Key Events Political and social changes led to the end of theCold War and the fall of communism in EasternEurope and the Soviet Union Economic challenges helped bring about andaccompanied these sweeping political and socialchanges Society and culture reflected these changes withthe advent of the women’s movement, thegrowth of technology, and a rise in terrorismaround the world Energy prices continued to climb as world oilsupplies diminish, causing economic problemsfor oil-dependent nations The computer and Internet contribute to thecreation of a truly global society Film, television, music, and advertising spreadthe American way of life throughout the world
Decline of the Soviet Union By the 1970s, the UnitedStates had entered adétente with the SovietUnion A détente is therelaxing of tensionbetween two nations Trade with Soviet Unionwas increased In 1979, the Soviet Unioninvaded Afghanistan,ending the détente andintensifying the Cold War The United Statesrefused to participate inthe 1980 Olympics, heldin the Soviet Union President Reagan gavemilitary aid to theAfghanis (those weaponswould later be usedagainst the US). When MikhailGorbachev came topower in the USSR in1985, he brought adramatic end to the ColdWar Gorbachev agreed to theINF Treaty (Intermediate-range Nuclear Force) thateliminated intermediate-range nuclear weapons Gorbachev also endedUSSR aid to governmentsin Eastern Europe, whichled to the overthrow ofmost of the communistregimes In 1989, the Berlin Wallcame down and by 1990Germany was reunified Finally, in 1991, theSoviet Union wasdissolvedGorbachev
Upheaval in the Soviet Union The fall of the Soviet Union began in the 1960s, whenLeonid Brezhnev became the dominant leader in the USSR The Brezhnev Doctrine was a policy that the USSR wouldintervene if communism was threatened in any communist state Brezhnev benefitted from the détente and felt secure becausethe USSR and US had equal amounts of nuclear arms; Brezhnevallowed the USSR to have more access to Western culture Brezhnev still punished dissidents – people who spoke outagainst the communist regime The USSR had several problems that led to its decline – thegovernment, which ran everything, became to big andcumbersome, which led to inefficiency and indifference The ruling class (government workers and leaders) becamecomplacent and corrupt; they enjoyed a much higherstandard of living than everyone else By 1980, the USSR was in deep trouble, which opened thedoor to reformers like GorbachevBrezhnev
End of the Soviet Union Gorbachev came to power in 1985 and preached the needfor radical reforms The basis of the reforms was perestroika, or restructuring Gorbachev tackled economic policy first, by adding limited freeenterprise and some private property Gorbachev allowed non-communist political parties to organizeand did away with a provision in the constitution that guaranteedthe Communist party a “leading role” in government He also created a state presidency, he was the first and lastpresident of the USSR As Gorbachev reduced government intrusion, tensionsemerged between Russians and non-Russians who lived interritories ruled by the USSR In 1989 and 1990, several USSR territories began to call forindependence, including: Soviet Georgia, Latvia, Estonia,Moldavia, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Lithuania Gorbachev was arrested in 1991 by Communist leaders whofeared the loss of their privilege and power; they tried toseize power but failed because of the efforts of BorisYeltsin, the president of the Russian Republic, led efforts toresist the rebel forces After this attempt, numerous Russian territories voted forindependence; the USSR was officially declared over inDecember of 1991; Gorbachev resigned on December 25,1991 and turned over control of Russia to Boris YeltsinBoris YeltsinYeltsin introduced afree market economy,but the transition wasdifficult. Organizedcrime grew, Yeltsinattacked theChechens, whowanted to secedefrom Russia, andRussia was in turmoil.Yeltsin was defeatedby Vladimir Putinin 2000, who is stillleading Russia today.
Eastern Europe As a result of Gorbachev’s policies, revolutions broke out throughout EasternEurope, which had been under Soviet Control since World War II. These fourcountries demonstrate how the independence process worked in Eastern Europe.Poland Czechoslovakia Romania GermanyWorker’s protestsin Poland led todemands forchange. LechWalesa organizeda national tradeunion known asSolidarity. Walesawas arrested in the1980s, but hismovementcontinued. In1988, Poland heldfree elections anda new non-communistgovernment waselected, endingcommunist rule inPoland.Communists usedrepression to maintainpower in Czechoslovakiafrom the 1960s to the1980s. In 1988 and 1989,mass demonstrationstook place throughout thecountry, in December of1989, the Communistgovernment collapsed.Vaclav Havel becamethe new president . In1993, the country wasdivided between theCzechs and Slovaks, twoethnic groups that hadbeen in conflict. The newcountries were the CzechRepublic and Slovakia.In 1965, NicolaeCeausescu was thedictator of Romania;his economic policiesled to a sharp drop inliving standards. InDecember 1989, thesecret policemurdered thousandsof demonstrators, andthe army refused tosupport Ceausescu,who was quicklycaught and executed.A new governmentformed after hisdeath.The secret police had beenused to rule East Germany fornearly 20 years. In 1989,many East Germans fled thecountry. Mass demonstrationsbroke out in 1989, and thecommunist regime fell. Thegovernment opened theirborder to the west, andhundreds of thousands of EastGermans swarmed across theborder. People on both sidesbegan tearing the wall down,until the government orderedit pulled down. In EastGermany’s first free election,the Christian Democrats won50% of the vote; soon after,East and West Germany werereunified on October 3, 1990.
