P= Q x H x e x 9.81 Kilowatts (kW) Where: P = Power at the generator terminal, in kilowatts (kW). Q = Flow in pipeline, in cubic metres per second (m3/s). H = The gross head from the pipeline intake to the tailwater, in metres (m). e = The efficiency of the plant, considering head loss in the pipeline and the efficiency of the turbine and generator, expressed by a decimal (ie 85% efficiency 0.85)
1)Depending upon Capacity to generate power: Size unit size Installation Micro upto 100 kW 100 kW Mini 101 to 1000 kW 2000 kW Small 1001 to 6000 kW 15000 kW 2) Depending on head: Ultra low head: Below3 meters, Low head : Less than 30 meters, Medium head: Between 30 to 75 meters, High head : Above 75 meters,
1.Based On Their Función Storage Dam Diversion Dam2.Based On the Structural Designo Arc Damo Gravity Dam
3.Based On the Material Construction Rock Pices Dam Stone masonary Dams RCC Dam Timber & Rubber Dam4.Based On Hydraulic Design Overflow Dam Non-Over flow Dam
The edge that divides each bucket in two symmetrical parts cuts the water spurt, sectioning it in two laminae of fluid, theoretically of identical volume. This disposition allows resisting mutually the axial pushes that are originated in the bun.
The turbines that take his name have revolutionized in these years the use of jumps of little height. The Kaplan turbines are water reaction turbines of axial flow, with a bun that works in similar way to the helix of a boat. The Kaplan turbine is a helix turbine in which the blades of the bun turn itself when it is on, adjusting automatically according the work to the conditions of optimal yield.
The Francis turbine is one of the reaction turbines The radial flow causes the turn of the runner This turbine is reversible Francis turbines may be designed for a wide range of heads and flows
Total annual cost of hydro power project consists of three elements: 1. Fixed charges it includes fixed charges on plant interest taxes insurances depreciation and obsolescence 2. Operation and maintenance cost It includes operating cost, fuel cost, supervisory, labor maintenance, repair and miscellaneous expenses .the annual operation and maintenance cost is roughly proportional to the capacity of plant and the number of unit installed. The annual maintenance cost is usually taken as 1.5% of capital cost. 3. Transmission cost It covers the cost of transmission facilities to connect the power generated to the system load.