Section 1: The Road to WWISection 1 The Road to World War ICompetition over trade and colonies led to the formation of two rival European alliances—theTriple Entente of Great Britain, France, and Russia; and the Triple Alliance, consisting ofGermany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Austria-Hungary, as well as numerous other Europeangovernments, confronted challenges from minorities who wished to establish their ownnational states. Strikes andviolent actions by Socialistlabor movements alsothreatened Europeangovernments. Many Europeanstates responded withincreasing militarism andnationalism. The assassinationof the heir to the throne ofAustria-Hungary by a BosnianSerb militant set off a chain ofdiplomatic and militarydecisions that led all of thegreat powers of Europe intoWorld War I in 1914.
Section 1: The Road to World War I (Why did the US go to war?)Zimmerman Note:•Message from German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, to his ambassador inMexico.•Britain got the message before it could reach Mexico •Message asked Mexicans to support Germans in return for land (New Mexico, Texas and Arizona)•British gave theZimmerman Note to theAmerican government•New pressure for theUS. To get involved inthe war; Germany wasclearly prepared to fightwith the Mexicans overthe Southwest UnitedStates
Section 1: The Road to WWI (Why did the US go to war?)Unrestricted Submarine Warfare•German submarine attacks on merchant and passenger ships carrying Americans (attackedships with warning them first)motivated US to fight back•Ships were carrying supplies to the allies; American casualties were a problem for US Gov’t•President Wilson believed that Americans (citizens of a neutral nation) had the “right to safetravel on the seas.” RMS Lusitania (British passenger ship sunk by a German submarine in 1915) *1,198 died (128 Americans) *Germany promised to warn ships before attacking them – passengers could escape. *Germany did not keep its promise and attacked without warning.
Section 1: The Road to WWI (Why did the US go to war?)Assassination leads to warBalkan Peninsula was known as “the powder keg of Europe”Austria-Hungary, a central power- had taken control of Bosnia in 1878 (blamed Serbia (an allied power) oftrying to subvert its power in BosniaIn June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, was shot and killed as he visitedthe Bosnian capital of Sarajevo by Garvilo Princip (19 years old), a Serbian National“Slippery Slope” of alliances leads to war.Witness to the murder: “Here Princip hadtaken his stand. As the car came abreast hestepped forward from the curb, drew hisautomatic pistol from his coat and fired twoshots. The first struck the wife of the Archduke,the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. She wasan expectant mother. She died instantly.The second bullet struck the Archduke close tothe heart. He uttered only one word, Sofia -- acall to his stricken wife. Then his head fell backand he collapsed. He died almost instantly.The officers seized Princip. They beat him overthe head with the flat of their swords. Theyknocked him down, they kicked him, scrapedthe skin from his neck with the edges of theirswords, tortured him, all but killed him."
Outbreak of War: Summer 1914• After the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip (June, 1914), Austria-Hungary sought an alliance with Germany in attacking Serbia – they needed the alliance because they feared the Russians would protect Serbia – Germany promised Austria-Hungary a “blank check” of support – promising full military and political support in their attack on Serbia• Russia mobilized (assembling troops and supplies and preparing for war) its forces in aid to Serbia in July• Germany told Russia to halt their mobilization, which Russia ignored• Germany followed the Schlieffen Plan which had the Germans mobilize against Russia and invade France at the same time; Germany declared war on France on August 3, 1914; it also issued an ultimatum to Belgium, demanding the right to move their troops through Belgian territory – This access caused Great Britain to join the war, declaring war on Germany, because the Germans violated Belgian neutrality• By August 4, 1914, all the great powers of Europe were at war.
CHAPTER 23: Causes for World War I Nationalism Imperialism Militarism AlliancesA devotion to the Competition among Countries began European powersinterests and culture European countries building large decided to protectof one’s nation- to establish colonies militaries to deter themselves byoften lead to a in South America competing countries forming alliancescompetitive nature and Africa to get raw Arms race= as one (groups of nationsbetween countries materials country began to that pledged militaryDesire for people of produce more support for eachthe same ethnicity to weapons (such as a other)have their own larger navy or other Triple Entantecountry. Increased weapons) other (Allies) Francenationalism in the countries tried to Britain, and Russialate 19th and early build their navy and Triple Alliance20th century led to weapons. Most (Central Powers)conflict throughout European countries Germany, Austria-the world. required Hungary and conscription, or Ottoman Empire forced military service for men; this caused European armies to double in size.
