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Height of imperialism

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  • 1. Height of Imperialism1819 CE – 1914 CE
  • 2. Key Terms• Imperialism: (sec 1) The extension of one nations powers over another.• Indigenous: (sec 2) Native to a region• Viceroy: (sec 3) A governor who rules in place of a monarch.• Nonviolent resistance: (sec 3) opposition a government without violence.• Creole: (sec 4) Person of European descent, living in West Indies or South America.• Monroe Doctrine: (sec 4) 1823 President James Monroe guaranteed no European interference in the Western Hemisphere.
  • 3. Section 1: Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia•Section 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast AsiaThe nineteenth century saw the emergence of a new imperialism in Asia andAfrica.•By establishing overseas colonies, Western powers saw an opportunity toimprove their access to both raw materials and new markets for theirmanufactured goods.•Racism, Social Darwinism, and the "white mans burden" all helpedWesterners justify colonization.•Virtually all of Southeast Asia came under the control of Great Britain,France, and the United States. Only Thailand stayed independent.•Colonial powers ruled either indirectly, relying mainly on local elites, ordirectly by sending a governor.•Although some local people profited from the colonial arrangement, mostsuffered from the harsh conditions of plantation work.•Resistance movements sought to protect local economic and religiousinterests but were crushed by the colonial powers.•Later, Western-educated elites led resistance movements with a new goal—national independence.
  • 4. Chapter 21: Imperialism•With industrialism, Western nationsbegin to look to Asia and Africa as Cartoon depictingsource of raw materials. British imperialism•Colonial nations want to control thepolitics and economics of colonies•Strategic and religious concernsalso come into play. “White Man’s Burden” •Colonial countries believed their efforts were justified by the following: • Desire to help the „uncivilized‟ • Desire to spread Christianity • „Social Darwinism‟ •Critics charge Europeans and Americans with using double standard (freedom and rights at home, but none in their colonial possessions). Cartoon titled „White Man‟s Burden‟
  • 5. Section 1: Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia•Between 1800 and 1900,most of Asia was carvedup by Western powers.•Great Britain developedcolonies in Singapore(city), Burma (Myanmar),New Guinea and India.•France developedcolonies in Indochina(Vietnam) Cambodia andLaos.•Thailand (Siam): Theexception, with wise kings,they kept control ofthemselves. Colonial Map of Southeast Asia•Spain: Philippines the US Direct Rule: (officials from the „mother country‟ ruletook control of the the land) Burma, Southern MekongPhilippines after Spanish- Indirect Rule: (local rulers maintained their control)American War. N. Vietnam, Dutch East Indies
  • 6. Section 1: Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia•Colonial powers would rule by differingmethods.•Indirect rule involved associations withlocal leaders.•Direct rule replaced local leaders withofficials from mother nation.•Political rights of local people varied bycolony. Fleet of Dutch East Indian trading ships Problems from Imperialism:•Demeaned local people•Abused natural resources; forced locals to grow what colonists wanted, etc.•Persecuted local religions•Stole profits from exports•Caused animosity amongst East vs. West (establishing future wars ie. WWII,Korean War and Vietnam War.
  • 7. Resistance to Colonialism in Asia•Many Asian people were unhappy withtreatment at hands of colonial rulers.•Resistance and revolts occurredthroughout Asia.•Economic and religious issues, notnationalism, generally were the focus ofresistance.Who fought Colonialism?•Monarchs fought the foreign rule.•Peasants fought against foreign rule. University of Rangoon•Educated “westernized” people based became a center ofupon nationalism. colonial resistance
  • 8. Section 2: Empire Building in AfricaSection 2 Empire Building in Africa• European control over Africa began with British annexations in West Africa.•After 1880, great power rivalries prompted France, Germany, Portugal, Belgium,and Italy to begin seeking territory in Africa.•In Egypt, an Ottoman army officer named Muhammad Ali set up an independentstate and began modernizing the country.•Great Britains interest in the Suez Canal led to Egypts establishment as a Britishprotectorate.•Belgium and France staked claims to lands around the Congo River in centralAfrica, while Germany, despite the reluctance of Bismarck, claimed territories inWest and East Africa.•British involvement in southern Africa led to the Boer War against the descendantsof seventeenth-century Dutch settlers, and then to the establishment of the Unionof South Africa.•Resentment of the colonial powers led to the emergence of nationalistmovements, especially as a new class of educated middle-class Africans began topoint to the hypocrisy and discriminatory nature of colonial rule.
  • 9. Colonialism in Africa•Prior Europeaninvolvement in Africawas limited to coasts•Africa is completelycarved up between1880 and 1900•Desire for prestige,raw materials,strategic lands droveimperialism•African efforts to resistcolonization are metwith European militarymight•Sudan, 1898: • Muslim deaths: 11,000 • British deaths: 28
  • 10. Section 2: Colonialism in Africa North Central East South• Egypt, controlled by the • Dr. Livingston • Britain and • Most heavily Ottoman Empire explored and when Germany influenced by (Muhammad Ali). he disappeared, the controlled. Europeans.• Ferdinand de Lesseps NY Times sent • Portugal and • Boers (decedents of contracted to build the Henry Stanley to Belgium also the Dutch people Suez Canal by 1869. find him. “Dr. colonized the area. AKA Afrikaners)• 1914: Egypt was a British Livingston I • British started to take protectorate. presume.” over control from the• French controlled Algeria, • Belgium colonized Boers. Tunisia & Morocco. at the urging of • Boers fought the Zulu Stanley. with Shaka as their • The Congo was leader. the area controlled • Cecil Rhodes: British, by Belgium gold/diamond, Rhodesia named after him, began the Boer War.
