Section 1: The Industrial Revolution The start of the Revolution is in GREAT BRITAIN; it takes several decades to spread to other nationsContributing Cotton Coal & Iron Railroads New FactoriesFactors Production1st: agriculture New inventions The new invention 1804 first steam Created a laborproduction increased of the Steam railroad in system: had toimproved. production. Engine needed Britain. Rocket teach adults coal to heat water2nd: More -Flying Shuttle, (1st public how to be to make steam tofood, led to -Spinning Jenny run the engine. railway 1830) workers. Finedmore (James ‘Puddling’ was a travel at 50mph. for beingpeople, led to Hargreavers new process to Moved people & late, childmore workers. 1764) remove iron goods faster & workers were3rd: Had a -Water powered impurities. Iron provided jobs beaten, dismissewealthy class loom (Edmond was used to build (factories for d forthat invested $. Cartwright machines iron, coal, railroa misconduct.4th: Good 1787) ds) Eventually, unionatural ns came out ofresources this system.(rivers, coal, ironore)
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution Britain: By 1850’s Britain had ½ the world’s coal production. US: Large country that needed good transportation. Used steam to power boats and railroads. As in Britain, steam engines led to coal production and increased work in factories. Factories increased labor force. Women and children we a large part of the labor force.
Social Impact of Industrial Revolution• Growth of Population: In 1750, Europe had approximately 140 million people; by 1850, the population was approximately 266 million – Why? Decline in death rates, wars, and diseases; an increase in the food supply, famine nearly disappeared (the Irish Potato Famine in the 1840s was an exception – a million Irish died when the potato crop failed, a million others emigrated• Growth of Cities: Cities were the homes of industry; the fast pace of growth of cities led to pitiful conditions for new inhabitants who came looking for work
Industrial Middle Class• Commercial capitalism (based on trade) gave way to industrial capitalism, or capitalism based on industrial production; it created a new middle class• The new Industrial Middle Class was made up of people who built factories, brought the machines, and developed markets for the products
Industrial Working Class• Industrial Working Class was made up of industrial workers who worked 12-16 hours a day, six days a week, with ½ for lunch & dinner; no security of employment and no minimum wage.• Two-thirds of the industrial working class were women and children, until the Factory Act of 1833, which set 9 as the minimum age for employment; children between 9 and 13 could only work 9 hours a day; 13-18 year-olds could work 12 hours; women and children were paid less than men• A new pattern of work developed; men were expected to earn most of the family income while women and children performed low-paying jobs, such as laundry work, that could be done at home
Early Socialism• Socialism, a system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns and controls some means of production, such as factories or utilities• Early socialism was the idea of intellectuals who believed in the equality of all people and who wanted to replace competition with cooperation.• To later socialists, like Karl Marx, these ideas were impractical and utopian – meaning they reflected a “perfect” society that would be impossible to achieve in reality• One utopian socialist was Robert Owen, who believed that people would show their natural goodness if they lived in cooperative environments. He created a cooperative community in Scotland that was a great success, but was unable to repeat that success in the United States when he tried to build a cooperative community in Indiana.
Reaction & Revolution: SummaryAfter the defeat of Napoleon, European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore the old order and establish stable borders. Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria met regularly to maintain the new balance of power.Meanwhile, liberalism and nationalism—two philosophies that opposed the old order—were on the rise. Many liberals were middle-class men who wanted a constitution and a share in the voting rights enjoyed by landowners. Liberals tended to be nationalists as well.In 1830, Frances upper middle class overthrew the king and installed a constitutional monarchy. Belgium broke free of Dutch control. Revolts in Poland and Italy failed.Economic crises in 1846 led to a revolt of the French working classes. This time, a Second Republic was formed, under the leadership of Napoleons nephew, Louis-Napoleon. Revolts followed in German states, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. In each case the old order was restored.
Congress of Vienna1814 Sept. Congress of Vienna met inAustria: The leader was PrinceKlemmens von Metternich, who wantedto bring the ‘old’ monarchs back topower in Europe; What the congressreally accomplished was to re-draw theEuropean map because of theNapoleonic Wars, and the destruction ofthe Holy Roman Empire. They did thisto establish peace.Concert of Europe: Meetings of European rulers to try to keep peace and eventuallyadopt the Principle of Intervention: This principle gave armies to countries whererevolutions might begin.
Political Orders Do NOT compare these definitions to the use of these words in our millennium. Conservatism Liberalism NationalismBased on a system of A political philosophy Opposed the “old order;”tradition and social based largely on grew as people recognizedstability. Favored Enlightenment principles, being part of a communityobedience to political held that people should be with common institutions,authority, believed religion as free as possible from traditions, language, andwas crucial to order in government restraint. customs. More powerfulsociety. Hated revolutions Believed in protecting civil than liberalism, a person’sand didn’t want individual liberties, or the basic rights chief loyalty was to therights or representative of all people, religious Nation and not thegovernments. Were toleration for all, and monarch. Each nationalityresponsible for the representative should have its ownprinciple of intervention governments. Opposed the government. Threatenedand similar policies to “old order” of monarchy old order because itmaintain order and absolute power. combined small nation- states into larger “nations.”
European Revolutions of 1848• The European Revolutions were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It began in France in February, then spread throughout most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but the revolutions were independent; the revolutionaries didn’t cooperate across borders.• Five factors were involved in the revolutions: widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership; demand for more participation in governments and/or democracy; demands of the working classes; the surge of nationalism and the regrouping of the reactionary forces based in the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, and the peasants.• The revolutions were led by shaky ad hoc coalitions of reformers made up of the middle class and workers, but were unable to hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed while many more were forced into exile.
