End of Gupta Empire When we last looked at India, the Gupta’s controlled a vast Indian empire. By the 6th century, this empire collapsed and left India vulnerable to internal fighting and civil war. The internal fighting among the Indian states lasted for several centuries, with no state gaining dominant power During this time, Buddhism declined and Islam grew throughout India
Decline of Buddhism The followers of Buddhism in India eventuallysplit into two different religious schools: theTheravada and the MahayanaThe school of Theravada believed they werefollowing the original teachings of Buddha; theybelieved Buddhism was a way of life, not areligion.The school of Mahayana thought the Theravadateachings were too strict for ordinary people.They viewed Buddhism as more of a religion,not a way of life. They saw Buddha as a divinefigure; through devotion to Buddha they couldachieve salvation.
Decline of Buddhism Neither Theravada Buddhism nor Mahayana Buddhism remained popular By the 7th century, Buddhism was declining rapidly; Theravada nearly disappeared, while Mahayana was absorbed into Hinduism and Islam Buddhism became more popular in China, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia, where it is still practiced today
Islam in Early India By the 8th century, Islam had spread into India and was very popular in the northwestern corner of India Islam had a major impact on Indian civilization and eventually led to a division in the subcontinent into Hindu India and two Islamic states, Bangladesh and Pakistan Islam arrived in India when India had political disorder; the region was divided into about 70 states that fought each other constantly
Expansion of Islam In the 10th century, rebellious Turkish slaves foundeda new Islamic state known as Ghazni, located inpresent-day Afghanistan.In 997, Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of the founder ofGhazni, began attacking neighboring Hindukingdoms. By his death in 1030, he extended his rulethroughout the upper Indus Valley as far as the IndianOcean.Mahmud’s successors fought the Hindu warriors,called Rajputs, who could not compete with Ghazni’scavalry and army.By 1200, Muslim power reached across the entire plainof northern India. This Muslim state was known as theSultanate of Delhi. By 1400, this state extended intothe Deccan Plateau and ruled nearly all of the Indiansubcontinent.
Timur Lenk By the 14th century, the Sultanate of Delhi was in decline. A new military force crossed the Indus River from the northwest, raided Delhi, and then withdrew Over 100,000 Hindu prisoners were massacred before the gates of the city. Timur Lenk (Tamarlane) lead this army; he was the ruler of a Mongol state based in Samarkand to the north in the Pamir Mountains Timur Lenk seized power in 1369 and immediately began conquering other regions and expanding his empire By the 1380s, he controlled the entire region from the Caspian Sea to Mesopotamia, and large sections of India. After his death, the Moguls invaded from the north and threatened India Portugese spice traders also arrived in search of trade goods, gold, and spices.
Islam & Indian Society The Muslim rulers in India saw themselves as foreign conquerors and maintained a strict separation between themselves and the Hindu population Muslim rulers tried to convert the population to Islam, but realized there were too many Hindus to convert them all Muslim rulers reluctantly tolerated religious differences, but still had great impact on Hindu society Hindus behaved like conquered peoples, treating Muslims with suspicion and dislike
Economy From 500 – 1500, most Indians lived on the land and farmed; they paid a share of their crops to landlords who sent payments to the local ruler There were several large cities in India during this time period, where many of the landed elites, rich merchants, and other wealthy Indians lived Rulers had the most wealth; some kings were called maharaja (great king), and collected wealth from throughout their states One major source of wealth was trade; it was the cross point for the Silk Road, and center of trade for goods between Southeast Asia and East Asia Foreign trade remained high throughout this period, in spite of internal strife
Indian Culture: Architecture From 500 to 1500 religious architecture in India developed from caves to new, magnificent structures. From the 8th century on, Indian architects built monumental Hindu temples. Each temple consisted of a central shrine surrounded by a tower, a hall for worshippers, an entryway, and a porch, all set in a rectangular courtyard. The Khajuraho temple is one of the greatest examples of this type of architecture. Of 80 temples built there in the 10th century, 20 still remain.