  • 11. Colonialism in South Africa•Boers (Afrikaners) and British desiredcontrol of strategic area of Africa.•Fought Boer War from 1899-1902 over area.•Zulu people also resisted colonialism.•In 1910, British create independent nation inSouth Africa. British officers during Boer War •As in Asia, many Africans disliked colonial rule. •Native Africans rarely were involved in governing their own nations. The flag of African Nationalism •New organizations devoted to African Nationalism grew in early 1900s.
  • 12. Section 3: British Rule in IndiaSection 3 British Rule in India•The British controlled India through the British East India Company, which had itsown forts and soldiers.•A revolt led by Indian soldiers prompted the British government to appoint aBritish viceroy to rule the country.•The British developed India economically—building railroads and creating aneducation system for the upper class.•Indians paid a high price for British rule. British manufactured goods destroyedlocal industries.•The abuses of tax collectors and the superior British attitude and lifestyle causedmany Indians to resent the British.•The Indian National Congress, made up mostly by Hindus, led calls for reform.•A Muslim League was later formed to represent Muslim concerns. The mostprominent Indian leader was Mohandas Gandhi, a Western-educated lawyerwho advocated nonviolent resistance as a way to gain independence. Tenserelations with the British led to an Indian cultural revival.
  • 13. The Sepoy Mutiny•British controlled their economic interests inIndia through East Indian Company.•Indian soldiers known as „Sepoy‟s‟ revolted in1857 due to a religious misunderstanding.•As a result, British Parliament transferscontrol of India directly to British government. A portrait depicting The Sepoy Mutiny British Colonial Rule in India •British ruled directly though viceroy and civil service. •British set up school system, and developed infrastructure. •Peace and stability at cost of freedom and rights for Indian people. British officers in India
  • 14. Sec 3: Colonial Rule in India Benefits Costs• Brought order & stability • Lost economic power to• New School system foreigners• Railroads, telegraph & postal • British textiles put women out of service established. work. • Zimandars collect taxes, abused power • Cash crops instead of food crops. • Best of everything given to Britons. • Indians never considered equals.
  • 15. Indian Nationalism•Indian nationalists worktowards reforms of Britishsystem.•Eventually nationalistspush for ouster of Britishcompletely.•Lawyer MohandasGandhi is leader.•Group uses nonviolentresistance to push for Indian nationalistindependence. Mohandas Gandhi
  • 16. Section 4: Nation Building in Latin AmericaSection 4 Nation Building in Latin America•After the Napoleonic Wars, Spanish and Portuguese authority in Latin Americabecame weak.•A slave revolt in Hispaniola was the first of many successful bids forindependence.•Many Europeans favored the restoration of Spanish control, but the AmericanMonroe Doctrine and British naval power discouraged European intervention.•Caudillos, or strong leaders backed by military force, took power throughout LatinAmerica.•American settlers in the Mexican state of Texas gained independence and, later,American statehood.•Great Britain, and later the United States, became the dominant foreign power inLatin America•. In the Spanish-American War, the United States gained control of Cuba andPuerto Rico. American investment and military intervention in Latin America grew.•Revolution in Mexico produced a new reformist constitution.•However, the new professional sector in Latin American society was generallyconservative and allied itself with landholding elites.
  • 17. Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America.Peninsulares: Top Mexico Haiti Cuba S.Americasocial class. Spanish& Portuguese Miguel Hidalgo Originally War with the Jose de San Martinofficials. Temporary (priest), Sept. called US in 1898, (Argentina) Simon 16, 1810 Hispaniola, the US Bolivar (Venezuela) ledresidence. Mestizos rose revolt led by received revolts to free S.Creoles: First up against Francois- Puerto Rico in American countriesgeneration from Spanish, but Dominique the deal. 1903 from control of SpainEuropeans. Wanted were crushed. Toussaint- US supported and Portugal.equality. Wanted Agustin de Louverture a rebellion By 1824 Peru,everything to be „free‟ Iturbide, where slaves from Colombia Uruguay, Paraguay,(press, trade etc.) became rose up to take that gave the Colombia, Venezuela, Emperor of control. First US the Argentina, Bolivia &Mestizos: Largest Mexico in 1822 independent Chile we free of Spain.social group, Indian Panama state in Latin Canal. 1822 Brazil was free& European blood. America. from Portugal.worked as servantsor laborers.
  • 18. Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America• Ideals of American Revolution spur others inLatin America to seek independence.•Local people in Mexico and Bolivia revolt Toussaint-against their colonial masters. Louverture•Haitian Toussaint-Louverture leads successfulslave revolt casting French out. of Haiti •U.S. issues Monroe Doctrine to keep European nations out of Latin America. •U.S. makes effort to keep friendly leaders in power. •Revolutionary Emiliano Zapata rallies peasants to overthrow Mexican government in 1920. Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata
  • 19. Review of Imperialism