Archaeology is the study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind them. Archaeologists dig up and analyze artifacts.
Archaeologists Anthropologists often work in conjunction are the experts with archaeologists to who use these determine how people artifacts and the lived and what extinct cultures were like. remains of humans – human Modern-day anthropologists also fossils – to study existing societies, determine how sometimes by people lived their immersing themselves in another culture. lives.
Used by archaeologists to determine the ages of artifacts and fossils. It is a method of analysis that calculates the ages of objects by measuring the amount of C-14 (Carbon) left in an object. This type of dating is appropriate for objects that are no more than 50,000 years old.
Dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surrounding fossils and artifacts. This method of dating objects enables scientists to make relatively precise measurements back to about 200,000 years ago.
Hominids or Australopithecines are the earliest humanlike creatures that flourished in Africa. They were the first to use simple tools. They lived 5,000,000 to Australopithecus 1,000,000 years skull. Note the slope ago. of the face and back of the skull.Areas in Africa where earlyman has been found.
2.5 million years ago, another humanlike being evolved. Called Homo Habilis, these people developed their own tools. Homo Habilis skull. Note the prominent brow ridges; the skull is not as sloped as Australopithecus.
According to evolutionarytheory, hominids developed intoHomo Erectus around 1.5million years ago. They were thefirst to leave Africa and spreadinto Europe and Asia. They werealso the first “upright” humanbeing (hence the name“erectus”. They also learned howto use fire, which gave themmore control over their lives andenvironment. The use of firewas important when the IceAges began around 100,000 BCand didn’t end until 8,000 BC.
Green areas represent the spread of Homo Erectus; Red Dots are areas where fossils have been recovered.
Then, 250,000 years ago, a new species called Homo Sapiens (wise human beings) developed.
Neanderthals were just one type of Homo Sapiens
The first anatomicallymodern humans,known as Homosapiens sapiens,appeared in Africabetween 150,000 and200,000 years ago.Anatomically meansthey had bodiessimilar to modernman.
Humans used simple stone tools and were hunters and gatherers.Paleolithic Age means “stone age”
This is the period of the agricultural revolution. Hunting and gathering was replaced by the keeping of animals and growing food on a regular basis. Fertile Crescent
The growing of crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations and gave rise to more permanent settlements.
Neolithic farming villages were the emergence of larger civilizations. Catal Huyuk, in modern-day Anatolia (Turkey), was one of the first known settlements. From 7,500 B.C., it is a large settlement with individual houses.
To domesticate something is to tame it, or bring it under human control. This can apply to both plants and animals.The domestication of plants and animals may have been the single most revolutionary event in human history. Domesticating plants and animals was responsible for an increase in the human life span, the creation of cities…
…and the formulation of laws and government. It leads to systems of writing, the development of mathematics and science, as well as the establishment of the world’s major religions.
Once humans began to work cooperatively to grow food, they needed to establish rules for sharing water and dividing crops. They also created a system for establishing and enforcing laws. All of this was the result of the planting of the first seed.
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