Foundations of Interaction Design

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Workshop presented as a Smart Experience course in 2007 on the history of interaction design.

Workshop presented as a Smart Experience course in 2007 on the history of interaction design.

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  • Thanks for this thoughtful article, David. I agree with the foundations you listed, but was left wondering why you didn’t include a foundation for “goal,” i.e. why I undertook the design, and why anyone else would undertake the steps of the interaction. Fully understanding the context and mechanics of relevant goals seems fundamental to any interaction design, and constrains all of the other foundations you describe. Unless by foundations you mean the components of the interaction itself, or the philosophy of the art apart from the science. http://www.vietnamtourism.org.vn
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  • Smart history of computing interfaces and what makes that history important.
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  • Great
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  • All those machines and systems! An excellent survey! Like it.
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  • Good design
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  • 1. FOUNDATIONS OF INTERACTION DESIGN Smart Experience
  • 2. IN THE SAME WAY THAT INDUSTRIAL DESIGNERS HAVE SHAPED OUR EVERYDAY LIFE THROUGH OBJECTS THEY DESIGN FOR OUR OFFICES AND FOR OUR HOMES, INTERACTION DESIGN IS SHAPING OUR LIFE WITH INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGIES — COMPUTERS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, MOBILE PHONES, AND SO ON. — GILLIAN CRAMPTON SMITH INTERACTION DESIGN INSTITUTE, IVREA Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 3. MACHINES SHAPE US WE SHAPE THE MACHINES Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 4. Goals Intention Evaluation Gulf of Execution Gulf of Evaluation Action Specification Interpretation Execution Perception INPUTS THE MACHINE DISPLAY
  • 5. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 6. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 7. WORLD WAR II AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY (1940s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 8. ENIAC (1943) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 9. SWITCHES, TAPE & PUNCH CARDS (1940s–1960s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 9
  • 10. “MAN-COMPUTER SYMBIOSIS” (1950s) “The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” — J.R. Licklider Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 11. BINAC (1949) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 11
  • 12. IBM ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS 12 (1950s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 13. UNIVAC (1956) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 13
  • 14. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 15. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches ? Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 16. MITS ALTAIR 8800 (1975) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 15
  • 17. MITS ALTAIR 8800 (1975) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 15
  • 18. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 19. Typing Interaction Pointing Interaction Whirlwind NLS LINC Xerox ALTO and STAR Apple II Apple Lisa and Mac IBM PC Windows 3.1
  • 20. WHIRLWIND (1951) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 21. LINC (1962) Designer Wesley A. Clark shown with the first Laboratory Instrument Computer (LINC) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 22. HOME COMPUTERS (70s) Apple II IBM 5150 Commodore PET Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 Commodore VIC-20 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 20
  • 23. PERSONAL COMPUTING (1975) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 24. APPLICATION INTERFACES (70s) WordStar Command Line VisiCalc Hierarchical Menus Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 25. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 26. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES Windows Icons Pointers Menus Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 24
  • 27. WINDOWS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 25
  • 28. 26 ICONS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 29. MENUS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 27
  • 30. 28 POINTERS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 31. Typing Interaction Pointing Interaction Whirlwind LINC NLS Xerox ALTO and STAR Apple II Apple Lisa and Mac IBM PC Windows 3.1