Section 2: World War I, 1914-1918Section 2 World War IOn the Western Front, trench warfare between France and Germany turned into astalemate and casualties mounted on both sides. On the Eastern Front, Germany andAustria–Hungary defeated Russia. The air war began in 1915, and in 1916 the Britishused armored tanks. Italy switched sides, and the Ottoman Empire joined the war onthe side of the Triple Alliance. The war broadened further when German coloniescame under attack and the British encouraged Arab princes to revolt against theOttomans. The United States entered the war in 1917 in response to the German useof submarines against passenger ships. As the war dragged on, governments took control of national economies, censored the news media, and used propaganda to bolster public opinion. Women entered the workforce in large numbers. After the war, many lost their jobs to men but gained expanded rights and status. By 1921 women had the vote in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.
Section 2: World War I, 1914-1918 1914 - 1915: Illusions & Stalemate 1916-1917 The Great Slaughter Western Front Eastern Front Trench Warfare War in the Air"West" border of "East" border of Western Front: Military First time whereGermany Germany/Austria-Hungary leaders expected troop airplanes were used in movement and trenches battle. were unfamiliar in military tactics.First Battle of the Fighting against Russia. Only move was to force "The Red Baron"Marne: 2,000 Paris Russia suffered many 100s of men to run famous German flyingtaxicabs and sent them losses toward the enemy lines ace.to the front line through "No Mans Land"Became bogged down Italy betrayed Germany in Millions of men diedin trench warfare the Triple Alliace & this way. attacked Austria Germany was successful on War of Attrition: war the Eastern Front based on wearing the other side down.
Section 2: World War I, 1914-1918Increased Government Manipulation of Public Total War & Women Opinion-Draft (forced service in -Propaganda used to -Women took on the jobsmilitary begins in US & convince people to fight left behind that men hadBritain) (if they don’t fight they filled-Government control are weak) -Women lost jobs & hadover pricing. (Price fixing) -Protestors arrested for lower wages after the war-rationing of food opposing the war -helped give women the-Control of -Atrocities exaggerated so right to vote (Newtransportation, import & that people would feel Zealand was the firstexport justified in fighting a war. country to do this)
Section 2: WWI, Trench Warfare & Mustard GasDuring World War I, a new style of fighting known as trenchwarfare pitted two armies close enough to each other thatthey could yell across the lines. But soldiers rarely venturedinto the area between the two trenches commonly referredto as no mans land for fear of being gunned down, andbattles would often settle into a stalemate. Chemical agentssuch as mustard gas became a way to break that uneasydeadlock. Germanys first attempted at chemical warfare came in 1915 at the Battle ofYpres in Belgium, in the form of chlorine gas. The gas cleared large sections of soldiers fromthe front lines, who fled once exposed, and ultimately killed 5,000 opposing troopsChlorine gas burns the throats of its victims and causes death by as-phyxiation, much likesmoke kills people during a house fire.
Section 3: The Russian RevolutionSection 3 The Russian RevolutionRussia was unprepared for World War I and suffered massive casualties early in the war.Bread shortages and anger at the mounting casualties brought street protests led byworking-class women and a workers general strike in Petrograd. Czar Nicholas II steppeddown, ending the Romanov dynasty, and a provisional government was formed.Meanwhile, Soviets—councils representing workers and soldiers—sprang up throughoutthe country. The Bolsheviks, a party committed to violent revolution, played a crucial roleunder the leadership of V.I. Lenin. In October 1917, the Bolsheviks overthrew theprovisional government. Civil war ensued between the Bolshevik, or Communist, forces and anti-Communist, or White, forces. Despite aid from the Allied forces, the anti- Communists were defeated by a well- disciplined Communist Red Army. By 1921 the Communists were in complete command of Russia. The Romanov family was murdered by Bolsheviks. Room where family was shot
Section 3: The Russian Revolution Background to the Rise of Lenin Bolsheviks Seize Power Revolution-Too many land owning poor -Soviets (working class socialist Nov 6th, 1917 Bolsheviks took-not prepared for WWI and sent radicals in St. Petersburg) power from the provincialout to fight without weapons -Bolsheviks: Followers of Karl government.-German born wife controlled Marx’s idea of socialism. Their -Renamed themselvesgovernment while Czar Nicholas leader was ЛЀНИН or Lenin ‘Communists’was off fighting. She allowed a (Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov Lenin). -March 3, 1918: Lenin madepriest, Rasputin, to advise her They led a violent revolution. peace with Germany by givingon every issue. She had 5 -1917 he saw an opportunity to up Poland, Ukraine, Finlandchildren, 4 girls 1 boy. Her son seize power. Germany sent him and Baltics. This REMOVEDhad a fatal disease which she there to cause problems. Russia from WWI.thought Rasputin could cure. -Bolsheviks promised to end -Russia moved into a civil war-Rasputin was assassinated the war, give land to the poor, between the ‘Red’ and ‘White’-March 8th 1917: women lead a give factories to the workers. Armies.revolt wanting peace & bread …..-The Red Army: Communists-July 1918: Family is executed. ……- Symbol: Hammer (Workers)(all members) …….Sickle (farmers) Lenin Trotsky Stalin Rasputin
