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Psychological Disorders PowerPoint Psychological Disorders PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

  • Psychological disorders chapter 11
  • Overview
    • Defining and diagnosing disorder
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Mood disorders
    • Personality disorders
    • Drug abuse and addiction
    • Dissociative identity disorder
    • Schizophrenia
    chapter 11
  • Dilemmas of definition
    • Possible models for defining disorders
    • As the violation of cultural standards
    • As emotional distress
    • As behavior harmful to oneself or others
    chapter 11
  • Mental disorder
    • Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive; seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others; or endangers others or the community
    chapter 11
  • Your turn
    • Psychopaths are often happy, functional people, but they manipulate and harm others without conscience. On what basis are psychopaths said to have a mental disorder?
    • A mental disorder is any behavior or mental state that
    • (1) causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive;
    • (2) seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others;
    • (3) or endangers others or the community.
    chapter 11
  • Your turn
    • Psychopaths are often happy, functional people, but they manipulate and harm others without conscience. On what basis are psychopaths said to have a mental disorder?
    • A mental disorder is any behavior or mental state that
    • (1) causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive;
    • (2) seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others;
    • (3) or endangers others or the community.
    chapter 11
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
    • Axis I: Primary clinical problem
    • Axis II: Personality disorders
    • Axis III: General medical conditions
    • Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors
    • Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
    chapter 11
  • Explosion of mental disorders
    • Supporters of new categories answer that it is important to distinguish disorders precisely.
    • Critics point to economics: diagnoses are needed for insurance reasons for therapists to be compensated.
    chapter 11
  • Concerns about diagnostic system
    • The danger of over-diagnosis
    • The power of diagnostic labels
    • Confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems
    • The illusion of objectivity and universality
    chapter 11
  • Advantages of the DSM
    • When the manual is used correctly and diagnoses are made with valid objective tests, the DSM improves the reliability of and agreement between clinicians.
    • The DSM-IV included for the first time a list of culture-bound syndromes.
    chapter 11
  • Projective tests
    • Projective tests
    • Psychological tests used to infer a person’s motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person’s interpretation of ambiguous stimuli
    • Rorschach inkblot test
    • A projective personality test that asks respondents to interpret abstract, symmetrical inkblots
    chapter 11
  • Objective tests
    • Inventories
    • Standardized objective questionnaires requiring written responses
    • Typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves
    • MMPI
    • Most widely used personality instrument
    • Clinical and employment settings
    • Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem
    chapter 11
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension
    chapter 11
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
    • An anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving the trauma, and increased physiological arousal
    • Diagnosed only if symptoms persist for six months or longer
    • May immediately follow event or occur later
    chapter 11
  • Panic disorder
    • An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring panic attacks
    • Panic attack: a feeling of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid breathing and dizziness
    chapter 11
  • Fears and phobias
    • Phobia
    • An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object
    chapter 11
  • Agoraphobia
    • A set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person.
    chapter 11
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts ( obsessions ) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors ( compulsions ) designed to reduce anxiety
    • Person understands that the ritual behavior is senseless but guilt mounts if the behavior is not performed.
    chapter 11
  • Your turn
    • If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a _____.
    • 1. Obsession; compulsion
    • 2. Compulsion; obsession
    • 3. Phobia; obsession
    • 4. Plane ticket; pet camel
    chapter 11
  • Your turn
    • If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a _____.
    • 1. Obsession; compulsion
    • 2. Compulsion; obsession
    • 3. Phobia; obsession
    • 4. Plane ticket; pet camel
    chapter 11
  • Depression
    • Major depression
    • A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one’s usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite)
    chapter 11
  • Symptoms of depression
    • Depressed mood
    • Reduced interest in almost all activities
    • Significant weight gain or loss
    • Sleeping too much or too little
    • Fatigue
    • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
    • Reduced ability to think, concentrate
    • Recurrent thoughts of death
    DSM IV requires 5 of these within the past 2 weeks chapter 11
  • Bipolar disorder
    • A mood disorder in which episodes of depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.
    chapter 11
  • Biological theories of depression
    • Studies of adopted children support genetic explanations of depression
    • 5-HTT is a gene that is present in either a long or short form.