  • 32. IVAN SUTHERLAND AND SKETCHPAD (1963) The Sketchpad system makes it possible for a man and a computer to converse rapidly through the medium of line drawings. Heretofore, most interaction between man and computers has been slowed down by the need to reduce all communication to written statements that can be typed; in the past, we have been writing letters to rather than conferring with our computers. The Sketchpad system, by eliminating typed statements (except for legends) in favor of line drawings, opens up a new area of man-machine communication. Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 33. X/Y POSITION INDICATOR (THE MOUSE) (1964) “By augmenting man's intellect we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems. One objective is to develop new techniques, procedures, and systems that will better adapt people's basic information-handling capabilities to the needs, problems, and progress of society.” —Douglas Englebart Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 34. NLS – ONLINE SYSTEM (60s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 35. XEROX ALTO (1973) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 36. XEROX ALTO (1973) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 37. XEROX STAR (1981) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 38. APPLE LISA (1983) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 39. APPLE MACINTOSH (1983) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007 Page 39
  • 40. Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 41. MICROSOFT SOFTWARE IN A BOX (1990s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 42. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 43. 43 VANNEVAR BUSH AND MEMEX (1945) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 44. 44 ARPANET AND USENET (1980s) ARPANET 1977 USENET 1980 USENET 1993 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 45. WORLD WIDE WEB (1990s) First Web Browser/Editor, 1990 Netscape, 1994 Yahoo, 1994 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 46. TIMELINE OF ADOPTION Professional Use Personal Use (AND ADAPTATION!) Cards / Switches Keyboard Graphical User Interface Hypertext Networks Mobility 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 47. XEROX DYNABOOK (1968) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 48. MOBILE COMPUTING (1990s) Osborne 1 (1981) Apple Powerbook (1991) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 49. MOBILE DEVICES (2000s) Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 50. 51 Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 51. 51 LET’S RECAP. Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 52. 51 LET’S RECAP. _ Who’s the user? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 53. 51 LET’S RECAP. _ Who’s the user? _ What’s the interface? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 54. 51 LET’S RECAP. _ Who’s the user? _ What’s the interface? _ How is it used? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 55. 51 LET’S RECAP. _ Who’s the user? _ What’s the interface? _ How is it used? _ Who can afford it? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 56. BEFORE 1945: THE NEW INVENTION Who’s What’s the user? the interface? How Who can is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 57. BEFORE 1945: THE NEW INVENTION Who’s What’s the user? the interface? THE INVENTOR HIMSELF How Who can is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 58. BEFORE 1945: THE NEW INVENTION Who’s What’s the user? the interface? THE INVENTOR HIMSELF MOVING CABLES AROUND How Who can is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 59. BEFORE 1945: THE NEW INVENTION Who’s What’s the user? the interface? THE INVENTOR HIMSELF MOVING CABLES AROUND How Who can is it afford used? them? BRUTE FORCE ARITHMETIC Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 60. BEFORE 1945: THE NEW INVENTION Who’s What’s the user? the interface? THE INVENTOR HIMSELF MOVING CABLES AROUND How Who can is it afford used? them? BRUTE FORCE ARITHMETIC THE MILITARY Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 61. 1945 –1955: THE CALCULATOR Who’s What’s the the user? interface? How is it Who can used? afford them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 62. 1945 –1955: THE CALCULATOR Who’s What’s the the user? interface? EXPERTS AND PIONEERS How is it Who can used? afford them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 63. 1945 –1955: THE CALCULATOR Who’s What’s the the user? interface? EXPERTS AND PIONEERS PUNCH CARDS AND SWITCHES How is it Who can used? afford them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 64. 1945 –1955: THE CALCULATOR Who’s What’s the the user? interface? EXPERTS AND PIONEERS PUNCH CARDS AND SWITCHES How is it Who can used? afford them? HIGH SPEED CALCULATIONS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 65. 1945 –1955: THE CALCULATOR Who’s What’s the the user? interface? EXPERTS AND PIONEERS PUNCH CARDS AND SWITCHES How is it Who can used? afford them? HIGH SPEED CALCULATIONS ROCKET SCIENTISTS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 66. 1955 –1965: THE GIANT BRAIN What’s the Who’s the interface? user? Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 67. 1955 –1965: THE GIANT BRAIN What’s the Who’s the interface? user? PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 68. 