Nationalism in the Middle East• Ottoman Empire in decline – losing territory and power throughout the Middle East• In 1875, Ottoman reformers seized the government and adopted a constitution; the new sultan, Abdulhamid II suspended the constitution and led an authoritarian government• A group of reformers called the Young Turks were able to force the restoration of the constitution in 1908; they deposed the sultan the next year• The Young Turks lacked strong support for their government and the stability of the empire was challenged, especially by ethnic Turks who wanted a Turkish state• The Ottoman empire aligned with Germany in World War I; the British undermined Ottoman rule by supporting Arabian nationalists in the Middle East• In 1915, the Ottoman Empire massacred Armenian Christians who were pressing for independence from the Empire; within seven months, 600,000 Armenians had been killed and 500,000 deported; 400,000 of the deported died while walking through Syria and Mesopotamia; by September, 1 million Armenians were dead, victims of genocide, or the deliberate mass murder of a particular racial, political, or cultural groups
Emergence of Turkish Republic• After World War I the Ottoman Empire collapsed• Great Britain and France made plans to divide up the Ottoman territories in the Middle East; present-day Turkey remained under Ottoman control• Greece invaded Turkey and seized the western parts of the Anatolian Peninsula• Turkish people organized under the leadership of Colonel Mustafa Kemal, who resigned from the army and summoned a national congress calling for the creation of an elected government and a new Republic of Turkey• Kemal’s forces drove the Greeks from the peninsula and in 1923, the last of the Ottoman sultans left the country, which was now officially the Turkish Republic
Modernization of Turkey• President Kemal was known as Ataturk, or “father Turk”. He tried to transform Turkey into a modern state.• A democratic system was put in place but Ataturk did not tolerate opposition and silenced his critics.• He eliminated Arabic elements from the Turkish language, created public education, and forced Turkish citizens to adopt last names, like European countries• Ataturk modernized Turkey by building factories and he attempted to modernize farming• Ataturk tried to create a secular state – one not based on religion – by abolishing the Turkish caliphate in 1924. Laws that were previously based on Islam were changed and women were granted new rights
Modern Iran• Persia was going through a change similar to Turkey• Under the Qajar dynasty (1794-1925), the country had difficulties with domestic problems and turned to Russia and Great Britain for help, which led to an increasing foreign presence• The discovery of oil in 1908 attracted more foreign interest• A Persian nationalist movement started in the 1920s; Reza Khan, an officer in the Persian army, led a military mutiny that seized control of Tehrann; Khan established himself as the Shah (king)• Reza Shah Pahlavi (the name he took) tried to institute reforms like Turkey’s, including strengthening and modernizing the government, the military, and the economic system; he did not try to remove Islamic beliefs• Reza grew closer to Nazi Germany because foreign interests pressured him with increasing demands for access to oil; the Soviet Union and Great Britain sent troops into Persia to remove the large number of Germans there; Reza Shah Pahlavi resigned and was replaced by his son
Arab Nationalism• World War I offered the Arabs an opportunity to escape from Ottoman rule• During the war, Britain supported Arab nationalist (because they had the same interests – defeating the Ottoman Empire)• After the war, Britain and France issued mandates for the Middle East that had the League of Nations supervising the region• The League of Nations granted governing rights to Great Britain, who governed Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan, while France was given Syria and Lebanon• In the 1920’s, a reform leader, Ibn Saud united Arabs in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula and established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932• Saudia Arabia began as a poor country, but the discovery of oil made the country incredibly wealthy
Problems with Palestine• Palestine was considered the homeland of the Jewish people, who had lived there in large numbers in the distant past• In the early 1900’s, Palestine was inhabited primarily by Muslims, with few Jews or Christians• Britain supported a national home for the Jews and issued the Balfour Declaration in 1917: “His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”• Arab nationalists were angry and questioned how a national home for the Jewish people could be established in an area that was 80% Muslim• Jewish settlers began arriving in Palestine and the Zionist movement drew more; by the 1930s, tension between the Jews and Muslims was high• More Jews arrived as Nazi Germany started persecuting the Jews; by 1939 there were 450,000 Jews in Palestine; the British, worried about the tension in the area, restricted immigration to 75,000 Jews over five years – a decision that would lead to even greater conflict and problems in the region
Nationalism in Africa• Africans fought in World War I in both the British and French armies; they hoped to earn independence after the war• After World War I, Africans became more politically active and began protesting foreign governments• Reform movements occurred all over the continent: • in Kenya, Harry Thuku protested the removal of taxes to England; he was arrested and people were slaughtered by the British when they protested his arrest • In Libya, Omar Mukhtar used guerrilla warfare against the Italians; the Italians responded by creating camps and crushing the revoltNew leaders that had been educated abroad began Despite all the pressure from reform to call for African independence; men like movements, Africa would not see W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey, educated success in gaining independence until in America, stressed the need for a movement known as Pan-Africanism, or the unity of all after World War II Africans
Independence in IndiaMohandas Gandhi was active in the movement for Indian self-rule priorto World War IHe was referred to as Mahatma or “Great Soul” by IndiansGandhi was a believer in non-violent resistance or civil disobedience, orthe refusal to obey laws that are unjustThe British responded violently to the Indian independence movementand killed hundreds of unarmed protestors in Amritsar; Gandhi briefly leftactive politics in response; he spent several years in prison as a result ofhis role in the protestsIn 1935, Great Britain passed the Government of India Act, whichexpanded the role of Indians in the governing process and provided theIndians with an elected two-house parliamentThe Indian National Congress (INC) was created in 1885 to seek reformsin Britain’s government of India; a new leader, Motilal Nehru wanted topush for full independence Gandhi, who believed love could overcome hate and non-violence could overcome violence, continued his campaign for independence throughout India; he encouraged Indians to avoid British schools, products, and laws In the 1930s, a new figure entered the movement, Jawaharlal Nehru entered the reform movement; he took a secular, Western, and modern approach against the British India was also experiencing difficulties between Hindus and Muslims; which eventually led to the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan
