Chapter 24: OverviewWhat happened between the World War I and World War II? There isan age of prosperity (the 1920’s) followed by a financial depression.This low economic place lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders.People needed something to believe in.
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability• The peace settlement at the end of World War I left many nations unhappy and left border disputes simmering throughout Europe.• The League of Nations proved a weak institution.• Economic problems plagued France, Great Britain, and the German Weimar Republic. • When Germany declared that it could not continue to pay reparations, France occupied Germanys Ruhr Valley as a source of reparations.• The Dawes Plan reduced the burden of reparations and led to a period of prosperity and American investment in Europe.• Democracy was widespread, and women in many European countries gained the right to vote.• The prosperity ended with the economic collapse of 1929 and the Great Depression.• European governments tried different approaches to ending the depression. With the Great Depression, many extremist parties gained political support. The new U.S. president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pursued a policy of active government intervention in the economy that came to be known as the New Deal.
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability Weak League of French Demands Inflation in Germany Treaty of Locarno Nations-The League of Nations -France wanted German workers went on strike -Written by France andwas an intergovernmental Germany to pay their and refused to work for the Germany, it guaranteedorganization founded as a debt for WW1 which French. Germany’s new westernresult of the Paris Peace was $33,000,000,000 -Germany printed more money, borders with France &Conference that ended or 33 billion dollars. causing prices to go up (you Belgium.the First World War. It was By 1922, Germany can’t simply print more -Seemed to encouragethe first international said that they could money…it has to be backed by Peace.organization whose not pay. So, France gold) -Germany joined theprincipal mission was to sent troops into the -1914: German Inflation: League of Nations.maintain world peace. Ruhr Valley 4.5 German marks =1$ -Weak because it was-US never joined (the (Germany’s industrial -Nov 1st, 1923 130 BILLION just a promise and didSenate refused to ratify area) to collect money marks = 1$ not have enforcement tothe Treaty of Versailles), by using the mines -Nov 30th (30 days later) 142 back it up.making the league weak. and factories. TRILLION marks = 1$-Nations could not -Printed money was worthless.approve using forceagainst aggression.
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability The Great Depression Responses Causes 40% of Germans were out of work. Oct. 1929, US stock Prices on farm market crashed partly Governments did not know how to handle goods dropped because US withdrew this. funds from Germany. Governments became very involved in economic affairs increasing Marxist ideas. People followed political leaders that wanted to solve this problem. Hitler was perfect for this
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability Germany France Great Britain USWilliam II led to the Weimar Became the strongest Lost much of its industry After Germany, the USRepublic:: Had many European power. to the US and Japan. This was the worst hit by theproblems inflation, no real 1930’s brought led to unemployment. depression, withleader, other than political chaos. People The Labour Party lost 12million unemployed.Hindenburg that were politically control to the President FDR (Franklin ‘left’ communists & Conservatives. They Delano Roosevelt, A zeppelin socialists from the brought GB out of created the New Deal named for Hindenburg Popular Front depression. Economist where the government government. They John Maynard Keyes felt became more involved in started ‘collective the government should putting people back to bargaining’ (the right ‘spend’ their way out of a work. The New Deal did of unions to negotiate depression not solve unemployment. with employers) to get WWII does. I started programs a 40hr work week and 2 weeks paid vacation. that built Hoover Dam. I’m FDR.
Section 2 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes• By 1939 most European democracies had collapsed.• Only France and Great Britain remained democratic.• Benito Mussolini of Italy began his political career as a Socialist, but he abandoned socialism for fascism, which glorified the state and justified the suppression of all political dissent. • In Italy, Mussolini outlawed most political opposition and controlled the mass media, but never achieved complete totalitarian control.• After the Russian civil war, Lenin restored capitalist practices in his New Economic Policy, which prevented economic and political collapse.• After Lenins death, Joseph Stalin emerged as the most powerful Communist figure. • Stalin sidelined the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era and established totalitarian rule. • His program of rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture forced horrendous sacrifices on the population. • His political purges caused millions to be arrested, imprisoned, and executed.• Elsewhere in Eastern Europe and in Francisco Francos Spain, authoritarian regimes were mainly concerned with preserving the existing social order.
Section 2 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes Adolf Hitler: Josef Stalin: Leader of the USSR. He was in a powerful joined the position in the USSR, and took advantage by grabbing Worker’s Party, power from Leon Trotsky (later found murdered) ‘right’ wing extreme nationalism. By 1921 he was in control and U named the S head of the Nation Socialist German S Workers’ Party (Nazi Party). RBenito Mussolini, establish firstEuropean fascist movement in Italy. Military leader Francisco Franco, led forces against theFascism glorifies the state above the Spanish government. Italy & Germany sent forces toindividual with a strong central help Franco. Troops from the US and USSR went overgovernment. He formed bands of to volunteer and help. Franco establish a dictatorship.squadristi (blackshirts) to attack It was ‘authoritarian’ not ‘totalitarian’.socialists. This gave him support fromthe landowners.