1955 –1965: THE GIANT BRAIN What’s the Who’s the interface? user? PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS TELETYPE AND TERMINAL Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 69. 1955 –1965: THE GIANT BRAIN What’s the Who’s the interface? user? PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS TELETYPE AND TERMINAL Who can How is it afford used? them? COMMAND LINE INTERFACE Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 70. 1955 –1965: THE GIANT BRAIN What’s the Who’s the interface? user? PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS TELETYPE AND TERMINAL Who can How is it afford used? them? COMMAND LINE INTERFACE INFORMATION INTENSIVE BUSINESSES Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 71. 1965 –1980: WHITE COLLAR LABOR What’s the Who’s the interface? user? Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 72. 1965 –1980: WHITE COLLAR LABOR What’s the Who’s the interface? user? SPECIALIZED COMPUTER OPERATORS Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 73. 1965 –1980: WHITE COLLAR LABOR What’s the Who’s the interface? user? GREEN-SCREEN ALPHANUMERIC SPECIALIZED COMPUTER OPERATORS Who can How is it afford used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 74. 1965 –1980: WHITE COLLAR LABOR What’s the Who’s the interface? user? GREEN-SCREEN ALPHANUMERIC SPECIALIZED COMPUTER OPERATORS Who can How is it afford used? them? BATCH PROCESSING Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 75. 1965 –1980: WHITE COLLAR LABOR What’s the Who’s the interface? user? GREEN-SCREEN ALPHANUMERIC SPECIALIZED COMPUTER OPERATORS Who can How is it afford used? them? BATCH PROCESSING MOST LARGE BUSINESSESInteraction Design Foundations of September 2007
  • 76. 1980 –1995: PRODUCTIVITY TOOL Who’s What’s the the user? interface? Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 77. 1980 –1995: PRODUCTIVITY TOOL Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GEEKS Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 78. 1980 –1995: PRODUCTIVITY TOOL Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GEEKS GUIs Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 79. 1980 –1995: PRODUCTIVITY TOOL Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GEEKS GUIs Who can How is afford it used? them? SHRINK-WRAPPED SOFTWARE Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 80. 1980 –1995: PRODUCTIVITY TOOL Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GEEKS GUIs Who can How is afford it used? them? SHRINK-WRAPPED SOFTWARE UPWARDLY MOBILE HOME USERS Interaction Design Foundations of September 2007
  • 81. 1995 – ?: NETWORKED UBIQUITY Who’s What’s the the user? interface? Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 82. 1995 – ?: NETWORKED UBIQUITY Who’s What’s the the user? interface? EVERYONE. Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 83. 1995 – ?: NETWORKED UBIQUITY Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GUIs EVERYONE. Who can How is afford it used? them? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 84. 1995 – ?: NETWORKED UBIQUITY Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GUIs EVERYONE. Who can How is afford it used? them? WEB-ENABLED TOOLS Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 85. 1995 – ?: NETWORKED UBIQUITY Who’s What’s the the user? interface? GUIs EVERYONE. Who can How is afford it used? them? WEB-ENABLED TOOLS THEY’RE CHEAP! BUY SEVERAL! of Interaction Design Foundations September 2007
  • 86. WHAT NEXT? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 87. TOUCHSCREEN INTERFACES BLUR THE LINES BETWEEN INPUT AND DISPLAY Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 88. 60 NEW “VERBS” ARE A REALITY Bi-touch Pinch Voice Recognition Gestures Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 89. APPLICATIONS, DATA, CONTENT AND PROFILES ARE MOVING TO THE CLOUD. Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 90. APPLICATIONS, DATA, CONTENT AND PROFILES ARE MOVING TO THE CLOUD. Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 91. 62 “The application model is constraining to users who have integrated tasks that require multiple applications to solve.” —Jakob Nielsen Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 92. 64 WHAT DO YOU THINK IS NEXT? Foundations of Interaction Design September 2007
  • 93. 65 THANKS TO: Michael Wesch, “The Machine is Us/ing Us” Mike Tuck, “The Real History of the GUI” Jakob Nielsen, “Noncommand User Interfaces” Richard T. Griffiths, “History of the Internet for Historians (and just about everyone else)” Brad Myers, “A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology” Saul Greenberg, “History of Human Computer Interaction” Mark Rettig, “Interaction Design History In A Teeny Little Nutshell” Bill Moggridge, Designing Interactions Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things Digibarn Computer Museum Wikipedia Google Images Foundations of Interaction Design September 2008
  • 94. THANKS! 38 West 21st Street 3rd Floor New York, NY 10010 212-226-6344 main 212-898-0369 fax www.bondartscience.com info@bondartscience.com