Southeast Asia Between China & India lies the region that today is called Southeast Asia. It has two major parts: the mainland, extending south from the Chinese border to the tip of the Malay Peninsula. The second part is the archipelago, or chain of islands, most of which is part of present-day Indonesia and the Philippines.
Mainland Southeast Asia Ancient mariners called the area the “golden region” or “golden islands.” Located between India and China, Southeast Asia is a melting pot of peoples. It contains a vast mixture of races, cultures, and religions. There are several mountain ranges in the mainland, along with several fertile river valleys. The mountains are densely forested and full of malaria-bearing mosquitoes, which caused isolation among the river valleys, as it was difficult to traverse the mountains These geographical barriers prevented Southeast Asia from being unified under one government; instead separate, distinct cultures grew throughout Southeast Asia
Formation of States Between 500 and 1500 a number of organized states developed throughout Southeast Asia Each state was influenced by China and India, but they adapted the models to their own needs and created several unique states: Vietnam Angkor Thailand Burma
Vietnam The Vietnamese were conquered by China in 111 BCE; however, the Chinese struggled to control the Vietnamese who clung fiercely to their own identity When the Vietnamese threw out the Chinese, they created a new Vietnamese state called Dai Viet. They followed the Chinese model of government They followed Confucianist ideals The Vietnamese conquered the coastal region of Southeast Asia and extended from China to the Gulf of Thailand by 1600
Angkor In the 9th century, the kingdom of Angkor arose in the region that is present-day Cambodia Jayavarman united the Khmer people and established a capital at Angkor Thom. In 802, Jayavarman was crowned god-king of the people The Khmer Empire was the most powerful state in mainland Southeast Asia for several hundred years When the Thai people arrived from the north in the 14th century, Angkor began to decline In 1432, the Thai destroyed the Angkor capital and set up a new capital near Phnom Penh, the capital of present-day Cambodia
Thailand The Thai people first appeared in the 6th century as frontier people in China They began moving southward in the 11th or 12th century, as a result of the Mongol invasion of China The Thai eventually destroyed Angkor and took over the region The Thai converted to Buddhism, but also incorporated some Indian political practices, melding into a modern-day culture of Thailand
Burma The Burman people were established in the Salween and Irrawaddy River valleys, where they had migrated from Tibet in the 7th century Burmans were pastoral people, but adopted farming soon after arriving in Southeast Asia They converted to Buddhism and adopted political institutions and culture In the 11th century, they founded the first Burmese state, the kingdom of Pagan, which was powerful for 200 years Attacks from the Mongols in the late 13th century weakened Pagan, causing it to decline
Malay Peninsula Two organized states eventually emerged in the peninsula: the state of Srivijaya and the kingdom of Sailendra Srivijaya dominated the trade route passing through the Strait of Malacca and depended on trade for their wealth Sailendra was based on farming, but heavily influenced by Indian culture
Malay Peninsula In the 13th century, the kingdom of Majapahit was founded Majapahit incorporated most of the archipelago and parts of the mainland under single rule Majapahit only lasted 200 years, until the Muslim conquest of India caused Muslim merchants to settle in port cities and convert the local population Around 1400, an Islamic state began to form in Melaka, which became a major trading point in the region Almost the entire population of the region was converted to Islam and became part of the Sultanate of Melaka
Economics Two groups lived in Southeast Asia: agricultural societies and trading societies Trade in Southeast Asia expanded after the emergence of states in the area reached their greatest heights under Muslim control Demand for products from East Asia grew in Europe, increasing trade opportunities throughout Southeast Asia Southeast Asia exported: cloves, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, teak, sandalwood and rice
Social Structures Aristocrats were the top of the social ladder in most Southeast Asian societies Held political power Held economic wealth Most of the population were farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants Rice farmers tended to live at lowest level, paying heavy rent or taxes to lords or local rulers Women enjoyed greater rights in Southeast Asian than in other parts of Asia, often finding equality with men
Culture & Religion Chinese culture was the regions strongest influence Architecture throughout Cambodia, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago show Chinese-style temples and buildings Hindu and Buddhist ideas had early prominence, arriving in the first century CE Theravada Buddhism became the religion of choice for most of Southeast Asia until the arrival of Islam