Revolution in France• In France, severe economic problems brought hardship to the lower middle class, workers, and peasants. Members of the middle class also wanted the right to vote.• The monarchy was overthrown in 1848 and a temporary government was set up. – Universal male suffrage (all men could vote) was established• The temporary government established workshops for the unemployed; so many attended workshops that the treasury was emptied, so the government ended the workshops; the workers were enraged by this decision and took to the streets• Government forces crushed the rebelling workers, thousands were killed or imprisoned• A new constitution was ratified in 1848 that set up the Second Republic, a representative government with a single legislature and a president; Napoleon’s nephew Louis-Napoleon was the first elected president of France
Germany• In 1815, the Congress of Vienna recognized the existence of 38 independent German states called the German Confederation• In 1848, cries for change led many German rulers to promise constitutions, a free press, and jury trials• An all-German parliament called the Frankfurt Assembly was held to prepare a constitution for a united Germany, deputies to the parliament were elected by universal male suffrage• The Frankfurt Assembly failed to achieve its goal and Germany was not united
Revolution in Europe• Austria was a multinational state – a collection of different peoples, including Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Slovaks, Romanians, and more• In March 1848, demonstrations in the major cities of Austria led to the dismissal of Metternich, the Austrian foreign minister• In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control of the capital and demanded a constitution• Hungary was given its own legislature, which made others want their own governments• In June 1848, Austrian forces crushed the Czech rebellion and by the end of October, Vienna was back in Austrian hands
Revolutions in Italy• The Congress of Vienna set up nine states in Italy, including the Kingdom of Piedmont, the Two Sicilys, and the Papal States• In 1848, a revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Ventia; revolutionaries in other Italian states took up arms and sought to create liberal constitutions and a unified Italy• By 1849, the Austrians reestablished control and crushed the revolts
National Unification & the Nation StateBreakdown of the “Concert of Europe”: Why? Russians foughtagainst the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War. Austrians didnot support Russia in this fight - making them enemies andleaving Austria without support in the ‘Concert,’ which allowedfor Italian & German unification.Italian Unification: areas in Italy began to unite as Austriaweakened its control. (North: Piedmont declared war onAustria after it had support from France. South: Garibaldiinvaded Sicily & Naples). After several wars and battles, Italywas united Sept. 20th, 1870. Rome came under the control ofthe Italians after the Franco-Prussian War. German Unification: Prussia unified with the German Confederation from Germany. This happened even before the end of the Franco-Prussian War. William I was appointed Kaiser (from the word Caesar) of Germany after Otto Von Bismarck helped gain power in Prussia.
Section 3: National unification and the National State Great Britain France Austria Russia USAAvoided national Louis-Napoleon Many wars.. Lost the Crimean Civil War fromconflict because became Napoleon Then in 1867 War, had a Czar 1861-1865.of economic III after a 97% (compromise) (king from the Abolition ofgrowth and pride vote for the created the word Caesar) slavery.of Queen Victoria. restoration of the Austria-Hungary March 3rd, 1861She ruled from empire. He state. Each had Czar Alexander Emancipation1837-1901 an era completely its own freed the serfs, Proclamationknown as the controlled the constitution, but this lead to freed slavesVictorian Age. government. He capital and unhappy and land DURING the rebuilt Paris. government, but starved poor. war and in one monarch. SLAVE states…13th amendment ultimately freed slaves.
RomanticismRomanticism: stressed feelings & emotions She dwelt among theas ways of “knowing” humankind. untrodden ways Beside the springs ofRomantic writers had characters that were Dove,misunderstood. Many wore outrageous Maid whom there wereclothes and had long hair. Ivanhoe was a none to praisepopular book for the Romantics, written by And very few to love:Walter Scott. Gothic literature grew withthe writing of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein A violet by a mossyand Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories. The stonemonster in Frankenstein was a look at Half hidden from the eye!science’s attempt to conquer nature. The —-Fair as a star, whenpoet William Wordsworth used nature as only onehis inspiration Is shining in the sky. She lived unknown, and Edgar few could know Allen When Lucy ceased to Poe be; ―The But she is in her grave, Raven and, oh, Mary Shelley & The difference to me!. ‖ Frankenstein
BeethovenIn music, Beethoven was the bridgefrom classical to romanticism. Hehad many ‘loves’ and wrote musicfor these women. He began to godeaf at the age of 26. He died at 56possibly of liver failure due todrinking. His famous works includeFur Elise and his 5th symphony.
ScienceA new age of Science: Frenchman, Louis Pasteur, saidthat germs caused disease. He came up with theconcept of “pasteurizing” things, such as milk, to killgerms. Russian, Dmitry Mendeleyev came up withclassification based upon atomic weight. Englishman,Michael Faraday created a generator that laid thefoundation for electric current. Another Englishman,Charles Darwin, published, “The Origin of Species” Darwin Faradaydiscussing the theory of evolution and natural selection.All of this scientific though increased secularism(indifference or rejection of religion) Louis Pasteur Mendeleyev
Realism Realism: The belief that the world should be viewed realistically. Politically and in the arts. Rejected romanticism. Gustave Flaubert, wrote Madame Bovary, British novelist, Charles Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol, Oliver and David Copperfield. Realism in art was a popular part of the realism movement. ThisCharles Dickens Gustave Flaubert painting by Gustave Courbert shows average people doing typical things. Not angels…wait…do I really know this stuff??? Gustave Courbert