    • 17% of individuals with the long form become severely depressed.
    • 43% of individuals with 2 copies of the short form become depressed.
    • Genetics may also influence levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters.
    chapter 11
  • Life experiences and circumstances
    • Social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances in people’s lives.
    • Loss of or problems with important relationships
    • Psychologists investigating sex differences in depression have ruled out hormones and genetics and are now investigating life circumstances. Women are less satisfied with work and family and more likely to live in poverty.
    chapter 11
  • Cognitive habits
    • Cognitive explanations emphasize habits of thinking and ways of interpreting events.
    • Depressed people believe their situation is permanent, uncontrollable.
    • Rumination
    • Brooding about negative aspects of one’s life
    chapter 11
  • Problem personalities
    • Personality disorder
    • Rigid, maladaptive patterns that cause personal distress or an inability to get along with others
    • Paranoid personality disorder
    • Characterized by habitually unreasonable and excessive suspiciousness and jealousy
    • Narcissistic personality disorder
    • Characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption
    chapter 11
  • Criminals and psychopaths
    • Antisocial personality disorder
    • Characterized by a lifelong pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior such as lawbreaking, violence, and other impulsive, restless acts
    • Psychopathy
    • Characterized by a lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety, and other social emotions; the use of deceit and manipulation, and impulsive thrill seeking
    chapter 11
  • Causes of APD and psychopathy
    • Abnormalities in the central nervous system
    • Impaired frontal-lobe functioning
    • Genetic influences
    chapter 11
  • Biology and addiction
    • The biological model holds that addiction is due primarily to a person’s biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition.
    • More evidence comes from twin studies.
    chapter 11
  • The addicted brain chapter 11
  • Learning, culture, and addiction
    • Addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment.
    • Policies of total abstinence tend to increase addiction rates rather than reduce them.
    • Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug.
    • Addiction depends on both the drug and the reason for taking it.
    chapter 11
  • Dissociative identity disorder
    • A controversial disorder marked by the appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits
    • Commonly known as Multiple Personality Disorder
    chapter 11
  • The MPD controversy
    • First view
    • MPD is common but often unrecognized as such.
    • Starts in childhood as a means of coping
    • Trauma produced a mental splitting.
    • Second view
    • Created through pressure and suggestion by clinicians
    • Handfuls to ten thousand since 1980
    chapter 11
  • Sociocognitive explanation
    • MPD is an extreme form of our ability to present many aspects of our personalities to others.
    • MPD is a socially acceptable way for some troubled people to make sense of their problems.
    • Therapists looking for MPD may reward patients with attention and praise for revealing more and more personalities.
    chapter 11
  • Symptoms of schizophrenia
    • Bizarre delusions
    • Hallucinations and heightened sensory awareness
    • Disorganized, incoherent speech
    • Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior
    • Impaired cognitive abilities
    chapter 11
  • Delusions and hallucinations
    • Delusions
    • False beliefs that often accompany schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
    • Hallucinations
    • Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation
    chapter 11
  • Genetic vulnerability
    • The risk of developing schizophrenia increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases.
    chapter 11
  • Structural brain abnormalities
    • Several abnormalities exist, especially when disease has primarily negative symptoms.
    • Decreased brain weight
    • Decreased volume in temporal lobe or hippocampus
    • Enlargement of ventricles
    • About 25% do not have these observable brain deficiencies.
    chapter 11
  • Neurotransmitter abnormalities
    • Include serotonin, glutamate, dopamine
    • Many schizophrenics have high levels of brain activity in areas served by dopamine, and greater numbers of dopamine receptors.
    • Similar abnormalities are found in depression and alcoholism.
    chapter 11
  • Prenatal or birth complications
    • Damage to the fetal brain increases chances of schizophrenia and other mental disorders.
    • May occur as a function of maternal malnutrition or illness
    • May also occur if brain injury or oxygen deprivation occurs at birth
    chapter 11
  • Adolescent abnormalities in brain development
    • Normal pruning of excessive synapses in the brain occurs during adolescence.
    • In schizophrenics, a greater number of synapses are pruned away.
    • May explain why first episode occurs in adolescence or early adulthood
    chapter 11