Rise of Military JapanIn Japan, manufacturing was concentrated in an enterprise called zaibatsu, which was both industrialand financial, and became huge corporations that controlled major segments of Japan’s industry By 1937, the four largest zaibatsu’s – Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, and Yasuda – controlled 21% of the banking industry, 26% of mining, and 35% of shipbuilding, plus over 60% of manufacturing and insuranceThe concentration of wealth among these companies led to economic inequalities; city workers werepoorly paid and housed, and an economic crises occurred after World War I, when increases in foodprices led to riotsTraditionalists called for a return to original Japanese values and an end to Western influenceJapan had seized land – Formosa, Korea, Manchuria – as part of their empire; this drew the concern ofWestern nations, especially the U.S., who wanted to keep Asia open for U.S. trade; in 1922, the UShosted a conference of nations that created a nine-power treaty that recognized China and affirmedthe Open Door PolicyBy the end of the 1920s, Japan saw an increase in militant forces in the government; some members ofparliament believed Japan was corrupted by Western ideas, while others were angry about cuts inmilitary spending and the government’s pacifist (peace-based) policiesDuring the 1930s, civilians formed extremist patriotic organizations; army officers invaded Manchuriawithout government approval in 1931; the government was against the invasion while the peoplesupported it; the government was rendered unable to act, and the government was soon dominated bythe military and others who supported Japanese expansionism – Japan was put on wartime status andbegan preparing for expansion abroad – through force, if necessary
Nationalism & Revolution in AsiaNew parties developed in China based on the Communist movement in theSoviet Union – the USSR actively reached out to create these partiesthroughout the worldHo Chi Minh was a communist revolutionary who trained in Moscow in the1920s; he formed a Communist-nationalist alliance with the USSRBy 1920, Central rule in China had ceased to exist and two competing partieswere fighting for control: the Chinese Communist party and Sun Yat-sen’sNationalist PartyThe Chinese Communists and Sun Yat-Sen worked together with the Sovietsto mobilize and train the army to take over all of China; problems betweenthe two groups surfaced and Chiang Kai-Shek took control after Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925; Chian Kai-Shek killed thousands of Communists and theirsupporters in the Shanghai Massacre in 1927; by 1928, he founded a newChinese republic an Nanjing, where he then worked to reunify China
Chiang Kai-Shek’s ChinaAfter the Shanghai Massacre, most of theCommunist leaders went into hiding; theytried to revive the movement among theworking classesMao Zedong,a communist organizer, ledsome communists South to Chiang Jiang;Mao believed the communists could lead arevolution of the peasants to take over ChinaChiang Kai-Sek tried to remove Communistsfrom Shanghai, then turned his attention toJiangxi Province, where Mao was recruitingMao used guerrilla tactics like sabotage and Chiang Kai-Shek used that time to build asubterfuge to fight the enemy constitutional government, carry out landIn 1934, Chiang’s troops surrounded the reforms, and modernized industryCommunist base in Jiangxi, but Mao’s army,the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) broke He also tried to unify Western innovations withthrough the lines and began their famous Chinese tradition, setting up the New LifeLong March Movement, that promoted Confucian ethicsMao’s army traveled 6,000 miles to the lastcommunist base in northwest China (in Kai-Shek faced enormous problems, including apurple on the map, above); many starved or weak central government, due to wars and internaldid not survive the march, which took over ayear strife; he was able to repair roads and infrastructure throughout China, but was less successful with land reforms and redistribution of wealth
Nationalism in Latin AmericaIn the 1920s, the United States began to The Great Depression impacted Latin Americanreplace Great Britain as the foremost economies that were dependent on the U.S.investor in Latin America; large segments of The Depression forced some Latin AmericanLatin America fell into the United States’ countries to develop industryhands A trend toward authoritarianism during theThe U.S. helped create several independent 1930s saw many Latin American countries comerepublics in Central America, but their under the control of military forces or dictatorseconomies were dependent on the UnitedStates Argentina was controlled by an oligarchy, a government controlled by the wealthy; theLatin Americans were angry by the external military helped the oligarchy maintain powercontrol of their countries; a growingnationalist consciousness led them to see Brazil - in 1889, the army overthrew thethe US as an imperialist power Brazilian monarchy and established a republic, but was ruled by the landedThe U.S. had intervened in Latin America for elites, effectively creating an oligarchy. Brazilyears, including supporting dictators, using depended on coffee exports, and the Greatmilitary intervention, and controlling Latin Depression devastate their economyAmerican governments In 1930, a military coup led to a new president who eventually made himself dictator that usedFranklin Delano Roosevelt, the U.S. secret police and other methods to control thepresident announced the Good Neighbor populationPolicy in 1933, which rejected the use ofmilitary force in Latin America
Nationalism in MexicoThe Mexican Revolution produced a fairly Culture – Latin America was influenced bystable political order that was democratic European artistry and literary movementsThe Institutional Revolutionary Party In major cities, wealthy elites invested incontrolled the major groups in Mexican modern artists, who went abroad andsociety, and the party bosses chose the brought back modern techniquespresidential candidate who was thenelected by the people One artist, Diego Rivera of Mexico, was influenced by Italian artists; he developedLazaro Cardenas was elected in 1934 and a style of mural-painting that still exists ininstituted new reforms, including Mexico todaydistributing land to the poor, standing upto the U.S. over oil, and seizing control ofthe oil fields and property of US oilcompanies
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