The Resegregation of America

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Speaker Notes
Slide 1:
• Title page
Slide 2:
• May 17, 1954
• ‘Separate But Equal’ has no place
• “decision not only legally ended segregation, it deprived segregationist practices of their moral legitimacy as well” – David Halberstam
Slide 3:
• Despite ruling, Board of Education still argued segregation was a fact of life
• Many Americans opposed Court decision and decided with Board
• Strong opposition led to white flight
• Trying to escape integration
Slide 4:
• Embodiment of American Dream
• Very populated
• Widespread car ownership and freeway system helped catalyze the move
• Increasingly large number of Americans employed…could afford new housing
Slide 5:
• African Americans still discriminated against for better paying jobs
• Could not afford housing in suburban neighborhoods
Slide 6:
• African Americans denied access to suburban dream
• Blacks not permitted to use or occupy Levittown homes
• William Levitt stood by his decision to only let Caucasians purchase his homes
Slide 7:
• By 1950s, cities in spiral of decline
• Many social problems that accompanied the rising tide of the poor
• Suburbs remained largely white while cities became increasingly nonwhite
Slide 8:
• School districts subject to integration lost approximately 50% of their white students within 10 years to the suburbs
• Division of blacks in cities and whites in suburbs led to severe educational differences
Slide 9:
• Severe educational differences
Slide 10:
• Despite billions of dollars spent, no significant improvements in academic achievement in African American schools have been made
• Suburban students take the bus or drive to school while inner-city kids must walk through crime-infested neighborhoods which puts their safety at risk
• Suspension rates for blacks is 5x higher than it is for whites
• On average, African American students are suspended at a younger age, for a longer time and more often than whites
• In integrated schools, little social interaction between races except in school-sponsored sports teams
Slide 11:
• Approximately ½ of all blacks in any given racially mixed school are enrolled in low achievement groups, compared to 1/5 for whites
• “Such racial disparity…isolates students, associates skin color with skill, and leads parents, teachers, and students alike to expect little...from blacks” - Brooks
Slide 12:
• Startling compared to suburban students who are considered up to standards for their grade-level throughout their school career
Slide 13:
• 2000 census…more blacks, Hispanics, and Asians are living in suburbs but are continuing to live apart from whites
• In past, minorities had to go to white neighborhoods to find good homes and schools
• Now they can find the same types of items in their own suburban neighborhoods
Slide 14:
• Federal Legislation- Fair Housing Act, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Fair Housing Amendments
• These have addressed the issue by outlawing prohibitive deeds and other forms of residential discrimination
Slide 15:
• 1998 poll revealed that both black and white parents believed that raising student achievement and academic standards was more important than integration
Slide 16:
• Designed to improve the preparation of preschoolers for public school
• Helpful to all low income families, black or white
Slide 17:
• Only way to achieve true equality according to black educators
• Leads population to believe that black teachers and administrators do not trust their colleagues of different races to treat minority students the same as white students
Slide 18:
• Society’s racial attitude needs to change
• If not, it will be extremely difficult to make any headway in desegregating America
Slide 19:
• America still struggling with racism and segregation
• Because of this continued segregation, America no longer provides equal opportunity and treatment to every citizen
Slide 20:
• Works cit