Disintegration of YugoslaviaYugoslavia was made up of six republics and twoprovinces, held together by communist rule fromWorld War II until the 1980s.In 1990, the republics began to lobby forindependence. Slobodan Milosevic wanted toredraw the borders to include the Serbian minorityin a new Serbian state.Negotiations failed, and Slovenia and Croatiadeclared their independence in June, 1991. InSeptember, the Yugoslavian army attackedCroatia.The army was dominated by Serbians, who turnedto Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992, after recapturingone-third of Croatia’s territory. By 1993, Serbianscontrolled 70% of Bosnian territory.The Serbs followed a policy of ethnic cleansing –killing or forcibly removing Bosnian Muslims fromtheir lands. By 1995, 250,000 Bosnians had beenkilled. Two million others were left homeless.In 1995, the Croatian army regained much of theirterritory. Air strikes by NATO forces were launchedagainst the Serbs in retaliation for Serb attacks oncivilians. A peace treaty was signed in Decemberof 1995.
War in Kosovo Peace in Bosnia did not end the region’s conflicts. A new war erupted in 1998 over Kosovo, a province withinYugoslavia. Kosovo’s inhabitants were mainly ethnic Albanians. In 1989, Milosevic stripped Kosovo of it’s autonomousstatus, bringing it under the control of Yugoslavia The Albanians founded the Kosovo Liberation Army(KLA) and began a campaign against Serbian rule inKosovo In 1999, Albanians in Kosovo gained autonomy from Serbia.Elections in 2000 brought an end to Milosevic’s rule. In 2002 Serbia and Montenegro formed a loose union anddropped the name “Yugoslavia”
Europe Between the 1950s and 1970s, Europe experienced almost full employment An economic downturn occurred in the 1970s and early 1980s; inflation andunemployment rose dramatically The Western European nations moved toward a union of their economies after1970; called the European Economic Community, in 1973 it included GreatBritain, Ireland, and Denmark; by 1986, Spain, Portugal, and Greece weremembers In 1994, the Treaty on European Union went into effect, which solidified theEuropean Union (EU) The EU created a common currency, called the Euro; 12 or the 15 membernations abandoned their currency in favor of the Euro in 2002 France’s deteriorating economic situation in the 1970s caused a political shiftto the left; by 1981 the Socialists were the chief political party in France, ledby Francois Mitterrand Mitterrand increased the minimum wage, instituted a 39-hour work week, andimposed higher taxes on the rich The government also socialized the steel, space, and electronics industries,along with banks and insurance firms The socialist polices did not work well and France continued to decline, andconservatives took over the government by 1993
Reunification of Germany In 1969, the Socialist Democrats replaced the ChristianDemocrats as the leading party in West Germany In December 1972, the German Chancellor, Willy Brandt,signed a treaty with East Germany that led to greatercultural, personal, and economic contacts between the twocountries; Germany was fully reunified in the 1980s Problems with reunification arose when West Germanyrealized the costs of rebuilding eastern Germany were farhigher than anticipated; the government had to raise taxes East Germany also had vast unemployment problems, asthe economy essentially collapsed after communist ruleended Germans also increased attacks on foreigners, as for yearsillegal immigrants and foreigners seeking refuge foundhaven in Germany because of its liberal immigration laws
England and Thatcherism Between 1964 and 1979, Great Britain’s Conservative Partyand Labour Party alternated being in power The parties had to face intense fighting between Catholicsand Protestants in Northern Ireland The economy was struggling and labor strikes were frequent In 1979, the Conservative Party came to power and madeMargaret Thatcher the Prime Minister Thatcher promised to limit social welfare, restrict union power,and end inflation; she was able to break the power of theunions and control inflation Her policies were known as Thatcherism; the economicoutlook improved, but old industrial areas were beset by highunemployment, poverty, and violence Thatcher lost her position as Prime Minister in 1990
United StatesNixon &WatergateCarter Regan ClintonIn 1968, Richard Nixonwas elected president andthe U.S. shifted to thepolitical right.Nixon promised “law andorder” would prevail andhe would end segregationissues in the south.Nixon used illegal methodsto gain political informationabout his opponents, whicheventually led to theWatergate scandal. Menworking for Nixon’s re-election campaign brokeinto the DemocraticNational Headquarters andtried to install listeningdevices.Nixon lied to the publicabout his role, which led tohis resignation in 1974.Jimmy Carterbecame president in1976. Hisadministration wasfaced with twodevastatingproblems. The firstwas high inflationand a decline inAmerican earnings,especially in wages.The second was theIran HostageCrisis, when Irantook 52 Americanshostage in Iran.Carter was unable togain their release,which led to his lossto Ronald Regan in1980.Termed the “ReganRevolution”, RonaldRegan was elected in1980. He cut back onwelfare, decreasedspending on foodstamps, school lunch,and jobs programs. Healso oversaw the largestpeace time militarybuildup in US history.Total spending rose from$631 billion to over $1trillion by 1987. Reganproduced record budgetdeficits, which existwhen governmentspends more than itcollects in revenue. Hetripled the amount ofgovernment debt in sixyears.George Bush succeededRegan as president, buteconomic problems andthe deficit led to a loss inhis second election.Bill Clinton waselected president in1992, and oversaw along economicrevival. He was ableto end the deficit andleft a surplus whenhe left office in 2000.Clinton’s term wasmarred bypresidentialmisconduct thateventually led to hisimpeachment; hewas tried but notconvicted by theSenate, in anintensely partisanstruggle.
