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  • 1. The East Asian World1400 CE – 1800 CE
  • 2. China – Ming Dynasty• Ming overthrew the Mongols in 1368• Lasted until 1644• China extended its rule into Mongolia & Central Asia• Ming rulers used a central bureaucracy – Set up nationwide school system – Renovated the Grand Canal• 1406- Began construction of capitol city at Beijing; moved there in 1421• Zheng He – went on a series of seven voyages of exploration between 1405-1433 – Visited India & Africa – After emperor died, the voyages were halted • Confucian view of trading was that it was an unworthy activity
  • 3. First Contacts with the West Fall of the Ming Dynasty• 1514 – Portuguese arrive off coast of • Ming Dynasty began its decline in China the late 16th century – Portuguese were expelled from Guangzhou (Canton) for poor • Weak rulers led to government behavior (the Chinese saw the corruption Portuguese as barbarians) – Portuguese remained in Macao • High taxes caused peasant unrest• Portuguese traders brought • Poor weather created lower crop missionaries with them; this yields impacted China more than trade – Exchanged books, inventions, etc. • In 1630, an epidemic caused great loss of life • Peasants revolted; led by Li Zichengu, the peasants occupied Beijing – The emperor committed suicide
  • 4. Qing Dynasty • The Manchus, from north of the Great Wall • The Qing tried to preserve their unique (Manchuria) took the peasant revolt as an identity opportunity to take over China – Until this point, they were defined as legally – They defeated the peasant army and started the different from the rest of China Qing dynasty – Manchus made up 1% of the population • Chinese were resistant to Manchu rule; were • Qing used Chinese people to make up large forced to adopt styles of dress & hairstyles of percentage of the bureaucracy rather than Manchus to prove their loyalty try to run all of it themselves • Rebels against Manchus seized Taiwan • Kangxi (1661-1722) is considered the greatest emperor in Chinese history • Qing dynasty eventually adopted the Chinese political system – Calmed unrest in north and west China – Emperors pacified the country – He was patron of arts & letters – Corrected serious social and economic – He was tolerant of Christians problems – Restored peace & prosperity
  • 5. Westerners in China • Qianlong- 1736-1795 – was also considered a great emperor, but signs of internal problems showed up during his reign • His court was corrupt, which led to higher taxes and civil unrest • The peasants revolted once again in 1796; called the White Lotus Rebellion, it lasted until 1804 • The dynasty was declining as Europeans arrived looking for trading opportunities – Qing emperors confined all traders to Guanzhou; they could only live there from October to March • They dealt with a small number of Chinese officials – British rebelled against this system and demanded access to additional Chinese cities; – The British travelled to Beijing to pursue more trading opportunities and were soundly rejected
  • 6. Chinese Society • From 1500 to 1800, China was a primarily agricultural society (85% of Chinese people were farmers) • The economy changed dramatically in the same time period: – Population grew from less than 80 million to more than 300 million by the late 1700s – Improvements in the food supply helped population growth – Population growth meant less land available for families; the government limited the amount of land owned by the wealthy – Shortages of land in rural areas led to unrest and revolts – Dramatic changes in manufacturing, especially as trade increased among the Chinese provinces – Manufactured silk, porcelain, cotton goods, and other products • Europeans marveled at the Chinese printing industry, which led to a large book supply and low prices on books
  • 7. Chinese Economics • China did not develop commercial capitalism - private business based on profit – of Europe • Chinese merchants and manufacturers were not as independent as European merchants and manufacturers; instead, the government controlled trade and manufacturing • Many Chinese looked down on trade and manufacturing as inferior to farming • The government levied heavy taxes on manufacturing and trade, but low taxes on farming • Because trade was so limited, there was no opportunity for merchants, tradesmen, and manufacturers to grow into a wealthy middle class
  • 8. Daily Life in China Family Life Role of Women • Chinese society was organized around the family • Women were considered inferior to men • Expected to provide for everyone’s needs, including • Only males could have a formal education & education, support of children, and care of the pursue government jobs elderly • Family was expected to sacrifice individual desires • Women could not divorce or inherit property to benefit the family • Men could take a second wife if first wife was • Extended families: as many as three or four no longer satisfactory or did not produce sons generations lived under one roof • Footbinding was practiced; bound feet • Clan – related families linked through elders; became a status symbol; only women who helped wealthier families take care of poor relatives worked in the field or had an occupation did not bind their feet
  • 9. Cultural Developments in China • Chinese novels became popular; the first realistic social novel, The Golden Lotus was written in China; it depicts the corrupt life of a wealthy landlord who manipulates those around him • The Dream of the Red Chamber, written in 1791, is considered China’s most popular novel; it tells the story of two young people caught in financial and moral disintegration of a powerful Chinese clan • Ming & Qing Art – The Imperial City (Beijing) was built during this time period and is considered a prime example of Chinese architecture – Porcelain was also a popular art form; it was collected by Europeans throughout this period
