• Changes in intellectual thought set the stage for the Protestant Reformation. • Christian humanists such as Erasmus were critical of Church corruption and said the Church had become involved in politics rather than matters of the spirit. • The widespread selling of indulgences prompted a monk and professor in Germany named Martin Luther to issue his famous Ninety-Five Theses criticizing Church abuses. Luther also rejected some Catholic doctrines.• Luthers movement sparked a religious revolution. Many German states became key allies for Luther as he broke with the Catholic Church and established a new religion which became known as Lutheranism.• The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was ultimately forced by the Peace of Augsburg to let German states choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.
CHRISTIAN HUMANISM Erasmus & Christian Humanism : Again, humanism is the concept that humans could reason and improve themselves. Humanists believed that if people read the classics and basic works of Christianity, they would become more pious and change society. Desiderius Erasmus was a famous humanist who started the “Philosophy of Christ” movement. Christianity should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than provide a system of beliefs that people have to practice to be saved. External church practices were not important (pilgrimages, fasts & relics) He sought reform of the Catholic church, not to break away.
RELIGION BEFORE REFORMATION Corruption in the Catholic church was rampant. Popes were too concerned with politics while the people wanted salvation. People thought that they could gain indulgences (release from punishment of sin) from relics. Other people sought salvation through mystical movements such as Modern Devotion. Downplayed religious dogma, but stressed the teachings of Jesus.
MARTIN LUTHER Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg, in Germany The Catholic church taught that faith and good works were necessary to achieve salvation. Indulgences were granted as a favor or a privilege Indulgences were payments people made to have their sins forgiven Martin Luther came to believe that humans are not saved through good works but through their faith in God. He believed no one could do enough good works to earn salvation. He was against indulgences, which didn‟t prove a person‟s good work or faith He believed “justification by faith alone” was the only way to salvation – meaning that faith in God was the only method to achieve eternal salvation
95 THESES Luther was angered by the church practices of indulgences and other abuses On October 31 , 1517, he sent a list of 95 Theses (complaints) to his church superiors He attacked indulgences and priestly abuses, He attacked the use of sacraments, relics and superstition The Catholic Church did not take Martin Luther seriously By 1520, Luther had made a definite break with the Catholic Church He asked the German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a German church Luther was excommunicated (kicked out) of the Catholic Church in 1521 The Edict of Worms made Martin Luther an outlaw within the Holy Roman Empire Luther was protected by Frederick of Saxony, who hid and protected him
LUTHERANISM Luther‟s religious movement gained support throughout Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. The German princes who adopted Lutheranism took control of Catholic churches in their territories and started forming state churches whose activities were supervised by the government Luther set up religious services to replace the Catholic mass These included a worship service with Bible readings, prayer, and song The doctrine (ideas) preached by Luther came to be known as Lutheranism, Lutheran churches were the first Protestant faith In June 1524 Luther faced a crisis when peasants revolted against German lords; Luther supported the lords and not the peasants Luther became dependent on the state to support his churches
POLITICS IN THE GERMAN REFORMATION Charles V ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which was in conflict with much of Germany because of the changing faith Charles V had a rivalry with Francis I, the king of France They had disputed territories that led to over 20 years of warfare between France and the Holy Roman Empire The pope backed the king of France The Ottoman Turks invaded the Holy Roman Empire German states supported Luther over Charles Charles was unable to defeat all the forces working against him, and he signed the Peace of Ausburg in 1555, which formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany; German rulers were able to freely choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism (it is important to note that individuals were not free to choose – they had to practice the religion chosen by the head of state).
GUTTENBERG PRINTING PRESSThe significance ofGutenberg‟s printingpress caused theexplosion of printedmaterials. By1500, 40,000 titlesprinted and between8-10 million copies• The impact of movable-type printing presses: research and literacy
ZWINGLIAN REFORMATION As Lutheranism became more accepted throughout the German states, new versions of Protestantism appeared in Europe Ulrich Zwingli was a priest in Zurich, Switzerland when the city council started introducing religious reforms Relics and images were abolished, all paintings and decorations were removed from churches Zwingli‟s movement spread to other cities in Switzerland, and he sought an alliance with Luther and the German reformers, but they were unable to agree on the sacrament of Communion War broke out between Catholics and Protestant Reformers in Switzerland in October 1531; Zwingli was killed in battle
CALVINISM John Calvin fled Catholic France for Switzerland when he converted to Protestantism He published Institutes of the Christian Religion , a summary of Protestant religious thought Calvin was very similar to Luther in his beliefs, but he emphasized predestination, the idea that God determined in advance who would be saved (the elect) and who would be damned (the reprobate) The belief in predestination gave Calvinists the conviction that they were doing God‟s work on Earth John Calvin began to reform Geneva, Switzerland, creating a church government and enforcing moral discipline using the Consistory, a special court to punish those living immoraly
REFORMATION IN ENGLAND In England, King Henr y VIII did not have a male heir to the throne; he was married to the Catholic Queen Catherine of Aragon Henry wanted to annul (end) his marriage so he could marry another woman The Pope refused to approve the annulment, so Henry VIII started the Church of England He was assisted by the archbishop of Canterbury, who joined the new Church of England, or the Anglican church In 1534 Parliament passed the Act of Su premacy , which declared the king the “only supreme head on ear th of the Church of England” - taking power away from the Pope and granting it to the king Henr y dissolved the Catholic monasteries and convents and sold their land and possessions to wealthy landowners and merchants, filling his treasur y and gaining suppor ters for his new order Henr y‟s heir Mar y (Catherine‟s daughter) tried to conver t the countr y back to Catholicism, punishing protestants and earning the name “Bloody Mar y” for her cruelty Henr y‟s daughter Elizabeth eventually usurped Mar y and ruled England as a Protestant; she‟s considered one of England‟s greatest Queens
ANABAPTISTSAnabaptists were Protestants who did not want the state to have power over the churchThe Anabaptists practiced adult baptism and served “reborn” Christians They believed all believers were equal Each Anabaptist church chose its own minister They believed in a separation between church and state They refused to hold office or bear arms
EFFECTS ON ROLE OF WOMEN Protestantism helped develop a new view of the family Special holiness associated with priests was eliminated Protestant preachers were often married, and the family was placed as the center of human life Reality did not change much for women, however, as traditional roles still existed in Protestantism: Women were expected to obey their husbands Women were expected to handle the household Women had a duty to bear children, as part of the divine plan The Protestant Reformation did not change women‟s subordinate place in society
CATHOLIC REFORMATION The Catholic Church had lost members in Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, France, the Netherlands, and England The Catholic Church experienced a resurgence and revitalization in the 16 th century The Catholic Reformation was supported by three pillars: The Jesuits, founded and led by Ignatius of Loyola, took an oath of obedience to the pope; Jesuit missionaries were very successful in restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe Reform of the Papacy helped the reformation; Pope Paul III reformed the role of the Pope and tried to end corruption in the office of pope. The Council of Trent returned the church to traditional Catholic teachings, upholding the sacraments, good works, the view of the Eucharist, and indulgences
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