Decline of the Qing Dynasty Dynasty began to decline after long period of peace and prosperity External pressure from the west affected Chinese society Internal pressure, including corruption, unrest, and incompetence, exacerbated by China’s rapid growth which led to food shortages
Opium War By 1800, Europeans had been in contact with China for over 200 years, but were still only allowed to trade in Guangzhou The British had an unfavorable trade balance, they bought more goods from China than they sold to China; they had to pay the difference with silver, which they did not want to do The British decided to trade opium to improve their trade balance The British brought the opium from India to China; demand for opium increased in China – opium was highly addictive; opium restored the trade balance, but upset the Chinese China made opium trade illegal; appealed to Queen to stop the British British refused to stop import of opium; the Chinese blockaded Guangzhou; the British responded with military force, starting the Opium War The Chinese were unable to match the British forces; the British destroyed the Chinese coastal and river forts; the Qing dynasty negotiated a peace The Treaty of Nanjing was signed in 1842; the Chinese opened five ports to trade, limited taxes on British goods and China paid the costs of the war China also gave the British the island of Hong Kong
Tai Ping Rebellion A peasant revolt against the government, it was led by Hong Xiuguan, a Christian convert who was convinced God had given him the mission of destroying the Qing dynasty The Tai Ping Rebellion called for social reforms, making it popular among the peasants Hong also wanted people to give up private possessions and hold lands and farms in common, with assets to be shared equally by all In March 1853, the rebels seized Nanjing and massacred 25,000 people The revolt continued for ten more years but eventually fell apart Europeans came to the aid of the Qing dynasty; in 1864 Chinese forces recaptured Nanjing and destroyed the remaining rebel forces It was one of the most devastating civil wars in history, with up to 20 million people dying
Reform in China By 1870, Qing dynasty was in decline High taxes to pay for Tai Ping rebellion Private armies funded by rich warlords who collected taxes from peasants; kept collecting taxes after war ended Government adopted Western technology while trying to keep Confucian values and institutions Built factories to create modern weapons and strengthen the military Kept civil service examinations for bureaucratic jobs Some reformers wanted democracy, but most of China saw democracy as too radical
Advance of Imperialism Russia took advantage of Qing dynasty weaknesses to force China to give up territories in North and Northeast (Siberia) In Tibet, Russia and Great Britain kept Tibet free from Chinese influence European countries began creating spheres of influence in Chinese mainland; these were areas that gave other countries exclusive trading rights; European countries negotiated directly with Chinese warlords for influence and control In 1894, China went to war with Japan over Japanese movements in Korea China was soundly defeated; and Japan received Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula (the peninsula was eventually returned to China)
100 Days of Reform In 1898, new emperor Guang Xu launched massive reform program Attempted to modernize government Adopted new educational system Allowed free press Reforms were opposed by members of court who opposed the West Guang Xu eventually imprisoned by his aunt, Empress Dowager Ci Xi
Boxer Rebellion In 1899, the US proposed an Open Door Policy that gave equal access to the Chinese trade market and preserved the unity of the Chinese empire This policy came too late to prevent the Boxer Rebellion; the Boxers were members of a secret organization called the Society of Harmonious Fists; they believed their exercises would protect them from bullets The Boxers were upset by the foreign takeover of China; their slogan was “destroy the foreigner;” they especially hated Christian missionaries In 1900, the Boxers began roaming the country and slaughtered foreign missionaries, Christians, and foreign businessmen An allied army of British, French, German, Russian, American and Japanese troops attacked Beijing in August of 1900 and restored order; the Chinese were forced to pay a heavy indemnify – a payment for damages to the Imperialist powers
Revolution in China By the 1900s, the Qing dynasty began to implement reforms in a desperate attempt to maintain power Legislative assemblies were formed, education was reformed, and the legal system got an overhaul However, the emerging middle-class and elites were not satisfied with the changes, and the poor saw no changes, which led to deep unrest throughout China A young radical, Sun Yat-Sen formed the Revive China Society to replace the Qing government Sun did not think the Chinese people were ready for democracy, he developed a three-stage takeover process: A military takeover A transitional phase to prepare for democractic rule A constitutional democracy
Revolution in China Sun united many radical groups and formed the Revolutionary Alliance, which eventually became the Nationalist Party After Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, the last emperor, Henry Pu-Yi took over the Qing dynasty In October 1911, followers of Sun Yat-Sen launched an uprising; the government was too weak to react and the Qing dynasty collapsed Sun’s party did not have enough military or political support to form a new government; they turned to General Yuan Shigai, who controlled the army; he agreed to serve as President The revolution was not very revolutionary – no new government or social order was formed, instead it led to an era of civil war After the collapse of the Qing dynasty, the military took over the country Yuan ruled as a dictator, which led to clashes with Sun’s party; he died in 1916, and China slipped into civil war
China in Transition Western influence damaged China’s economy in three ways: It introduced modern methods of transportation and communication It created an export market Integrated the Chinese market into the 19th century world economy Local industries were destroyed as people tried to profit off exports Cities grew at fast pace and became industrial and commercial centers City life began to dominate rural life; there was a battle between old and new culture in China; Western ways became popular and traditional Chinese culture was pushed into primarily rural or conservative areas
Rise of Modern Japan By 1800, the Tokugawa Shogunate had ruled Japan for over 200 years Foreigners were kept out and Japan kept itself isolated from the rest of the world Foreign powers wanted to trade with Japan; the first to successfully set up trade was the US in 1853 Japan agreed to the Treaty of Kanagawa, which opened two ports to western traders and established a US consulate In 1858, a more detailed treaty was signed that opened more ports and established US residency in Japan and an exchange of ministers
Meiji Restoration Opening ports to the west was unpopular in many parts of Japan, especially among the samurai Two territories in the south, Satsuma and Choshu, ended relations with the west, which led to military incidents with the west Leaders in Satsuma and Choshu eventually forced the Shogun to resign, which ended the shogunate system in Japan forever A new emperor, Musuhito was appointed, his reign was called the Meiji or “Enlightened Rule” The emperor was controlled by the leaders of Satsuma and Choshu, who forced him to move the capital to Tokyo
Transformation of Japanese Politics The new leaders abolished the old order and strengthened the power of the central government Meiji reformers tried to emulate Western politics and created a legislative assembly and old lords were given territories called prefectures (that still exist today) The Meiji Constitution was adopted in 1889 and was modeled after Imperial Germany’s constitution – most authority was with the executive branch Meiji rulers also set up new form of land ownership and instituted a new tax that was difficult for farmers to pay in poor crop years Meiji government promoted industrialization and started a new educational system; a close relationship between the government and private businesses was established Mieji reformers also transformed other institutions, like the military, which now had compulsory service for all Japanese men; universal education was implemented based on the American model
Joining Imperialist Nations Japan had no room for natural expansion – it was small, lacked in resources, and was densely populated Japan began territorial expansion by claiming control of the Ryukyu Islands in 1874 Japan was a strong influence in Korea, which worried the Chinese; in 1894 they went to war – the Japanese destroyed the Chinese fleet In 1904, Japan went to war with Russia over influence in Korea; the Japanese launched a surprise attack and defeated the Russians, forcing them to accept a peace treaty in 1905 In 1910, Japan annexed Korea outright, taking control of the country and leaving the Japanese as the strongest influence in Southeast Asia The US agreed to end Japanese immigration in 1907
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