  • 10. Japan Unified • After the 15th century, Japan was in chaos; Daimyos still held their families together and warred with others over land and power • Three men helped unify Japan: – Oda Nobunaga – seized the imperial capital of Kyoto; he consolidated his rule throughout central Japan – Toyotomi Hideyoshi – reigned in Osaka; by 1590 he persuaded most of the daimyos of the islands to accept his authority – Tokugawa Ieyasu – became the daimyo of Edo (Tokyo) and took control of Japan; he took the title of Shogun in 1603 • He completed the reunification of Japan; Tokugawa shoguns remained in power until 1868; this long period of Tokugawa rule was known as the “Great Peace.” Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • 11. Europeans in Japan • The first Europeans began to arrive in Japan in 1543 (the Portuguese). • At first, visitors were welcomed; the Portuguese stopped regularly in Japan for trade – Weapons, eyeglass, and tobacco were popular with the Japanese – The Daimyos purchased firearms to help them defend their territory • The first Jesuit missionary, Francis Xavier arrived in 1549; he converted several daimyo – The Jesuits destroyed ancient Japanese shrines after converting many Japanese to Christianity; the destruction of the shrines was very unpopular among the Japanese • In 1587, Hideyoshi issued an edict prohibiting Christian activities within his lands • Hideyoshi’s edict was not strictly enforced and the Jesuits kept up their activities this changed under Tokugawa, who expelled all the missionaries from Japan and then persecuted Christians in Japan • After removing all the Jesuits, Tokugawa expelled the European merchants; only a small Dutch community in Nagasaki was allowed to remain in Japan; their ships could dock in the Nagasaki harbor once per year and could only remain for three months
  • 12. Tokugawa Rule • Tokugawa rulers set out to establish control of the feudal system that had governed Japan for over 300 years – The state was divided into about 250 territories, called hans – Each han was ruled by a daimyo who were able to support themselves independently from taxes on their lands • In reality, the daimyos were controlled by the Tokugawa shogun through the hostage system – The hostage system was a method for the shogun to control the daimyo; the daimyo were required to maintain two residences: one on the han, and one in the court where the shogun was located; when the daimyo went back to the han or was absent from his residence at court, his family was required to stay in the court – The local daimyo eventually ceased to be a warrior class; instead they became managers of the lands of the daimyo – The shogun was able to control each daimyo by holding the families hostage in his royal court
  • 13. Economic Changes• Under the Tokugawa Shogunate, trade and industry began to flourish; the cities of Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka grew rapidly• By 1750, Edo had a population of over a million people and was one of the largest cities in the world – Banking flourished and paper money became the normal medium of exchange in business transactions – A Japanese merchant class emerged and began to play a significant role in the Japanese nation – Peasants were dramatically affected by high taxes; many were forced to become tenant farmers, instead of owning their own lands; there were several peasant revolts against high taxes
  • 14. Social Changes • Japan’s system was very rigid during the Tokugawa Shogunate – There were four main classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants. – Intermarriage between the classes was forbidden – The Emperor and Imperial court families were at the top of the social structure • The warrior class came next; it was composed of the shogun, daimyo, samurai, and ronin; the shogun was supreme below the emperor; the local daimyo received land and rice in exchange for military service; samurai received rice from the daimyo in exchange for their service; the ronin were warriors without masters who travelled the country seeking employment • Beneath the warriors were the peasants; they held a privileged position in society but were often poor • The Merchant class distributed food and essential goods ; they were at the bottom of the pyramid because they profited off the labor of others • At the very bottom of the social pyramid were the eta, who were outcasts; the Tokugawa regulated their residence, dress, and hairstyles • Women were restricted in Tokugawa Japan: Male head of households had authority over women’s property, marriage and divorce; women’s rights were severely restricted – Among commoners, women were also restricted; parents arranged marriages and a wife was expected to move in with her husband’s family; a wife who did not meet expectations would be divorced • In the peasant class, women were often expected to work in the fields
  • 15. Tokugawa Culture • Literature became popular during the Tokugawa period; urban fiction, novels, and poetry were the most popular genres • Kabuki theater developed during this period; Kabuki emphasized dramatic gestures, action, and music – Women were forbidden from appearing on stage • Architecture developed, partially as a result of the shogun’s requirement that daimyo’s also have a residence at court; fabulous houses and mansions were built to accommodate daimyo families • Europe had some influence on the Japanese; they studied Western medicine, astronomy, language, and art