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  • Speaker Notes
    Slide 1:
    • Title page
    Slide 2:
    • May 17, 1954
    • ‘Separate But Equal’ has no place
    • “decision not only legally ended segregation, it deprived segregationist practices of their moral legitimacy as well” – David Halberstam
    Slide 3:
    • Despite ruling, Board of Education still argued segregation was a fact of life
    • Many Americans opposed Court decision and decided with Board
    • Strong opposition led to white flight
    • Trying to escape integration
    Slide 4:
    • Embodiment of American Dream
    • Very populated
    • Widespread car ownership and freeway system helped catalyze the move
    • Increasingly large number of Americans employed…could afford new housing
    Slide 5:
    • African Americans still discriminated against for better paying jobs
    • Could not afford housing in suburban neighborhoods
    Slide 6:
    • African Americans denied access to suburban dream
    • Blacks not permitted to use or occupy Levittown homes
    • William Levitt stood by his decision to only let Caucasians purchase his homes
    Slide 7:
    • By 1950s, cities in spiral of decline
    • Many social problems that accompanied the rising tide of the poor
    • Suburbs remained largely white while cities became increasingly nonwhite
    Slide 8:
    • School districts subject to integration lost approximately 50% of their white students within 10 years to the suburbs
    • Division of blacks in cities and whites in suburbs led to severe educational differences
    Slide 9:
    • Severe educational differences
    Slide 10:
    • Despite billions of dollars spent, no significant improvements in academic achievement in African American schools have been made
    • Suburban students take the bus or drive to school while inner-city kids must walk through crime-infested neighborhoods which puts their safety at risk
    • Suspension rates for blacks is 5x higher than it is for whites
    • On average, African American students are suspended at a younger age, for a longer time and more often than whites
    • In integrated schools, little social interaction between races except in school-sponsored sports teams
    Slide 11:
    • Approximately ½ of all blacks in any given racially mixed school are enrolled in low achievement groups, compared to 1/5 for whites
    • “Such racial disparity…isolates students, associates skin color with skill, and leads parents, teachers, and students alike to expect little...from blacks” - Brooks
    Slide 12:
    • Startling compared to suburban students who are considered up to standards for their grade-level throughout their school career
    Slide 13:
    • 2000 census…more blacks, Hispanics, and Asians are living in suburbs but are continuing to live apart from whites
    • In past, minorities had to go to white neighborhoods to find good homes and schools
    • Now they can find the same types of items in their own suburban neighborhoods
    Slide 14:
    • Federal Legislation- Fair Housing Act, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Fair Housing Amendments
    • These have addressed the issue by outlawing prohibitive deeds and other forms of residential discrimination
    Slide 15:
    • 1998 poll revealed that both black and white parents believed that raising student achievement and academic standards was more important than integration
    Slide 16:
    • Designed to improve the preparation of preschoolers for public school
    • Helpful to all low income families, black or white
    Slide 17:
    • Only way to achieve true equality according to black educators
    • Leads population to believe that black teachers and administrators do not trust their colleagues of different races to treat minority students the same as white students
    Slide 18:
    • Society’s racial attitude needs to change
    • If not, it will be extremely difficult to make any headway in desegregating America
    Slide 19:
    • America still struggling with racism and segregation
    • Because of this continued segregation, America no longer provides equal opportunity and treatment to every citizen
    Slide 20:
    Works cited
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  • The Resegregation of America

    1. 1. The Resegregation of America<br />By: Katie Murphy<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. “Segregation is a fact of life in the states where these children attend school and segregated schools help prepare the children for the reality of what their adult lives will be like.” -Board of Education <br />
    4. 4. Levittown, NY<br />America’s First Suburb<br />
    5. 5. African Americans Forced to Remain in Cities<br />
    6. 6. New homeowners agreed to a clause that bound them<br /> “not to permit the premises to be used or occupied by any other person than members of the Caucasian race…”<br />
    7. 7. 1950-1960:City Population 3%Suburban Population >60%<br />
    8. 8. Court-Ordered Integration in Schools<br />
    9. 9. All WHITE vs All BLACK<br />Schools<br />Severe Educational Differences<br />
    10. 10. Severe <br />Educational<br />Differences<br />
    11. 11. In Class Segregation<br />
    12. 12. “By the end of fourth grade, African American students are already two years behind grade level- by the time they reach twelfth grade they are four years behind.” –Educational Trust Study<br />
    13. 13. Residential Segregation Today<br />More Minorities Choosing to Live Apart from Whites<br />
    14. 14. Government Action<br />
    15. 15. Some believe that separate but equal funding is better than desegregation<br />
    16. 16. Operation Head Start<br />
    17. 17. Black Educators for Black Schools<br />
    18. 18. “I think that one thing that we need to remember when we’re talking about racial integration or desegregation in schools is that schools are part of a larger society. And we live in an incredibly race-conscious, racist society.” –Susan Eaton (Harvard University)<br />
    19. 19. No Longer Provides Equal Opportunity and Treatment to Every Citizen<br />
    20. 20. Works CitedBickford, Eric. “White Flight: The Effect of Minority Presence on Post World War II Suburbanization.” eh.net. Web. 5 April 2011.Massey, Douglas S. and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Print.Nasser, Haya El. “Minorities Make Choice to Live with their Own.” Usatoday.com. Usa Today. 9 July 2001. Web. 5 April 2011.Robinson, Susan. “Brown vs. Board of Education.” Gibbsmagazine.com. Gibbs Magazine. 25 April 2005. Web. 15 April 2011.Sabo, Kyle. “The Levittown Legacy: Segregation in Suburbia?” Hofstra.edu. Hofstra. Web. 5 April 2011.Sharp, Anne Wallace. Separate But Equal: The Desegregation of America’s Schools. Farmington Hills. Thomson Gale, 2007. Print.<br />

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