build a secure searchable index, and develop a one-to-many order-preserving mapping technique to properly protect those sensitive score information. The resulting design is able to facilitate efficient server-side ranking without losing keyword privacy. Thorough analysis shows that our proposed solution enjoys “as-strong-as-possible” security guarantee compared to previous searchable encryption schemes, while correctly realizing the goal of ranked keyword search. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution.EGC Energy-Efficient Scheduling of Periodic Real-Time Tasks on Lightly Loaded Multicore3259 Processors For lightly loaded multicore processors that contain more processing cores than running tasks and have dynamic voltage and frequency scaling capability, we address the energy-efficient scheduling of periodic real-time tasks. First, we introduce two energy-saving techniques for the lightly loaded multicore processors: exploiting overabundant cores for executing a task in parallel with a lower frequency and turning off power of rarely used cores. Next, we verify that if the two introduced techniques are supported, then the problem of minimizing energy consumption of real-time tasks while meeting their deadlines is NP-hard on a lightly loaded multicore processor. Finally, we propose a polynomial-time scheduling scheme that provides a near minimum-energy feasible schedule. The difference of energy consumption between the provided schedule and the minimum-energy schedule is limited. The scheme saves up to 64 percent of the processing core energy consumed by the previous scheme that executes each task on a separate core.EGC Energy-Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks3260 IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects
  26. 26. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai, Cooperative communication (CC) exploits space diversity through allowing multiple nodes cooperatively relay signals to the receiver so that the combined signal at the receiver can be correctly decoded. Since CC can reduce the transmission power and extend the transmission coverage, it has been considered in topology control protocols [1], [2]. However, prior research on topology control with CC only focuses on maintaining the network connectivity, minimizing the transmission power of each node, whereas ignores the energy efficiency of paths in constructed topologies. This may cause inefficient routes and hurt the overall network performance in cooperative ad hoc networks. In this paper, to address this problem, we introduce a new topology control problem: energy-efficient topology control problem with cooperative communication, and propose two topology control algorithms to build cooperative energy spanners in which the energy efficiency of individual paths are guaranteed. Both proposed algorithms can be performed in distributed and localized fashion while maintaining the globally efficient paths. Simulation results confirm the nice performance of all proposed algorithms.EGC Equivalent Disk Allocations3261 Declustering techniques reduce query response times through parallel I/O by distributing data among multiple devices. Except for a few cases, it is not possible to find declustering schemes that are optimal for all spatial range queries. As a result of this, most of the research on declustering have focused on finding schemes with low worst case additive error. Number-theoretic declustering techniques provide low additive error and high threshold. In this paper, we investigate equivalent disk allocations and focus on number-theoretic declustering. Most of the number-theoretic disk allocations are equivalent and provide the same additive error and threshold. Investigation of equivalent allocations simplifies schemes to find allocations with desirable properties. By keeping one of the equivalent disk allocations, we can reduce the complexity of searching for good disk allocations under various criteria such as additive error and threshold. Using proposed scheme, we were able to collect the most extensive experimental results on additive error and threshold in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions.EGC Exploiting Event-Level Parallelism for Parallel Network Simulation on Multicore Systems3262 This paper proposes a parallel simulation methodology to speed up network simulations on modern multicore systems. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of this approach and the performance speedups achieved under various network conditions. This methodology provides two unique and important advantages: 1) one can readily enjoy performance speedups without using an unfamiliar simulation language/library to rewrite his protocol module code for parallel simulations, and 2) one can conduct parallel simulations in the same way as when he conducts sequential simulations. We implemented this methodology and evaluated its performance speedups on the popular ns-2 network simulator. Our results show that this methodology is feasible and can provide satisfactory performance speedups under high event load conditions on wired networks. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Parallel and Distributed Computing Projects