Rise of Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799 to 1815 • The French Revolution made it possible for Napoleon to rise to military power and then political power in France • Napoleon was born in Corsica, • He was the son of a lawyer whose family came from the Florentine nobility • He received a royal scholarship to study at a military school in France • His education in military schools eventually led to a commission in the military as a lieutenant in 1785 • Napoleon read the works of philosophers and educated himself in military matters by studying the campaigns of great military leaders from the past
Military Successes• Napoleon rose quickly through the ranks of the French army• In 1792, he became a captain and two years later was made a brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety; he was only 24 years old• In 1796 he was made commander of the French armies in Italy, where he won a series of decisive victories (see map, next slide)• In 1797, Napoleon returned to France as a conquering hero; he was given command of an army in training to invade Britain • Napoleon was considered highly confident, intelligent, charming, and able to make quick decisions; he was well-supported by his troops and other followers • Napoleon decided Britain would be more threatened if France invaded Egypt and India, two colonies that were major sources of wealth for Britain • Napoleon’s army was cut off by Britain’s navy, and Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to Paris
Consul & Emperor• In Paris, Napoleon participated in the coup d’etat (violent overthrow of government) that removed the Directory from power• A new government, called the consulate was created; even though in theory France was a republic, in truth, Napoleon held absolute power• Napoleon was made first consul; he controlled the entire government • He appointed the members of the bureaucracy • He controlled the army • He conducted foreign affairs • He influenced the legislature• In 1802, Napoleon was named consul for life, two years later, he crowned himself emperor
Napoleon’s Domestic Policies Peace with the Church Codification of Laws• Napoleon established peace • Napoleon’s most famous with the Catholic Church domestic achievement was his codification of the laws • He did not personally practice a • Prior to the Revolution, France did religious faith not have a single set of laws • In 1801 he reached agreement • The most important code was with the pope, which the Civil Code, or Napoleonic recognized Catholicism as the Code, which preserved most of religion of the majority of the gains of the Revolution France • It recognized the principle of • The pope did not ask for lands equality of all citizens before the seized during the Revolution to law be returned • It preserved the right of citizens to choose their own profession • People who owned the seized • It abolished serfdom and lands supported Napoleon and promoted religious tolerance the Pope and church were no • It made it more difficult for longer enemies of France women to divorce and made women “less equal than men” in the eyes of the law
A New Bureaucracy & Aristocracy• Napoleon centralized the bureaucracy and made it more powerful • Promotion was based on ability only; this opened jobs to the middle class• Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service (bureaucracy) • He created over 3,000 nobles between 1808 and 1814 • Most were military officers • The rest came from the upper ranks of the civil service, including state and local officials • Only 22% came from the former nobility of the old regime
Josephine Bonaparte Married to Napoleon in 1796, she was a ‘socialite’ (think real housewives of Paris) She was married and had 2 children by a man that was killed in the Reign of Terror. She was also imprisoned during that time. Her looks were fading and she knew that she needed a man to support her so she married Napoleon (not for love). She continued to carry on many affairs while he was away conquering Europe before he was Emperor. She could not provide him an heir so he divorced her in 1812.
Napoleon’s Empire• Napoleon destroyed some Revolutionary ideals; he replaced liberty with despotism and shut down 60 of 73 French newspapers• However, he is known for his military, not domestic leadership; his conquests began soon after he rose to power
Building the Empire• When Napoleon became Consul, France was fighting with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria • He achieved a peace treaty in 1802, but it only lasted one year; war was renewed in 1803 with Great Britain • Gradually, Britain was joined by Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia• From 1805 to 1807, Napoleon’s Grand Army defeated the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies• From 1807 to 1812, Napoleon was the master of Europe; his Grand Empire was composed of three major parts: the French Empire, dependent states, and allied states (see map, previous slide) • The French Empire was the inner core of the empire, including an enlarged France that included parts of Germany and Italy • Dependent states were kingdoms under the rule of Napoleon’s relatives, including Spain, Holland, Italy, the Swiss Republic, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of the Rhine • Allied states were those defeated by Napoleon and forced to join his struggle against Britain, they included Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden
Principles of the Revolution• Napoleon sought to spread some of the principles of the French Revolution, including legal equality, religious toleration, and economic freedom• Napoleon also tried to destroy the old order of nobility and clergy as the most powerful elements of society; nobility and clergy lost special privileges• Napoleon declared equality of opportunity in government offices• The spread of French Revolution ideals was an important factor in the development of liberal traditions in these countries and have had far-reaching effects, including into the 21st century
Europe’s Response to Napoleon• Napoleon assumed his Grand Empire would last for centuries, but it collapsed almost as rapidly as it had been formed • Two elements contributed to the fall of his empire: Nationalism and the survival of Great Britain• Britain was able to survive Napoleon’s onslaught because of their powerful navy; Napoleon hoped to invade Britain, but the British defeated a French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805• Napoleon then tried the Continental System to defeat Britain; he tried to keep British goods from reaching the European continent, hoping to weaken Britain economically and thus prevent it from waging war due to a lack of money • Allied states were resentful that they were unable to purchase British goods • New markets in the Middle East and Latin America gave Britain new outlets for their goods
Nationalism• Nationalism is the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols• The spirit of French nationalism had made possible the mass armies that Napoleon used in his conquests • The spread of French Revolutionary ideals led to increased nationalism in other regions• The French were hated as oppressors, which united people in opposition to the French• The French showed other countries in Europe what could be possible with a sense of nationalism and a nation in arms could accomplish
Fall of Napoleon • Napoleon’s fall began in 1812 when he invaded Russia • Russia challenged the Continental System, forcing Napoleon’s hand to bring them under control • In June 1812, the Grand Army invaded Russia; • The Grand Army arrived in instead of giving battle, the Moscow and found the city Russians retreated for ablaze; lacking food and hundreds of miles supplies, Napoleon abandoned Moscow and began the “Great • As they retreated, they Retreat” across Russia burned villages and the countryside so Napoleon’s • The Retreat occurred in terrible army would have difficulty winter conditions; only 40,000 finding food of his original 600,000 men returned alive
Napoleon’s Final Defeat• The military disaster in Russia led other European states to rise up and attack the crippled French army • Paris was captured in 1814 • Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba, off the coast of Tuscany, Italy • The Bourbon monarchy was restored in France; Louis XVIII, the brother of Louis XVI, was made king• The new king had little support in France, and Napoleon slipped back to France • Soldiers were sent to capture Napoleon, but they refused to shoot and went over to his side; he entered Paris in triumph on March 20, 1815 • Napoleon raised another army and moved to attack European forces in Belgium• At Waterloo in Belgium on June 18, 1815, Napoleon met combined Prussian and British army, led by the Duke of Wellington, and suffered a bloody and terrible defeat • Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena, a small island in the South Atlantic off the coast of Africa; Napoleon’s reign was over, but his impact was felt for centuries
Summary Failures Accomplishments• Women still did not have equal • Made peace with the Catholic rights. church by declaring it the majority religion of France.• Invasion of Russia June 1812- • Made the Napoleonic Code of December. (Hitler also made laws. this mistake) • Established a centralized• Sent to Elba due to military administrative bureaucracy of losses and capture of Paris, government. but he snuck back to France • Spread French revolutionary• Lost at Waterloo to the Duke ideals throughout Europe, of Wellington (UK) leading to liberal governments and society in the future• Then to St. Helena where he died.