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Old regime
 

Old regime

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Apuntes sobre el Antiguo Régimen en inglés

Apuntes sobre el Antiguo Régimen en inglés

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    Old regime Old regime Document Transcript

    • History 4th of ESO – I.E.S. ARCIPRESTE DE HITA- UNIT 1: THE ANCIEN REGIME UNIT 1 THE OLD REGIME (ANCIEN REGIME)THE OLD REGIME (ANCIEN REGIME) The Old Regime was the socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th century. 2. Estates society. The society was divided into privileged estate and unprivileged estate. Estate society means that it was impossible to access from the unprivileged estate to the privileged one. People belonged to an estate by birth. Cristina Sevilla Zamora
    • History 4th of ESO – I.E.S. ARCIPRESTE DE HITA- UNIT 1: THE ANCIEN REGIME 3. Economic conditions. European economy was based primarily on agriculture. Peasants-farmers of France bore the burden of taxation. Often poor harvests meant that peasant had trouble paying their regular taxes. Bourgeoisie was an heterogeneous group made up from craftsmen as blacksmith to rich bankers or attorneys and civil sevants. Many of these well-off bourgeois were upset since they paid taxes, while nobles did not. Sometimes they improved their social conditions thanks to an arranged marriage: they entered nobility and ruined nobility acceded to their fortunes. Cristina Sevilla Zamora POPULATION PRIVILEGES EXEMPTIONS BURDENS FIRST ESTATE Circa 130,000 Collected the tithe Paid no taxes High- ranking clergy Control education Made up by nobility SECOND ESTATE Circa 110,000 Paid no taxes Nobles THIRD ESTATE Circa 25 millions NONE NONE Paid all taxes: Everyone else: Tithe (church tax) Taille (land tax) Moral obligations (not legal to assist the poor and needly) Censorship of the press Subject to church law rather than civil law Suport the monarchy and Old Regime. Owned 20% of the land Collected taxes in their fief Support the monarchy and Old Regime Monopolized military and state appoinments Owned 40% of the land artisans, bourgeousie, city workers, merchants, parishes and priests, beggars Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities) Corvée (forced road work) Feudal dues for use of local manor's winepress, oven
    • History 4th of ESO – I.E.S. ARCIPRESTE DE HITA- UNIT 1: THE ANCIEN REGIME The English Challenge to Absolutism Not all the nations of Europe developed absolute forms of government. England, in particular, took a different course. England had moved toward absolutism under Henry VIII, who had proclaimed himself head of the Church of England as well as king. Henry's successors, however, especially his daughter Elizabeth I, were less heavy-handed. She gave the appearance of obeying the wishes of Parliamient. Her successors, The Stuarts, decided to limit the Parliament's power since tension grew between the Crown and Parliament after James died and his second son (Charles I) came to the throne. When Charles was unable to persuade Parliament to give him money, he began imposing taxes and fines on the English people on his own. England erupted into civil war, which finished when, in 1649 King Charles was condemned to death and publically beheaded. Cromwell abolished the monarchy and ran England as a “commonwealth”. After Cromwell death, the Parliamient restored the monarchy under Charles II who had learnt the lesson: he worked with Parliamient. Unfortunately Charles II's brother, James, had learnt nothing and he tried to rule England without Parliamient's help. Fearful of a Catholic dynasty, a group of nobles and parliamentary leaders deposed James in Glorious Revolution of 1688. They offered the crown to his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, a protestant Prince. Before ascending the trone, William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights and finally they became a constitutional monarchy, which accepted the Parliament supremacy. Cristina Sevilla Zamora
    • History 4th of ESO – I.E.S. ARCIPRESTE DE HITA- UNIT 1: THE ANCIEN REGIME The Enlightenment In the 1700s a revolution in intellectual activity began to change many Europeans' view of their societies. Philosophers began to question the traditional foundantions of European politics and society. This change of ideas and attitudes was known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment Ideas: 1. The truth could be arrived at solely by application of reason, or logical thought, to observation, a belief known as rationalism. 2. The nature is regulated according to a uniform system of natural law. 3. People should use this knowledge to work toward perfecting both themselves and society. The Enlightment inspired a growing sense of individualism and personal freedom, and a belief in the basic equality of all individuals. 4. A growing faith in progress was one of the most significant outcomes of enlightened thought. They came to believe that human life could constantly improve. 5. One target of the philosophers was the Catholic Church. Some saw the church as an obstacle to progress since it taught people to focus attention on the afterlife instead of improving conditions on Earth. Voltaire said that the church taught people to believe in miracles, which contradicted the laws of nature. This new attitude toward religion in known as deism. Philosophers used their rational arguments to question many established patterns of European society. They emphasized the importance of education and environment in giving people the tools needed to improve society. Many of the philosophers believed that European judicial systems were injust and irrational and they asked to change it. They believed that people needed education to improve their lives an society. Under the influence of the Enlightment, many monarchs made primary education available for all children as they thought their subjects strengthened their state. Cristina Sevilla Zamora
    • History 4th of ESO – I.E.S. ARCIPRESTE DE HITA- UNIT 1: THE ANCIEN REGIME Cristina Sevilla Zamora