Republic to Empire Small minority of Roman citizens are running the government Senate is made up of wealthy landowners who serve for life Senators and the wealthy bought large tracts of land for large-scale and highly profitable agriculture Small farmers could not compete with large-scale agriculture Created economic and social crisis in Rome as small farmers moved to Rome seeking economic opportunity
Reform: Gracchus Brothers Rome had large population of poor Made up of small farmers who gave up their land because they couldn’t compete with wealthy landowners Gracchus brothers proposed reforms to help poor Land-reform bills to prevent large scale agriculture Return public lands to small farmers Gracchus brothers were assassinated by the wealthy class for their reform ideas
Roman ArmyTraditionally, the Roman Army recruited from the landowner class, who couldafford armor and weapons.By first century BCE, the Army was stretched too thin and needed moresoldiers. Gaius Marius, a famous general, recruited his soldiers from amongthe poor. He promised land in exchange for their service. •This gave soldiers the opportunity to become landowners and possibly rise through the social classes •It made the soldiers give their allegiance to their general, not RomeOnce an army became loyal to theirgeneral instead of Rome, generalsfound themselves with more power –the power of force.Roman generals started to use theirarmies to gain political power bythreatening or actually invadingRome.
Roman GeneralsGaius Marius Lucius Cornelius Sulla Changed way armies were Civil war broke out when recruited Sulla had command of Gave generals more power army in Asia Plebs tried to give command Forced generals to enter to Marius politics to get land for their Sulla brought his army troops back to Rome and fought Marius Sulla defeated Marius and became dictator
Sulla Used dictatorship to try to restore power to the Senate instead of generals Instead showed future leaders how they could control Rome Army loyalty Bribed Tribunes of the Pleb into making laws Left behind legacy of generals seizing power by force and having Senate appoint them dictators
First Triumvirate From 82 to 31 BCE, Rome was involved in several civil wars as generals tried to gain power. In 60 BCE, three men emerged as victors and were able to dominate the political scene in Rome: Crassus, the richest man in Rome Pompey, a military hero Julius Caesar, a military commander from one of the oldest families in Rome
First Triumvirate Joined together in 60 BCE Pompey received command of Spain Crassus received command in Syria Caesar received command of Gaul (France) All three used their commands to enrich themselves and gain the loyalty of their armies Crassus was killed in 53 BCE, ending the triumvirate
First Triumvirate: Aftermath Pompey, heavily influenced by a Senate allied against Caesar, was convinced to take command of Rome Caesar was ordered to disband his army and return to Rome Caesar would face charges of treason, bribery, and illegally fighting a war in Gaul, so he refused to step down Caesar kept his army and crossed into Rome at the Rubicon (as a result, “Crossing the Rubicon” has come to mean unable to turn) Caesar marched on Rome, starting a civil war against Pompey’s forces Caesar defeated Pompey, who fled Rome with most of the Senate
Julius Caesar•Used military to seize power•Became dictator in 47 BC•Gave land to poor•Gave political offices tofriends•Weakened Senate byenlarging it•Changed to 365 day calendar(was Egyptian)
Second Triumvirate Caesar’s heir: Octavian Caesar’s nephew: Marcus Antonius Caesar’s cavalry commander: Lepidus Three men took control of Rome Lepidus went to Africa Ocatvian and Marcus Antonius split the rest of the Roman territory by East/West, Antonius took the East, went to Egypt Octavian stayed in Rome and gained power
Octavian vs. Antonius Lepidus was soon out of power, crushed between the two opposing forces of Octavian and Antonius Antonius fled to Egypt and allied himself with Cleopatra (his mistress – he fell in love with her) Octavian pursued Antony with his army, had battle at Actium Antony was defeated and a year later, he and Cleopatra committed suicide rather than surrender to Octavian
Age of Augustus After Antony’s suicide, Octavian was supreme ruler of Rome He promised to restore the Republic, but actually became the first emperor In 27BCE the Senate granted Octavian the title of “Augustus”, meaning the revered one He still controlled army, so Senate was not powerful Was granted title of imperator, or emperor
Age of Augustus Octavian kept standing military of around 150,000 men Stabilized the Roman Empire Expanded borders of known Empire Defeated when he tried to expand into Germany
Early Empire – 14 BCE – 180 CE Empire had a strong military First four emperors after Octavian were all from his family Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero
Early Empire Emperors became more powerful, took power from the Senate Emperors became more corrupt the more power they gained Nero killed all his opposition, including his own mother Military abandoned Nero, who committed suicide
Pax Romana Pax Romana was period of peace and prosperity Five good emperors came to power during Pax Romana: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Anonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius Respected ruling classes Ended arbitrary execution Maintained Peace throughout empire Domestic policies of building including aqueducts, bridges, roads, harbors
Empire Expands Rome expands under emperor Trajan Empire becomes too large to be easily governed Hadrian withdrew from Mesopotamia, strengthened fortifications along the Rhine and Danube Rivers Built Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain to keep out Picts and Scots At its height, the empire was 3.5 million square miles and had a population of over 50,000,000 people
Early Empire Emperors allowed conquered people to maintain local customs Citizenship was granted to some conquered people, especially the wealthy and those accepting of Roman rule In AD 212, the emperor Caracalla granted everyone Roman citizenship Cities are critical in spreading Roman culture, including Latin, literature, and laws Culture is Greco-Roman, since Greek was used throughout most of the Eastern part of the Empire
Economic & Social Conditions Early empire was prosperous and peaceful High levels of trade throughout the Empire Puteoli is chief port in Italy, along with Ostia, which was at the mouth of the Tiber River Luxury items came from as far east as China (along the Silk Road) Farming remained the chief occupation of Roman prosperity Large estates called latifundia dominated farming Sheep and cattle were raised on a large scale, mostly using slave labor Large gulf between the very wealthy and the poor Poor were dependent on handouts of grain from the emperor
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