Section 4: End of WWIAllied forces finally defeated Germany at the Second Battle of the Marne but would not makepeace with the German emperor. In the face of upheaval, William II fled Germany. SocialDemocrats then formed a democratic republic, which signed an armistice with the Allies andcrushed a Communist attempt to seize power. The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved into fourseparate states. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson sought to pave the way for a just and lastingpeace by creating the League of Nations. However, the Treaty of Versailles imposed harshpenalties on Germany. The war settlements made at the Paris Peace Conference redrew themap of Europe and dissolved the Ottoman Empire. Ignoring promises made duringthe war, France andBritain took controlof several Arab statesthrough the mandatesystem. As a result ofnew boundaries,many EasternEuropean statesincluded large ethnicminorities, settingthe stage for laterconflicts.
Section 4: End of WWIApril 6th 1917: The United States enters the war on the side of the Allies.The new troops brought a refreshed spirit to the fighting. This was just asthe Russians left the fight to concentrate on their own issues. Americansoldiers were called, ‘dough boys’. March 1918: Germany was within 50 miles of attacking Paris. They were pushed back in the 2nd Battle of the Marne on July 18th. By September, Germany knew that the war had been lost. Removed German leader The war ended November 1918 when the German people forced the autocratic government out of power and began to form a democratic government. An armistice (a truce, an agreement to end the fighting) was signed Wilhelm II of Germany on Nov. 11th.
President Wilson’s 14 points: To try and explain the war and keep the peace•Abolition of secret diplomacy by adoption of open covenants (agreements), openly arrived at.•Freedom of the seas in peace and war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action toenforce international covenants.•Removal of international trade barriers where-ever possible and establishment of equal trading conditions among thenations accepting the peace.•Reduction of armaments to the lowest point consistent with public safety.•Adjustment of colonial claims, taking into account the interests of the colonial population as well as those of the rivalcolonial powers.•Evacuation of German troops from Russian territory, and an opportunity for Russia, then engaged in the Communistrevolution, to determine its form of government without outside interference.•Evacuation of German troops from Belgium.•Evacuation and restoration by Germany of French territory, with restoration to France of Alsace-Lorraine.•Readjustment of the frontiers of Italy along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.•Opportunity of autonomous development for the peoples of Austria-Hungary.•Evacuation by the Central Powers of Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania;granting of seaports to Serbia; and international guarantees of thepolitical and economic independence and territorial integrity of theBalkan states.•Internationalization of the Dardanelles and self-determination for non-Turkish peoples under Turkish control.•An independent Poland with access to the sea.•Establishment of a general association of nations to afford mutualguarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to large andsmall nations alike
Section 4: End of WWI Treaty of Versailles: Signed June 28th, 1919 formally ended the war. Treated Germany very badly in the end by making them pay for the damages of war – called reparations. Germany was reduced in size. Russia had become the Soviet Union, or USSR.The map of Europe was re-drawn. Austria-Hungary was eliminated & Germany and Russialost land. New nations emerged: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,Czechoslovakia, Austria & Hungary. Serbia formed Yugoslavia. 10 million people had died.
Legacy of World War I• The death of almost 10 million people and the destruction caused by the war undermined the ideas of progress that had been hailed during the late 19th and early 20th century• World War I was a “total war” – it involved complete mobilization of people and resources, giving government a lot of power over daily lives (rationing, censorship, etc).• The turmoil of the war created insecurity throughout the world; revolutions broke up old empires and created new states