Health Psychology PowerPoint

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Health Psychology PowerPoint

  1. 1. Emotion, Stress, and Health chapter 13
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Nature of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>How to cope </li></ul>chapter 13
  3. 3. Emotion <ul><li>A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules </li></ul>chapter 13
  4. 4. The body <ul><li>Primary emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based, usually thought to include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures </li></ul>chapter 13
  5. 5. Your turn <ul><li>Which of the following is a primary emotion? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Love </li></ul><ul><li>2. Suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>3. Joy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Jealousy </li></ul>chapter 13
  6. 6. Your turn <ul><li>Which of the following is a primary emotion? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Love </li></ul><ul><li>2. Suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>3. Joy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Jealousy </li></ul>chapter 13
  7. 7. Universal expressions of emotion <ul><li>Facial expressions for primary emotions are universal. </li></ul><ul><li>Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed </li></ul>chapter 13
  8. 8. The brain and emotion <ul><li>The amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for assessing threat </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality in processing fear. </li></ul>chapter 13
  9. 9. The brain and emotion <ul><li>Mirror neurons </li></ul><ul><li>A class of neurons, distributed throughout the brain, that fire when an animal sees or hears an action and carries out the same action on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Far more evolved and varied in humans than in other animals </li></ul><ul><li>Help us recognize others’ intentions </li></ul>chapter 13
  10. 10. Hormones and emotion <ul><li>When experiencing an intense emotion, two hormones are released. </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Results in increased alertness and arousal </li></ul><ul><li>At high levels, can create sensation of being out of control emotionally </li></ul>chapter 13
  11. 11. The autonomic nervous system chapter 13
  12. 12. How thoughts create emotions <ul><li>Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>How one reacts to an event depends on how he/she explains it. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of life is also influential. </li></ul>chapter 13
  13. 13. Culture and emotion <ul><li>Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about. </li></ul><ul><li>Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., schadenfreude </li></ul><ul><li>Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Tahitian and sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages. </li></ul>chapter 13
  14. 14. Rules of emotional regulation <ul><li>Display rules </li></ul><ul><li>When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion work </li></ul><ul><li>Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture, and gaze that people constantly express </li></ul>chapter 13
  15. 15. Gender and emotion <ul><li>In North America women. . . </li></ul><ul><li>smile more than men. </li></ul><ul><li>gaze at listeners more. </li></ul><ul><li>have more emotionally expressive faces. </li></ul><ul><li>use more expressive body movements. </li></ul><ul><li>touch others more. </li></ul><ul><li>acknowledge weakness and emotions more. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to women, men only express anger to strangers more. </li></ul>chapter 13
  16. 16. Factors influencing emotional expressiveness <ul><li>Gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms </li></ul><ul><li>The specific situation </li></ul>chapter 13
  17. 17. The physiology of stress <ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to minimize wear and tear on system. </li></ul>chapter 13
  18. 18. Your turn <ul><li>During which phase of the General Adaptation Syndrome is a person most vulnerable to disease? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alarm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exhaustion </li></ul>chapter 13
  19. 19. Your turn <ul><li>During which phase of the General Adaptation Syndrome is a person most vulnerable to disease? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alarm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exhaustion </li></ul>chapter 13
  20. 20. Current approaches chapter 13
  21. 21. Stressors and the body <ul><li>Work-related problems </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Bereavement and loss </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty, powerlessness, and low status </li></ul>chapter 13
  22. 22. Explanatory styles <ul><li>Optimists: </li></ul><ul><li>Take better care of themselves when sick </li></ul><ul><li>Cope better </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on friends in hard times </li></ul>chapter 13
  23. 23. The sense of control <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>A general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control ( internal locus ) or beyond your control ( external locus ) </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of control can reduce or even eliminate the relationship between stressors and health. </li></ul>chapter 13
  24. 24. Your turn <ul><li>Suppose you have several difficult exams coming up soon. If your thought is “There’s no way I can study enough to get an A in psychology,” then what is your locus of control? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Internal </li></ul><ul><li>2. External </li></ul>chapter 13
  25. 25. Your turn <ul><li>Suppose you have several difficult exams coming up soon. If your thought is “There’s no way I can study enough to get an A in psychology,” then what is your locus of control? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Internal </li></ul><ul><li>2. External </li></ul>chapter 13
  26. 26. Benefits of control <ul><li>When exposed to cold viruses, those who are out of control are more likely to develop colds. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-income individuals with high levels of control report similar quality of life to high-income individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and executives have fewer illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans reporting more control have fewer problems with hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing home residents with greater control are more alert, happier, and live longer. </li></ul>chapter 13
  27. 27. Limits of control <ul><li>Primary control: an effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events </li></ul><ul><li>A “fighting back” philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Western cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary control: an effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions </li></ul><ul><li>A “learn to live with it” philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern cultures </li></ul>chapter 13
  28. 28. Emotions and illness <ul><li>Hostility and heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Type A personality: determined to achieve, sense of time urgency, irritable, quick to respond to threat or challenge, impatient with obstacles. </li></ul><ul><li>Type B personality: calmer, less intense </li></ul><ul><li>Cynical or antagonistic hostility is a major risk factor for heart disease </li></ul>chapter 13
  29. 29. Positive emotions <ul><li>Longitudinal study of 180 Catholic nuns found that longevity was related to frequency of positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuns whose life stories contained the most positive emotion words lived an average of nine years longer. </li></ul>chapter 13
  30. 30. Emotional inhibition <ul><li>A personality trait involving a tendency to deny feelings of anger, anxiety, or fear; stressful situations cause heart rate and blood pressure to rise sharply </li></ul><ul><li>People with this trait are more likely to fall ill than people who can acknowledge feelings. </li></ul>chapter 13
  31. 31. Letting grievances go <ul><li>Confession: divulging private thoughts and feelings that make you ashamed or depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Can also give up thoughts that produce grudges and replace them with different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving thoughts </li></ul>chapter 13
  32. 32. Cooling off <ul><li>Relaxation training </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to alternately tense and relax muscles, lie or sit quietly, or meditate by clearing the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers stress hormones, enhances immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Massage therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul>chapter 13
  33. 33. Solving the problem <ul><li>Emotion-focused and problem-focused coping </li></ul><ul><li>Effective cognitive coping methods </li></ul><ul><li>Reappraising the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Making social comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivating a sense of humor </li></ul>chapter 13
  34. 34. Looking outward <ul><li>Friends can help </li></ul><ul><li>People who have network of close connections live longer than those who do not. </li></ul><ul><li>After heart attack, those with no close contacts were twice as likely to die. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships can also cause stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving support to others can be a valuable source of comfort. </li></ul>chapter 13
  35. 35. When friends aren’t helpful Many are stressed by the responsibility of caring for others. In close relationships, the support person may also be the source of stress. Married couples who argue in a hostile way have increased elevations of stress hormones and weakened immune systems. Friends may be unsupportive or block your progress toward a goal. chapter 13

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