Section 3 Hitler and Nazi GermanyAt the end of World War I, Adolf Hitler joined a small right-wingextremist party in Munich and eventually became its leader.Hitler staged an uprising against the government in Munich, theBeer Hall Putsch, which failed. In prison, he wrote Mein Kampf—an account of his movement and his views. Once out of prison,he expanded the Nazi party in Germany. As democracy brokedown, right-wing elites looked to Hitler for leadership. In 1933Hitler became chancellor of Germany. Amid constant chaos andconflict, Hitler used terror and repression to gain totalitariancontrol. Heinrich Himmler led the SS, or Schutzstaffeln (GuardSquadrons), a police force that maintained order. Meanwhile, amassive rearmament (building weapons for war) program putGermans back to work. Mass demonstrations and spectaclesrallied Germans around Hitlers policies. All major institutionswere brought under Nazi control. Womens primary role was tobear Aryan children. Hitlers Nuremberg Laws established officialpersecution of Jews. A more violent anti-Semitic phase began in1938 with the Kristallnacht – the night of “shattered glass” –when the Nazis destroyed synagogues and Jewish businessesand killed or rounded up Jews to send to concentration camps.Increasingly drastic steps barred Jews from attending school,earning a living, or engaging in Nazi society. Jews were alsoencouraged to emigrate.
Section 3 Hitler and Nazi Germany Hitler & his views Rise of Nazi’s Victory of Nazism The Nazi StateBorn: Austria, failed Nazis’ would need to 1930 President was 1933-1939: Aryan state wassecondary school. gain power legally Hindenburg. to be establish, 3rd Reich (1stWanted to be an artist. 1929 Nazi’s were a 1933 Hindenburg was was the Roman Empire, 2ndServed 4 years on the national party (like pressured to make Hitler was German Empire) TerrorWestern Front during the Democrats or ‘Chancellor’ and create a was used to control theWWI. Republicans) in new government people.1919 Joined German German Parliament March 23, 1933: 1935: Nuremberg Laws,Workers’ Party (right called the Reichstag Parliament pass Enabling excluded Jews from Germanwing) Hitler promised a new Act: allowed 4 years to citizenship, forbade marriages1921 Controlled the party Germany with jobs, ignore the constitution. between Jews & Germans.1923 Staged an armed showing national This gave Hitler all of the 1941 – Jews had to wearuprising (Beer Hall pride. power. Yellow starsPutsch) he was sentenced Concentration camps Nov. 9, 1938, Kristallnacht, ato prison were setup for people destructive rampage againstIn Prison, wrote Mein who opposed them. the JewsKampf (My struggle) 1933 Germany was aBook about German totalitarian stateNationalism, linked tosocial Darwinism.
Section 4 Cultural and Intellectual Trends• After World War I, radio and film became sources of entertainment as well as propaganda tools.• Hitler and the Nazis made wide use of both radio and film.• Eight-hour workdays allowed many people to enjoy mass leisure activities such as professional sporting events, as well as train, bus, and car travel.• The uncertainty of the post-war world became a prominent theme in art. • Dadaism and the surrealism of Salvador Dalí reflected absurdity in the world. • Nazi art was intended to be a new German art form. In fact, it was largely derived from nineteenth-century folk art.• Literary interest in the unconscious produced the "stream of consciousness" technique of James Joyces Ulysses .• The German novelist Hermann Hesse was influenced by psychology and Asian religions.• The revolution in physics begun by Albert Einstein continued in the 1920s with Werner Heisenbergs “uncertainty principle. “
Section 4 Cultural and Intellectual TrendsSalvador Dali, was the ‘highpriest’ of surrealism. Hepainted everyday objects,but separated them fromtheir normal contexts byplacing recognizable objectsin unrecognizablerelationships. Hitler rejected modern art as ‘degenerate’ and believed that they could create a new genuine German art. (very Nationalist)
Section 4 Cultural and Intellectual Trends Modern Art between Wars Heroic Age of Physics: Heisenberg’s Surrealism: UncertaintyDada Movement: portrayed fantasy, Principal: subatomicThe world doesn’t dreams & particles aremake sense so why nightmares. unpredictable. Thisshould art? Life has Salvador Dali. challenged Newton’snot purpose. Hannah Recognizable objects theory. AlbertHoch in unrecognizable Einstein continued places. working.