Western Society & CultureWomen’sMovementTerrorism Science &TechnologyIn the 1970s, thenumber of women in theworkforce went fromless than 30% to morethan 44%The women’s liberationmovement fought forthe Equal Pay Act,because women wereearning less than menfor the same jobsA backlash occurred inthe 1990s, when manywomen advocated areturn to traditionalrolesActs of terrorism increasedthroughout the world in the20th centuryMilitant nationalists inNorthern Ireland, known asthe Irish RepublicanArmy (IRA), used terroristattacks against Great Britainin their efforts to reuniteNorthern Ireland withIrelandOther areas of the worldwere also affected byterrorism. The United Stateswas attacked on September11, 2001, by the terroristgroup Al Qaeda, led byOsama Bin Laden.The attacks were used asjustification for wars in bothIraq and Afghanistan.Scientific and technologicaladvancementsrevolutionized the world inthe 20th century.The space race led to theUnited States sending acrew to the moon in 1969,and the start of the shuttleprogram, which weremanned flights into space.Technological advances alsocaused problems, includinghaving a negative impact onthe environment, and thedevelopment of geneticallyenhanced foods, whichsome people fear will harmhumans.
Society & CultureReligiousRevivalTrends in Art PopularCultureSports,Television &PoliticsDuring the 20thcentury, Christianitysaw a revival, withincreasing attendanceat worship servicesand increased churchmembership throughthe 1990s.Since the end of WorldWar II, the United Stateshas dominated the artworld. Abstractionismbecame a popular artform, along with otherforms of modern art. Popart, which took images ofpopular culture andtransformed thememerged. People likeAndy Warhol foundsuccess in modern art.Postmodernism alsoemerged, and wasmarked by a revival oftraditional elements andtechniques in art.Emerging technologiesalso allowed artists tocreate new art forms,including interactive artand a resurgence ofphotography.In the 20th century theUnited States was thedominant force inshaping popular culture.Through television,music, and movies, theUnited States has spreadits ideals and values tomillions around theworld.Movies were importantvehicles for spreadingAmerican ideas andculture. Music was alsopopular, which led toartists around the worldtransforming music.Increasing technologyhas increased theinfluence of music,movies, and television inconveying popularculture.In the postwar years,sports became a majorproduct of popularculture and the leisureindustry. The OlympicGames saw an increasein the number of sportsand participantsthroughout the 20thcentury.Sports have becomepoliticized, as sports likesoccer are used toincrease nationalism; theOlympics have been usedthe same way, toincrease feelings ofloyalty and nationalpride.Warhol Pop Art
SummaryConflict Change Regionalism Cooperation• Serb forcescarry out“ethniccleansing” ofMuslims• Terroristbecomes aregular aspectof modernsociety• Soviet troopscrush a reformmovement inCzechoslovakia• NicolaeCeausescu isarrested andexecuted• The Soviet Unionadopts a policy ofperestroika underGorbachev• Lech Walesabecomes the firstfreely electedpresident of anEastern Europeannation in 40 years• The national debttriples in the U.S.during RonaldReagan’spresidency• Television, movies,and music spreadAmerican culturethroughout theworld• Ethnic Albaniansdeclare Kosovoan independentprovince• Bosnian Serbsfight BosnianMuslims andCroats• Bands ofGerman youthsattackimmigrants• Intense fightingbreaks outbetweenProtestants andCatholics inNorthernIreland• British womenhold anti-nuclear protest• Americanculture spreadsthrough popularmedia• East Germanyand WestGermany arereunited intoone nation• The SovietUnion andUnited Statessign the INFTreaty